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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2012

Rob Marsh

Climate change means that buildings must greatly reduce their energy consumption. It is however paradoxical that climate mitigation in Denmark has created negative energy…

Abstract

Climate change means that buildings must greatly reduce their energy consumption. It is however paradoxical that climate mitigation in Denmark has created negative energy and indoor climate problems in housing that may be made worse by climate change. A literature review has been carried out of housing schemes where climate mitigation was sought through reduced space heating demand, and it is shown that extensive problems with overheating exist. A theoretical study of regulative and design strategies for climate mitigation in new build housing has therefore been carried out, and it is shown that reducing space heating with high levels of thermal insulation and passive solar energy results in overheating and a growing demand for cooling.

Climate change is expected to reduce space heating and increase cooling demand in housing. An analysis of new build housing using passive solar energy as a climate mitigation strategy has therefore been carried out in relation to future climate change scenarios. It is shown that severe indoor comfort problems can occur, questioning the relevance of passive solar energy as a climate mitigation strategy. In conclusion, a theoretical study of the interplay between climate adaptation and mitigation strategies is carried out, with a cross-disciplinary focus on users, passive design and active technologies. It is shown that the cumulative use of these strategies can create an adaptation buffer, thus eliminating problems with overheating and reducing energy consumption. New build housing should therefore be designed in relation to both current and future climate scenarios to show that the climate mitigation strategies ensure climate adaptation.

Details

Open House International, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 November 2020

Md. Jewel Rana, Md. Rakibul Hasan, Md. Habibur Rahman Sobuz and Norsuzailina Mohamed Sutan

This study investigates the impact and economic viability of energy-efficient building envelope and orientation for contributing net zero energy building (NZEB) and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the impact and economic viability of energy-efficient building envelope and orientation for contributing net zero energy building (NZEB) and suggests optimum thermal insulation thickness, optimum wall thickness, appropriate orientation and glazing types of window in the contexts of unique Bangladeshi subtropical monsoon climate.

Design/methodology/approach

The whole study was conducted through energy simulation perspective of an existing office building using building information modeling (BIM) and building energy modeling (BEM) tools which are Autodesk Revit 2017, Autodesk Green Building Studio (GBS) and eQUEST. Numerous simulation patterns were created for energy simulation considering building envelope parameters and orientations. A comprehensive data analysis of simulation results was conducted to sort out efficient passive design strategies.

Findings

The optimum thermal mass and thermal insulation thickness are 6.5 and 0.5 inches, respectively, considering energy performance and economic viability. This study highly recommends that a building should be designed with a small window-to-wall ratio in the south and west face. The window should be constructed with double glazing Low-E materials to reduce solar heat gain. The studied building saves 9.14% annual energy consumption by incorporating the suggested passive design strategies of this study.

Originality/value

The output of this work can add some new energy-efficient design strategies to Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) because BNBC has not suggested any codes or regulations regarding energy-efficient passive design strategies. It will also be useful to designers of Bangladesh and other countries with similar subtropical climatic contexts which are located in Southeast Asia and Northern Hemisphere of Earth.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 July 2019

Meltem Vatan Kaptan

The purpose of this paper is to investigate passive techniques used in traditional and indigenous architecture in order to decrease energy use in the buildings and to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate passive techniques used in traditional and indigenous architecture in order to decrease energy use in the buildings and to increase thermal and users’ comfort. The city of Erbil is explored where in the rapid transformation and import of Western architectural styles and materials have resulted in ignorance of climate-responsive tradition existing in the city since thousands of years.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to propose a design strategy for modern residential buildings in Erbil city, a descriptive and interpretative approach is used as a methodology of this study. A literature review is done to explore the traditional use of passive techniques, and Waziran district of the city is analyzed and used as a pilot site in this study.

Findings

Due to the shortage of electric power in the city, residential buildings have limited access to electric power. Therefore, thermal comfort and reduction of the energy use in residential buildings have become vital for Erbil. The use of passive techniques in architectural design will help to reduce energy dependency.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited to residential function in Erbil. Waziran district is used for the design proposals where dwellings are in a row context. The proposals are made on a geometrical basis and plan organization; however, the selection of construction materials is not included.

Originality/value

There is a proposal to reduce the use of electricity, which currently has limited access in Erbil city.

