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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2010

Scott Waldron, Colin Brown and John Longworth

China has embarked on a major concerted strategy to arrest grassland degradation and livelihood problems in the western pastoral region. The paper aims to provide a…

Abstract

Purpose

China has embarked on a major concerted strategy to arrest grassland degradation and livelihood problems in the western pastoral region. The paper aims to provide a framework through which this strategy can be understood and refined into the future.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on a typology of grassland policies – technical, administrative, and management – and a discussion of the emphasis that China has and should place on each policy category. Data are drawn from policy documents and interview material collected through extensive fieldwork in large tracts of China's western pastoral region.

Findings

China has appropriately pursued “top‐down” technical and administrative policies to address major and immediate degradation‐livelihoods problems. However, longer term solutions to the problems require the strengthening of management structures from the “bottom‐up”, especially amongst herders themselves and other economic factors.

Practical implications

The paper proposes a series of concrete recommendations that may be considered as China refines its grasslands strategy into the future. The emphasis in the paper on the relationships between multi‐dimensional policies is of particular value in addressing multi‐dimensional grasslands‐livelihood problems.

Originality/value

Despite the magnitude and implications of China's recent grasslands strategy, there is a dearth of English language studies on the subject, which this paper aims to fill. The paper includes numerous micro‐level insights gained from extensive fieldwork in the western pastoral region that are not evident in more macro‐level studies.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1995

Garry D. Carnegie

Investigates the dimensions of accounting information prepared foruse in managing non‐corporate pastoral entities in pre‐FederationWestern Victoria and the local…

Abstract

Investigates the dimensions of accounting information prepared for use in managing non‐corporate pastoral entities in pre‐Federation Western Victoria and the local, time‐specific environmental factors which shaped these dimensions. Based on examinations of 23 sets of surviving business records prepared during 1836‐1900, provides evidence of the structure and usage of pastoral accounting information in an unregulated financial reporting environment. Draws conclusions about the likely impact of cultural, legal and political, professional, educational, economic and other factors as key explanatory variables. Also argues a case for lost relevance based on the evidence of accounting change in the closing decades of the nineteenth century.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 8 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1997

John W. Longworth, Colin G. Brown and Gregory J. Williamson

Pinpoints how economic and social development in the strategically important pastoral region of China poses many unique problems, in particular the future livelihood of…

Abstract

Pinpoints how economic and social development in the strategically important pastoral region of China poses many unique problems, in particular the future livelihood of the minorities who have inhabited the vast pastoral expanses of north and north‐west China for millennia, which is being threatened by degradation of the rangelands. Outlines the development issues confronting the pastoral region, and examines the impact on the region of two specific nationwide reforms ‐ the introduction of the household production responsibility system and the fiscal reforms of the early 1980s. Shows that both these generally beneficial reforms have created major “second generation” problems in pastoral areas. Identifies the principal reason for these undesirable outcomes as the divergence between national and local policy objectives.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 24 no. 1/2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 9 April 2020

Habtamu Taddele Menghistu, Amanuel Zenebe Abraha, Girmay Tesfay and Gebrehiwot Tadesse Mawcha

The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the determinant factors of climate change adaptation (CCA) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the determinant factors of climate change adaptation (CCA) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

Design/methodology/approach

Studies that focused on determinant factors of CCA by crop–livestock farmers and pastoralists in SSA and written in English were reviewed from five major databases using the applications of Endnote and NVivo. The review process followed a sequence of steps to reach into the final selection.

Findings

A total of 3,028 papers were recovered from the databases and screened for duplicates (777) and publications before 2000 (218). The titles and abstracts of 2,033 papers were reviewed, and 1,903 of them were excluded owing to preliminary exclusion criteria. Finally, 130 papers were selected for full-text review and more detailed assessment, where 36 papers qualified for the final review. The most important determinant factors of CCA by pastoralists were household income, access to information, access to extension services, government support and access to market. In the case of agro-pastoralists, access to information, household income, age and land/livestock ownership were found as the major determinant factors. Household income, land ownership, access to information, farm size, household size and access to extension services were the determinant factors found for CCA by smallholder farmers.

