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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

Rossella Di Monaco, Sabrina Di Marzo, Silvana Cavella and Paolo Masi

This study aimed to assess if an Italian artisanal pasta filata cheese, named Provolone del Monaco, is perceived by consumers as typical or not and if any variability…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to assess if an Italian artisanal pasta filata cheese, named Provolone del Monaco, is perceived by consumers as typical or not and if any variability exists among cheeses made by different dairies.

Design/methodology/approach

Two experiments were performed. In the first experiment, two artisanal Provolone del Monaco having different ripening times and two industrial Provolone cheeses were evaluated. A total of 95 subjects, divided into three homogeneous groups, first rated the samples in blind condition, then, after having received information about typicality; price, and both sets of information. In the second experiment, the quantitative descriptive profiles of eight Provolone del Monaco samples aged six months and made by different dairies were compared with the quantitative descriptive profiles of the same cheese aged ten months and provolone cheeses made by industrial dairies.

Findings

Consumer results revealed that consumers knowing typicality information gave a better score to cheeses markedly different. The price together with typicality information, represented a quality indicator. Cluster analysis of descriptive scores revealed homogeneity between the equally aged Provolone del Monaco samples. Moreover descriptive data showed that cheese was characterized by several specific attributes, that the consumer, probably, recognized as typical.

Research limitations

It must be noticed that once it was performed in Campania, the results extrapolation to other regions or countries should not be made unless similar results are found.

Originality/value

This study will contribute to better addressing consumer needs and enhancing the competitiveness of traditional foods.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 107 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2020

Hayriye Sekban and Zekai Tarakci

The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical, textural and sensory properties of some starter cultures fruit-added Golot cheese.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical, textural and sensory properties of some starter cultures fruit-added Golot cheese.

Design/methodology/approach

Six types of Golot cheeses were produced in this study. While the control sample contained no starter cultures, five different starter culture combinations (GS1: Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, L. lactis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus bulgaricus; GS2: S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus; GS3: S. thermophilus; GS4: S. thermophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus; and GS5: S. thermophilus, L. lactis subsp. cremoris and L. lactis subsp. lactis) were applied to the other cheese samples using an immersion technique. Then, all cheeses were vacuum-packed and ripened at 4 ± 1°C for three months and their chemical, biochemical, sensory and textural analyses were performed on the 2nd, 15th, 30th, 60th and 90th days of ripening.

Findings

Results indicated that generally starter cultures have positive effects on the chemical, biochemical and sensory properties of Golot cheese. Considering the final values, the addition of starter cultures enhanced the ripening index of Golot cheeses (8.4%–9.2%), except the GS3 (7.4%), compared to the control (8.1%). At the end of the ripening period, meltability values of GS4 (16.5 mm) cultured cheeses were higher than those of other cultured cheeses (13.0–15.5 mm) and control cheese (14.5 mm). While lipolysis values were low in fresh cheese, it increased during ripening. Overall, GS3 (2.46 acid degree value [ADV]) and GS4 (2.40 ADV) had the highest lipolysis rate, while GS1 (2.14 ADV) had the lowest (p = 0.07). Electrophoretograms indicated that the highest fragmentation of α- and ß-casein occurred in GS5 (48.43%) and GS1 (44.24%), respectively. Also, GS5 was the most appreciated and preferred cheese in terms of sensory. Regarding texture, hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, springiness and gumminess values were determined to be statistically important in terms of ripening time and cheese variety (p < 0.01).

Originality/value

Consequently, all starters had a positive impact on Golot cheese samples and among all S. thermophilus and L. helveticus starter were determined to be the most applicable one considering ripening, texture, sensory and melting properties.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1988

Christophoros P. Pappas

Differences in laws and regulations concerning the compositional requirements for cheese in EEC member states were studied. The parameters examined were authorised basic…

Abstract

Differences in laws and regulations concerning the compositional requirements for cheese in EEC member states were studied. The parameters examined were authorised basic materials, optional ingredients, food additives and materials not allowed. No substantial differences regarding the basic materials were observed. Differences exist in respect to authorised optional ingredients. With respect to authorised food additives there is a considerable variation in the number of additives allowed in each country, although the additives permitted are, in general, within the list of those approved by the EEC Council. Requirements for treating raw materials and legal provisions for different cheese types were also examined.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 90 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1954