Details

Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-6862

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 June 2021

Jafar Taheri, Talie Tohidi Moghadam, Sorayya Taheri, Mohadeseh Kafiyan Safari and Fereshteh Eslami

This paper aims to address Passive Design Strategies (PDSs) in the traditional houses of Sabzevar and to assess the adaptation level of these strategies to the climate of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to address Passive Design Strategies (PDSs) in the traditional houses of Sabzevar and to assess the adaptation level of these strategies to the climate of the region.

Design/methodology/approach

Identifying the Sabzevar climate, five samples of traditional houses have been chosen to be analyzed via two stages. In stage one, the efficiency of each strategy is weighted through qualitative analysis, and in stage two, the houses are simulated in EnergyPlus 9.3.0 to quantitatively evaluate their heating and cooling performances.

Findings

The obtained results from the energy performance analysis of the case studies indicate that the houses present diverse energy performances in different seasons. Those buildings with PDSs for both cold-arid and hot-arid climates, however, are more adaptable cases to the climate of the region.

Originality/value

The results of this study are expected to provide a basis of materials and methods for the climatic assessment of the traditional buildings, specifically traditional houses and will open new doors to future studies about the integration of these potential PDSs with the new technological developments and climate considerations as well as protecting the conservation policies of these buildings by means of optimizing and improving their energy performance and implementing effective retrofit scenarios.

Details

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1266

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 August 2021

Samuel Ekung, Isaac Abiodun Odesola and Timothy Adewuyi

The dearth of green standards (GS) in sub-Saharan Africa is alarming and the green cost premiums (GCP) in seeking certification in emerging markets are scanty. This paper…

101

Abstract

Purpose

The dearth of green standards (GS) in sub-Saharan Africa is alarming and the green cost premiums (GCP) in seeking certification in emerging markets are scanty. This paper studied the Building Energy-Efficiency Code of Nigeria (BEEC) and estimated the potential GCPs associated with the various energy-efficiency ratings.

Design/methodology/approach

The study retrofitted 150 conventional residential bungalow and maisonette buildings using BEEC's energy-efficiency interventions and performed analytical estimating of the retrofitted designs. The mean cost premium associated with each energy-efficiency intervention is presented as well as their financial benefits and payback periods. The benefits are achievable financial-savings due to a reduction in energy consumption and savings in electricity payment estimated from the average energy demands of each building. An independent t-test was further conducted to determine the cost differential between energy-efficient design (ED) and conventional design over a five-year period.

Findings

The potential GCPs and their payback periods are actually less than feared. The study showed that less than 5% and 21% extra funding would be required to achieve 1 to 4-Star and 5-Star energy-efficiency ratings involving passive design interventions and photovoltaic systems. Passive and active design interventions produced a financial savings of $8.08/m2 in electricity payment and $2.84/m2 per annum in energy consumption reduction. The financial-savings ($10.92/m2) was objective to pay-off the GCPs in less than four years. The independent t-test analysis showed the cost of ED is more economical after four years into the project lifecycle.

Originality/value

The research provides cost benchmarks for navigating cost planning and budgetary decisions during ED implementation and births a departure point for advancing energy-efficient construction in developing markets from the rational economic decision perspective.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 40 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2021

Emmanuel Imuetinyan Aghimien, Danny Hin Wa Li and Ernest Kin-Wai Tsang

This paper reviews extant studies on bioclimatic architecture with a view of revealing the focus areas of past studies and mapping out future research directions useful in…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper reviews extant studies on bioclimatic architecture with a view of revealing the focus areas of past studies and mapping out future research directions useful in achieving building energy efficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed-method systematic review that integrates quantitative and qualitative analysis was adopted. The bibliographic data were extracted from the Scopus database, and a scientometric analysis was conducted to analyse the data quantitatively. Qualitative content analysis is then presented, which provided a basis for mapping out trends and gaps in current knowledge.

Findings

It is observed that there has been a rise in the number of studies on bioclimatic architecture over the last two decades. Past studies have focused on sustainability, building performance simulation, building climatology and energy use, solar energy applications and passive cooling. Artificial intelligence, algorithm coupling and acoustic comfort were some of the emerging areas discovered in this study.

Research limitations/implications

The study reveals research gaps that researchers can investigate.