Research limitations/implications

This systematic review identified the major determinant factors according to production systems and highlights the importance of considering specific factors in designing CCA strategies.

Originality/value

After clearly stating the research question, a literature search was conducted from the major databases for climate-related research, and a comprehensive search was performed by two independent researchers.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2013

Eneyew Adunga

Most of the studies done on pastoralists in Ethiopia either rely on qualitative data or mainly focus on descriptive analysis and thus lack rigorous econometric measures…

Abstract

Purpose

Most of the studies done on pastoralists in Ethiopia either rely on qualitative data or mainly focus on descriptive analysis and thus lack rigorous econometric measures. As a result, very little is known about the economics of household level activities in pastoral production systems. Thus, the aim of this paper is to use analysis factors influencing household income among (agro‐) pastoralists of southern Ethiopia. This information therefore can contribute to more evidence‐based decision making occurring across pastoral areas and inform policy decisions regarding the design of income generating strategies in pastoral areas.

Design/methodology/approach

Multi stage sampling technique was followed to select 197 household heads. Descriptive statistics like mean, standard deviation and percentages were used to explain the socioeconomic characteristics of respondents. The relationship between the household income and the independent variables were estimated using multiple regression procedure.

Findings

The finding shows that wealth and income are highly skewed; agro‐pastoralists earned two‐fold more than pastoralists by virtue of their crop activity. The variables explaining the variations in income level are family size, market distance, land size, education level and livelihood diversification status. Households with larger family members, farm land, nearer to market centres, diversification status and literate heads have earned larger income than their counterparts.

Practical implications

Improving market access and developing marketing opportunities are essential to (agro‐) pastoralists to get the best value for their products; alongside the expansion of crop cultivation and creation of alternative livelihood opportunities and access to education should be emphasized.

Originality/value

The paper presents an analysis of original survey conducted by the author from December to January 2010/11.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 40 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 24 August 2020

Amanuel Berhe, Solomon Abera Bariagabre and Mulubrhan Balehegn

Different livestock production systems contribute to globally Greenhouse gas emission (GHG) emission differently. The aim of this paper is to understand variation in…

Abstract

Purpose

Different livestock production systems contribute to globally Greenhouse gas emission (GHG) emission differently. The aim of this paper is to understand variation in emission in different production systems and it is also important for developing mitigation interventions that work for a specific production system.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the authors used the Global Livestock Environmental Assessment interactive model (GLEAM-i) to estimate the GHG emission and emission intensity and tested the effectiveness of mitigation strategies from 180 farms under three production systems in northern Ethiopia, namely, pastoral, mixed and urban production systems.

Findings

Production systems varied in terms of herd composition, livestock productivity, livestock reproductive parameters and manure management systems, which resulted in difference in total GHG emission. Methane (82.77%) was the largest contributor followed by carbon dioxide (13.40%) and nitrous oxide (3.83%). While both total carbon dioxide and methane were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in urban production system than the other systems emission intensities of cow’s milk and goat and sheep’s meat were lower in urban systems. Improvement in feed, manure management and herd parameters resulted in reduction of total GHG emission by 30, 29 and 21% in pastoral, mixed and urban production systems, respectively.

Originality/value

This study is a first time comparison of the GHG emission production by various production systems in northern Ethiopia. Moreover, it uses the GLEAM-i program for the first time in the ex ante settings for measuring and comparing emissions as well as for developing mitigation scenarios. By doing so, it provides information on the various livestock production system properties that contribute to the increase or decrease in GHG emission and helps in developing guidelines for low emission livestock production systems.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2017

Susan Greer and Patty McNicholas

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the roles of accounting within state-based agencies which interpreted the ideal of protection for the Aboriginal population as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the roles of accounting within state-based agencies which interpreted the ideal of protection for the Aboriginal population as principally about the removal of children from the Aboriginal communities to institutions of training and places of forced indenture under government-negotiated labour contracts.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses the original archival records of the New South Wales Aborigines Protection and Welfare Boards (1883-1950) to highlight the link between pastoral notions of moral betterment and the use of accounting technologies to organise and implement the “apprenticeship” programmes.