This Bill was read a second time without a division in the House of Commons on July 23rd after a debate lasting nearly five hours. Opposition speakers, including…

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Abstract

This Bill was read a second time without a division in the House of Commons on July 23rd after a debate lasting nearly five hours. Opposition speakers, including particularly Dr. Edith Summerskill and Mr. Willey (former Parliamentary Secretaries to the Ministry of Food between 1945 and 1951), attacked the Government for having whittled down, very extensively, the contemplated Regulations (to be made when the Bill is on the statute book) dealing with cleanliness in the handling of food. As is generally known, the draft regulations have for several months been the subject of many discussions between trade organisations and the Ministry of Food. As a result, the Minister has decided to modify or drop several of the proposals which he had at first intended to carry into effect by regulations, and to substitute for some of them “codes of practice.”

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 56 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 25 October 2011

Preeti Singh and G.K. Goyal

This paper aims to review the types of pizza and the functionality of basic ingredients of pizza with special focus on the effects of pizza toppings on health.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the types of pizza and the functionality of basic ingredients of pizza with special focus on the effects of pizza toppings on health.

Design/methodology/approach

Phenomenological research has raised awareness and increased insight into the role of various pizza ingredients and health benefits of different pizza toppings and consequently pizza is called a “functional food”. The approach is based on observation of the online research, a close watch on the pizza industry, analysis of research papers in journals, and brainstorming research on the effect of packaging on the quality of different pizza ingredients with a co‐researcher for four years.

Findings

The changing life patterns and food habits of people and their preferences have catapulted the market to grow for convenience and fast foods. Pizza is one of the most popular family foods worldwide and has gained widespread consumer acceptance as a healthy and convenience food. It is a multi‐component product with composite number of toppings. It provides an array of nutrients in significant amounts, in relation to its energy and fat content, making it a nutrient‐dense food. It is cheap and can be delivered in a very short time. In particular, pizza supplies 30 per cent of the USA recommended daily allowance of vitamins A, C, B2, calcium and protein. It contains 50 per cent of vitamin B1 and 35 per cent of iron. Furthermore, pizza has anticancerous effects beyond the basic nutrition it provides, because of the potent antioxidant lycopene present in tomatoes.

Originality/value

This paper offers a holistic view that would guide a reader to identify the beneficial effects of pizza.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 113 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2020

Monica Palladino

Focussing on the links among people, places and traditions, this study aims to present the reflections derived from five in-depth personal interviews on traditions…

Abstract

Purpose

Focussing on the links among people, places and traditions, this study aims to present the reflections derived from five in-depth personal interviews on traditions regarding wine, fish, cheese making and rural hospitality, collected in a journey across the province of Reggio Calabria in southern Italy. It provides an original view of the “stories” behind the places and the products, useful to inform local development strategies centred on traditional food products.

Design/methodology/approach

The article presents a novel approach in conducting research that involves collecting information via empathetic interviews and presenting the findings in a reflexive, narrative storytelling style.

Findings

Empathetic personal interviewing is key to elicit information useful to frame the links among people, places and traditions. The economic motivation is not the main one for people to remain engaged in the production of traditional food products in the province of Reggio Calabria. Pride in linking their activities and the products they make to the territory, its traditions and the culture embedded therein, clearly contribute to define a sense of place that might be further drawn upon in participatory, rural development initiatives.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the way in which the interviewees have been selected, not all findings can be generalized as applicable to the entire Province or beyond.

Practical implications

Recognizing the people and the stories behind a product may offer insights on how to design effective, socially sustainable policies that would preserve important traditions. Personal food narratives might contribute, in a unique way, to an effective branding of the products and the territory.

Social implications

Doing more empathetically participatory research, rather than taking a “neutral” stance in data collection and data crunching, which has traditionally characterized the work of agricultural economists, may help in making the institutions being perceived as less distant by the ultimate beneficiary of development policies and make participatory planning much more effective.

