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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2019

Partha Gangopadhyay and Siddharth Jain

This paper aims to examine the interrelationships between subnational conflicts in Myanmar and other variables of interests from the following four major domains…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the interrelationships between subnational conflicts in Myanmar and other variables of interests from the following four major domains: economic, human security and vulnerability of people, aggressiveness or militancy of the armed forces and global and regional climates.

Design/methodology/approach

Autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach has been applied on annual data from 1960-2017, to deal with the problems of autocorrelation and non-stationarity of key variables.

Findings

First, an increase in crop yield, cereal productivity, food productivity and per capita availability of arable land unequivocally and significantly lower the severity of conflict in Myanmar in the long run. Second, the authors uncover strong evidence that the intensity of conflicts bears a positive relationship with the vulnerability of the people of Myanmar. Third, the authors detect that both regional and global climate variables have limited and rather inconsistent impacts on subnational conflicts in Myanmar. Finally, the authors find that the aggressiveness (militancy index) of the armed forces has significant impacts upon subnational conflicts and economic variables of Myanmar in the long run.

Originality/value

This paper is completely data-driven and explains the long-term dynamics of the intensity of the civil war in Myanmar. ARDL bounds testing approach has been used to examine the interrelationships between subnational conflicts in Myanmar and other variables of interests. It is a novel approach, which overcomes the problems of autocorrelation and nonstationarity and offers reliable results.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 July 2021

Partha Gangopadhyay and Ken Yook

The authors examine if opportunistic insider trading profits decrease after the enactment of the Dodd-Frank Act (DFA) in 2010. The DFA expands legal prohibitions on…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors examine if opportunistic insider trading profits decrease after the enactment of the Dodd-Frank Act (DFA) in 2010. The DFA expands legal prohibitions on insider trading in the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors identify opportunistic insider trades following a method that is outlined in Cohen et al. (2012). The authors examine univariate statistics and perform multivariate regression tests to examine opportunistic trading profits before and after the DFA. Similar multivariate regression tests have been used widely in the literature to examine the profitability of insider trades.

Findings

The authors find that opportunistic insider purchases were highly profitable before the DFA. Profits after opportunistic purchases were significantly lower after the DFA. Opportunistic insider sales were contrarian trades both before and after the DFA. However, share prices kept increasing after insiders sold their shares.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the paper is the first study that compares the profitability of opportunistic insider trades, as identified by Cohen et al., before and after the DFA. The study contributes to the literature that finds that insiders change their strategic trading behavior when the potential costs of the illegal trading increase due to regulatory action.

Details

Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 July 2009

Partha Gangopadhyay and Manas Chatterji have produced an outstanding book on Peace Science that will help further the establishment of this field as one with a solid…

Abstract

Partha Gangopadhyay and Manas Chatterji have produced an outstanding book on Peace Science that will help further the establishment of this field as one with a solid academic base and with many practical applications in the world of policy. The field combines traditional international relations theory with peace and defense economics and national and global security studies in order to study peace. Peace science has made important contributions in recent years, many of which are treated in this book. Of course, more must and will be done to provide a framework to prevent war and promote peace, building on the earlier contributions, including this book.

Details

Peace Science: Theory and Cases
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-200-5

Book part
Publication date: 15 February 2021

Abstract

Details

New Frontiers in Conflict Management and Peace Economics: With a Focus on Human Security
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-426-5

Book part
Publication date: 29 July 2009

Abstract

Details

Peace Science: Theory and Cases
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-200-5

Book part
Publication date: 29 July 2009

Partha Gangopadhyay and Manas Chatterji

Violent conflicts and peace are the flip sides of the same coin of our societies. In many societies, sometimes conflicts of violent nature paralyse our collective senses…

Abstract

Violent conflicts and peace are the flip sides of the same coin of our societies. In many societies, sometimes conflicts of violent nature paralyse our collective senses, which result in an appalling destruction of economic and social assets and abysmal loss of human lives. In similar societies, a peaceful resolution of serious conflicts takes place. Even many societies seem to traverse from conflicts to peace and to costly conflicts again. The goal of this chapter is to examine the foundation of cyclical fluctuations in the level of conflicts. One can ponder that a low level of conflict is a peaceful composure, while a high-level conflict represents a lack of peace. However, admittedly, it is impossible to pin down a level of conflict as a threshold between peace and violent conflicts. There is no science that we are to apply to define this threshold, or boundary, and we will rather depend on the common sense. Our simple definition of peace is somewhat tautological: peace is an absence of an unacceptable level of violent conflicts. What is an acceptable level of conflict in a society? It is important to note that it is virtually impossible to banish violence and conflicts from a society – especially at its current stage. We will thus externally impose a cut-off point for conflicts below which a society is taken as peaceful and beyond which the society descends into a conflictual crisis. Our intention is to explore whether the system has its own internal dynamics to fluctuate between peace and violent conflicts.