Practical implications

The information provided can help the building industry stakeholders in decision-making. It serves as a guideline for maximising the potential benefits of adopting bioclimatic designs in the building industry. Furthermore, it provides references that aid policy formulation for government agencies and corporate organisations.

Originality/value

The study fills the literature gap caused by the need for a holistic literature review that relates bioclimatic architecture and its energy efficiency implications. It is also the first study on bioclimatic architecture that adopts a mix of scientometric and qualitative analysis for analysing past studies on bioclimatic architecture.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 January 2022

Lakshmi Visakha Vishnubhotla, Sornambiga Shanmugam and Srinivas Tadepalli

Energy codes for residential buildings in India prescribe design guidelines for each climate zone. However, these guidelines are broad and similar for different cities…

Abstract

Purpose

Energy codes for residential buildings in India prescribe design guidelines for each climate zone. However, these guidelines are broad and similar for different cities under the same zone overlooking climatic variations due to altitude, location and other geographical factors.

Design/methodology/approach

To develop strategies addressing the city-specific requirements, a stepwise simulation approach was used. Integrated Environmental Solutions–Virtual Environment (IES-VE) was used to create a prototype of a singly detached residence. The applicability of strategies is studied during the day and night times. Optimum orientation, the thickness of insulation, Window–Wall Ratio, the impact of cross-ventilation and shading depth are determined for two cities – Tiruchirappalli and Coimbatore under the warm-humid climate zone of India.

Findings

Results indicate that optimum insulation thickness and WWR vary between both cities during daytime and night time. In Tiruchirappalli, roof and wall insulation using polyurethane board (100 mm) and foam concrete (25 mm) offers a maximum reduction of 2.2°C indoors. Foam concrete (25 mm) insulation for roof and expanded polystyrene (25 mm) for walls reduce a maximum of 2.6°C during daytime in Coimbatore. Further, night ventilation with 20% WWR allows an average decrease of 0.5–0.6°C in triply exposed spaces facing the South. The use of a 2'0" depth shading device shows a maximum reduction of 0.1–0.3°C.

Originality/value

The contribution of this work lies in developing city-specific inputs presenting the advantage of easy replicability for other cities in the Indian context.

Details

Open House International, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 August 2018

Nwakaego Chikaodinaka Onyenokporo and Ekele Thompson Ochedi

The purpose of this paper is to develop a set of affordable retrofit packages that can be applied to existing residential buildings in hot-humid regions to improve…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a set of affordable retrofit packages that can be applied to existing residential buildings in hot-humid regions to improve occupants’ thermal comfort and reduce energy consumption.

Design/methodology/approach

A critical review of relevant literature to identify passive design strategies for improving thermal comfort and reducing energy consumption in hot-humid climates with focus on the building envelope was conducted in addition to a simulation study of an existing building typology in study area.

Findings

There is enormous potential to reduce energy costs and improve thermal comfort through building retrofit packages which is a recent concept in developing countries, such as Nigeria. Analysing the results of the retrofit interventions using building energy simulation helped in developing affordable retrofit packages which had optimum effect in improving indoor comfort temperature to the neutral temperature specified for hot humid Nigeria and further down to 3°C less than that of the reference building used. The use of passive design strategies to retrofit the building might help homeowners reduce their annual energy consumption by up to 46.3 per cent just by improving the indoor thermal comfort.

Originality/value

In addition to improving thermal comfort and reducing energy consumption, this research identified affordable retrofit packages and considered its cost implications especially to low-income earners who form a larger population of Lagos, Nigeria, as this was not considered by many previous researchers.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 June 2022

Sujatavani Gunasagaran, E. Sean Saw, TamilSalvi Mari, Sucharita Srirangam and Veronica Ng

This study aims to identify the optimal configuration to enhance the environmental conditions of a terrace house courtyard space in a hot and humid climate. The use of the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify the optimal configuration to enhance the environmental conditions of a terrace house courtyard space in a hot and humid climate. The use of the courtyard has declined in new housing developments although it is an effective element to bring in light and wind to promote passive ventilation to occupants. To achieve the comfort level, the courtyard needs to be open, but some occupants modify it with enclosures, such as polycarbonate, to increase the useable and shaded area. This affects bringing in daylight but deters the passive ventilation from happening. Thus, this research is important to create a courtyard that brings in daylight and wind as well as shades from the harsh sun of the tropics and to educate the occupants on the role of the courtyard as a passive ventilation system.