Findings

The analysis reveals that accounting practices and information were integral to the ability of the state to intervene and organise this domain of action and, together with a legal framework, to make the forced removal of Aboriginal children possible.

Social implications

The mentalities and practices of assimilation analysed in the paper are not unique to the era of “protection”. The study provides a history of the present that evokes the antecedents to recent welfare policy changes, which encompass a political rationality directed at the normalisation of the economic and social behaviours of both indigenous and non-indigenous welfare recipients.

Originality/value

The paper provides an historical example of how the state enlisted accounting and legal technologies to construct a crisis of “neglect” and to intervene to protect and assimilate the Aboriginal children.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 30 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2018

Daniel J. Murphy

This paper explores the emerging articulations between microfinance and livestock production cycles among Mongolian pastoralists in contexts plagued by disaster and…

Abstract

This paper explores the emerging articulations between microfinance and livestock production cycles among Mongolian pastoralists in contexts plagued by disaster and commodity market fluctuations. Ethnographic investigations of household production and vulnerability in two rural districts of eastern and western Mongolia demonstrates that both poor and wealthy households have become ensnared in a cashmere-debt cycle but that the bifurcation of livestock asset trajectories between large and small herds has also fostered diverse financial and herd management strategies that further exacerbate existing inequalities.

Details

Individual and Social Adaptations to Human Vulnerability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-175-9

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Book part
Publication date: 31 March 2015

Pavla Miller

This paper considers whether the term patrimonialism can be applied to one racially bifurcated aspect of Australian history: the relations between ‘squatters’ and those…

Abstract

This paper considers whether the term patrimonialism can be applied to one racially bifurcated aspect of Australian history: the relations between ‘squatters’ and those with competing civil and property claims. From the perspective of white settlers, the power of pastoralists who acquired use rights over vast stretches of land in late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries represented a challenge to rural settlement, economic development, the right to vote, workers’ rights and parliamentary democracy.

From the perspective of Aboriginal peoples who held traditional ownership of pastoral lands, squattocracy began with armed conflict and ended with practices aimed at detailed government of their everyday life. More generally, as white settlers consolidated property rights to land, they expropriated Indigenous peoples’ capacity to govern themselves.

The paper concludes that there have been two distinct histories of patrimonialism in Australia. The Australian colonies were among the pioneers of ‘universal’ male and later female franchise in the nineteenth century; Aborigines gained (de jure) full citizenship only in the late 1960s. While the squatter’s patrimonial rule over white settlers was short-lived, that over some groups of Aboriginal people persisted for more than a century.

Details

Patrimonial Capitalism and Empire
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-757-4

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Book part
Publication date: 6 July 2012

Marius Warg Næss

This chapter presents a preliminary discussion of potential impacts of climate change on nomadic pastoralists on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Both climate model…

Abstract

This chapter presents a preliminary discussion of potential impacts of climate change on nomadic pastoralists on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Both climate model projections and observations suggest that (1) the QTP is becoming warmer and (2) precipitation is increasing. Evidence also suggests that (3) glaciers on the QTP are declining and (4) the permafrost is degrading. Nevertheless, little is known as to how climate change will affect nomadic pastoralists although environmental variability is likely to increase, which may again exacerbate production risks. Pastoral risk management strategies, such as mobility, may thus increase in importance. It is, however, difficult to translate changes in important climate measures like precipitation and temperature to effects on pastoralists and livestock since they mainly affect livestock indirectly via their effect on vegetation productivity. Consequently, to increase our understanding of climate change-related effects on pastoral adaptations, satellite-based measures directly linked to both vegetation characteristics and climatic variables should be utilized in future studies rather than, for example, overall changes in precipitation and temperature. Finally, official policies that constantly introduce reforms that reduce pastoral flexibility represent a far more significant threat for nomadic pastoralists on the QTP than climate change because they may result in the wholesale extinction of the pastoral culture.

Details

Climate Change Modeling For Local Adaptation In The Hindu Kush-Himalayan Region
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-487-0

Keywords

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