Originality/value

The article contributes to an emerging area of research at the intersection between agricultural economics and rural development policy. How to highlight and protect the people and their stories as fundamental aspects of the “places”, “products” and “traditions”, remains an area of research that has not yet been fully explored, at least in the rhetoric and discourse on integrated rural development in Italy.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Esteban R. Brenes, Carlos Martínez and Caleb A. Pichardo

The purpose of this paper is to discuss Centrolac, a Nicaraguan company engaged in processing ultra-pasteurized milk, and provides abundant information for readers to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss Centrolac, a Nicaraguan company engaged in processing ultra-pasteurized milk, and provides abundant information for readers to decide on vertical vs horizontal integration to deal with the changing competitive environment. It has been prepared to simplify discussion and knowledge about the competitive field (where to compete); generic cost-leadership and high-perceived-value strategies (how to compete); and the action required to attain positioning (how to implement it).

Design/methodology/approach

The case study is based on primary research conducted in conjunction with the company, including interviews with senior management and a broad document review. Secondary research was also conducted into the relevant environmental, industry and competitor trends and characteristics.

Findings

The case study presents topics of competitive positioning and how current company strategy can have a significant impact on future growth decisions.

Originality/value

This case study is for use in an MBA-level business strategy course with a focus on strategic positioning and growth paths. However, it can also be used for MBA corporate strategy courses in relation to corporate expansion on issues linked to organic growth within the same business (expansion into new dairy products) or vertical integration (integration into dairy-farming).

Objetivo

Este estudio de caso analiza Centrolac, una empresa nicaragüense dedicada al procesamiento de leche UHT, y proporciona abundante información para que los lectores decidan entre la integración vertical y horizontal para hacer frente al cambiante entorno competitivo. Ha sido elaborado para facilitar la discusión y el conocimiento sobre el campo competitivo (¿dónde compito?); estrategias genéricas de liderazgo en costos y alto valor percibido (¿cómo compito?); y la acción necesaria para alcanzar el posicionamiento (¿cómo lo implemento?).

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

El estudio de caso se basa en investigación primaria realizada en conjunto con la empresa, incluyendo entrevistas con la alta dirección y una amplia revisión de los documentos. También se llevó a cabo investigación segundaria sobre las tendencias y características relevantes del entorno, industria y competencia.

Conclusiones

El estudio de caso presenta temas de posicionamiento competitivo y cómo la estrategia actual de la empresa puede tener un impacto significativo en las futuras decisiones de crecimiento.

Originalidad/valor

Este estudio de caso fue escrito para ser usado en un curso de Estrategia Empresarial a nivel de MBA con un enfoque en posicionamiento estratégico y rutas de crecimiento. Sin embargo, también puede ser utilizado para un curso de MBA en Estrategia Corporativa en relación con la expansión corporativa en temas vinculados con el crecimiento orgánico dentro del mismo negocio (expansión en nuevos productos lácteos) o la integración vertical (integración en la producción lechera).

Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Manish Kumar Chatli, Neeraj Gandhi and Parminder Singh

The sensory quality and yield of mozzarella cheese deteriorate as the fat content in milk is reduced. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of sodium alginate as a fat…

Abstract

Purpose

The sensory quality and yield of mozzarella cheese deteriorate as the fat content in milk is reduced. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of sodium alginate as a fat replacer in low-fat buffalo mozzarella cheese on the basis of processing and storage (4 ± 1°C) quality.

Design/methodology/approach

Five treatments of buffalo mozzarella cheese, viz., control full-fat cheese (6.0 per cent milk fat; CFFC), control low-fat cheese (<0.5 per cent milk fat) without sodium alginate (CLFC), low-fat cheese with 0.1 per cent sodium alginate (LFC-1), 0.2 per cent sodium alginate (LFC-2) and 0.3 per cent sodium alginate (LFC-3), were comparatively evaluated.