Details

Peace Science: Theory and Cases
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-200-5

Book part
Publication date: 15 February 2021

Partha Gangopadhyay, Agung Suwandaru and Walid Bakry

Public employment in India is often viewed as a source of job security. Hence, public employment seems to propel human security in India away from poverty and social…

Abstract

Public employment in India is often viewed as a source of job security. Hence, public employment seems to propel human security in India away from poverty and social exclusion. In the recent work, a significant attention has been accorded to understand how globalisation has impacted on job security and thereby human security in many developing countries. The literature revolves around two opposing effects of globalisation on the human security in a country: firstly, the efficiency hypothesis posits that globalisation tends to reduce the size of the government of a country to enable the country to attain comparative advantage for gainfully trading in the global economy. A reduction in the capacity of the government is argued to lead to a decline in public employment and, hence, a decline in human security with rising globalisation. Secondly, the compensation hypothesis argues that the size of government, and hence public employment, will increase with globalisation mainly to suitably manage a domestic economy in a complex global setting with an increased role of government for creating social stability and social security. Depending on the relative strengths of the mutually opposing forces of globalisation on public employment, the impact of globalisation on the human security of a country is ambiguous. A gap in the existing literature is a lack of documentation of the Indian experience. In this work, the authors seek to empirically test if globalisation has increased, or decreased, job security in India.

Details

New Frontiers in Conflict Management and Peace Economics: With a Focus on Human Security
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-426-5

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 July 2009

Partha Gangopadhyay and Manas Chatterji

The fragmentation can either lead to an all-out civil war as in Sri Lanka or a frozen conflict as in Georgia. One of the main characteristics of fragmentation is the…

Abstract

The fragmentation can either lead to an all-out civil war as in Sri Lanka or a frozen conflict as in Georgia. One of the main characteristics of fragmentation is the control of group members by their respective leaders. The chapter applies standard models of non-cooperative game theory to explain the endogenous fragmentation, which seeks to model the equilibrium formation of rival groups. Citizens become members of these rival groups and some sort of clientelism develops in which political leaders control their respective fragments of citizens. Once the divisions are created, the inter-group rivalry can trigger violent conflicts that may seriously damage the social fabric of a nation and threaten the prospect of peace for the people for a very long time. In other words, our main goal in this chapter is to understand the formation of the patron–client relationship or what is called clientelisation.

Details

Peace Science: Theory and Cases
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-200-5

Book part
Publication date: 29 July 2009

Partha Gangopadhyay and Manas Chatterji

Our work provides a comprehensive examination of two major issues concerning the fragmentation of state and possible state failure, which will be one of the major…

Abstract

Our work provides a comprehensive examination of two major issues concerning the fragmentation of state and possible state failure, which will be one of the major deterrence for achieving peace in our world. There are two important sources of conflicts – one is for the rural society and the other is relevant for the urban society. In the rural set-up, we argue that the fragmentation of markets leads to clientelism between rich farmers and their subjugated clients, small farmers. We show this as an equilibrium phenomenon in which a handful of rich and powerful players, or farmers, can effectively control millions of small farmers, which can easily challenge the authority and the mandate and the jurisdiction of a nation state. This element of clientelisation can effectively fragment the state in a developing nation.

Details

Peace Science: Theory and Cases
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-200-5

Book part
Publication date: 29 July 2009

Partha Gangopadhyay and Manas Chatterji

The fundamental idea that we seek to establish in this chapter is that the establishment of regional or local, peace calls forth global peace. In other words, our argument…

Abstract

The fundamental idea that we seek to establish in this chapter is that the establishment of regional or local, peace calls forth global peace. In other words, our argument is that local and regional conflicts are partly driven by global factors, especially what is commonly known as international tension. In order to achieve meaningful and sustained peace, there is a reason to believe that it is mandatory to manage and contain international tensions. The main thesis of this chapter is to explain or posit, conflicts as a product of continuing international chasms, splits and differences of political and social ideologies in our modern world. Thus, we argue that conflicts are, to some extent, driven by international tension or global, ideological and geo-political factors. Notwithstanding the global influence, local factors – such as income inequality, income growth or lack of it, political institutions – can and do exacerbate conflicts and a peaceful resolution of conflicts becomes a difficult phenomenon.

Details

Peace Science: Theory and Cases
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-200-5

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