Design/methodology/approach

The research method employed is a simulation study. A terrace house with a courtyard design in Penang was chosen as a case study of the baseline model. The courtyard configurations of the case study were evaluated, and 4 settings based on the literature review were established for simulation. The effects of the courtyard configurations were tested through daylight and CFD simulations. Daylight and ventilation requirements from Malaysia Standard were used to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of the proposed settings.

Findings

The results suggested that the semi-enclosed courtyard feature with a shading device could provide the optimal environmental conditions of the courtyard space in a terrace house in a hot-humid climate. This paper will benefit the architectural community in which it is intended to implement courtyard design in modern terrace houses and will also contribute to the discovery of the most suitable courtyard typology in a hot-humid climate.

Research limitations/implications

The study does not include studies on thermal comfort, energy performance, or use behavior of occupants in this courtyard. The study only focuses on the influence of different courtyard configurations in improving the courtyard space's daylight availability and indoor air movement.

Practical implications

The data from this study reveal that alteration of courtyard design needs to suit comfort level that should not alter the functions of the courtyard as a passive design. The simulation method offers data for microclimatic conditions according to the changes in design. This study attempts to design influence on multiple parameters of shading, daylighting and ventilation to optimize the use of tropical climatic conditions.

Social implications

The terrace house with courtyard would create a passive design strategy that would naturally ventilate, provide daylight, and will save on energy usage. The courtyard then with its enhanced comfort for the user will be able to function as a useable space to foster family relationships.

Originality/value

The study on courtyard design using the simulation method mostly have been conducted using a single parameter. This study highlights the analysis and process of identifying the optimal configuration for the architectural feature of a courtyard to provide a comfort level for occupants in hot and humid climates using the simulation method using data from two pieces of software.

Details

Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-6862

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2017

Cheng Sun, Meng Zhen and Yu Shao

Rural residential energy consumption accounts for 46.6% of total building-related energy consumption of China. In Northeast China, energy consumption for space heating…

Abstract

Rural residential energy consumption accounts for 46.6% of total building-related energy consumption of China. In Northeast China, energy consumption for space heating represents a significant proportion of total rural residential energy consumption and has reached 100 million tce (tons of standard coal equivalent), or more than 60% of total household energy consumption. In terms of energy consumption per square meter of gross floor area, rural residential energy consumption for heating is more than that of cities (20kgce/m2). However, the average indoor temperature of most rural residence is below 10°C, much less than that in cities (18°C). Hence, it is an important task for Chinese energy saving and emission reduction to reduce rural residential energy consumption, while enhancing indoor thermal comfort at the same time.

Restricted by local technology and low economic level, rural residences currently have poor thermal insulation resulting in severe heat loss. This paper reports on research aimed at developing design strategies for improving thermal insulation properties of rural residences with appropriate technology. A field survey was conducted in six counties in severe cold areas of Northeast China, addressing the aspects of indoor and outdoor temperature, humidity, internal and external surface temperature of building envelop enclosure, and so on.

The survey data show the following:

1. Modern (after 2000) brick-cement rural residences perform much better than the traditional adobe clay houses and Tatou houses (a regional type of rural residence in Northeast China – see figure A) in overall thermal performance and indoor thermal comfort;

2. Among the traditional residential house types, adobe clay houses have better heat stability and thermal storage capacity than Tatou houses;

3. Applying an internal or external thermal insulation layer can greatly improve rural residential thermal insulation properties, and is an economical and efficient solution in rural areas;

4. In terms of roofing materials, tiled roofs show much better thermal insulation properties than thatch roofs;

5. Adopting passive solar techniques can form a transition space (greenhouse) against frigid temperatures, resulting in interior temperatures 5.91°C higher than the outside surroundings. It is evident that local passive solar room design offers significant heat preservation effects and lower cost ($12/m2), embodies the ecological wisdom of rural residents, and is therefore important to popularize.

The above experimental results can provide guidance in energy conservation design for both self-built residences and rural residences designed by architects. In addition, the results can also provide experimental data for energy-saving studies for rural residences in China.

Details

Open House International, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

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