Findings

Increase in the level of sodium alginate increased the percent yield of treated low-fat cheese than CLFC. Addition of sodium alginate to low-fat cheese resulted in decrease in hardness (p = 0.023) and chewiness than CLFC. Meltability was significantly decreased (p = 0.03) in low-fat cheese than CFFC. It was recorded as 1.5 ± 0.14 cm for CFFC to 0.2 ± 0.08 cm in LFC-3. Sensory panellists awarded LFC-3 highest and lowest to LFC-1; however, treated products at all selected levels were superior to CLFC. Oxidative stability and microbial stability were improved in LFC-3 than CFFC during storage.

Practical implications

Results concluded that 0.3 per cent sodium alginate is optimum for the development of extended shelf-life functional/low-fat/low-calorie buffalo mozzarella cheese.

Originality/value

Processing interventions can be successfully used to develop low-fat/low-calorie mozzarella cheese with acceptable sensory attributes and longer storage life.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 January 2021

Moawiya A. Haddad, Sharaf S. Omar and Salvatore Parisi

The purpose of this study comes from the need of defining improved durability values and the realization of a good traceability management for selected vegan cheeses has…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study comes from the need of defining improved durability values and the realization of a good traceability management for selected vegan cheeses has suggested the comparison between a processed cheese and its analogous version without animal-origin raw materials. The durability should be studied at a well-defined temperature, probably agreed among the food producer and the food processor. In addition, the traceability system should consider many components and related suppliers.

Design/methodology/approach

A supply chain risk assessment analysis has been carried out with relation to two different products: an analogue cheese and a vegan cheese-like preparation. Raw materials and ingredients have been evaluated (production method and origin; geographical identification), with the aim of identifying simplified food.

Findings

An assessment of food supply networks has been carried out. In the first situation (analogue cheeses), the ingredient “cheeses” shows an important complexity: five suppliers with a related six-interconnection hub. On the other side, vegan cheeses are obtained from 11 ingredients (a challenging hub); four of them may be produced from 2–5 components of different origin (five total hubs). Tested processed cheeses are represented by means of a linear food supply network with two hubs (cheeses and “arrival” show degrees 6 and 9, respectively). Networks concerning vegan cheeses include five different hubs: four complex raw materials (degree: 2, 3, 4 and 5) and the “arrival” step (degree: 12).

Originality/value

The information load of vegan cheeses (two hubs, degrees >> average degree) appears high if compared with processed cheeses (two hubs), although the complexity of networks appears similar. Vegan cheeses may seem technologically simpler than processed cheeses and be sometimes questioned because of important traceability issues. Adequate traceability countermeasures in terms of preventive monitoring actions should be recommended when speaking of vegan cheeses. Anyway, a centralized manager would be always required.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Paula Correia, André Vítor, Marlene Tenreiro, Ana Cristina Correia, João Madanelo and Raquel Guiné

Thistle flower (Cynara cardunculus) aqueous extracts, as rich source of milk-clotting peptidases, have been widely used for cheeses marketed under the Registry of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Thistle flower (Cynara cardunculus) aqueous extracts, as rich source of milk-clotting peptidases, have been widely used for cheeses marketed under the Registry of the Protected Designation of Origin, as it is the case of Serra da Estrela cheese, manufactured from raw ewes’ milk and without addition of any commercial starter culture. This paper aims at studying the influence of six different ecotypes of thistle flowers in cheese properties during the ripening and of final products.

Design/methodology/approach

Cheeses were produced with different thistle flower extracts and then the clotting time, weight and colour of cheeses, as well as texture properties and sensorial characteristics, were evaluated.

Findings

The clotting time varied from 47 to 66 min, and the weight loss along ripening varied between 32 and 40 per cent. There was some influence of thistle flower ecotype on the colour during ripening and in the final product. The results of texture analysis revealed significant differences between the thistle ecotypes: crust firmness varying from 2.4 to 5.6 N; inner firmness from 0.82 to 1.82 N; stickiness from −0.5 to −1.60 N; adhesiveness from −3.0 to −11.3 N.s; and Ecotype C was particularly distinguishable. Sensorial evaluation revealed differences among the cheeses, with Ecotype C receiving the highest score for global appreciation.

Originality/value

The usage of different extracts of thistle flower to produce Serra da Estrela cheese with different properties is a novelty, and it allows the possibility of manipulating this parameter in the future so as to produce cheeses with specific characteristics, addressed to different consumer targets.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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