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Article

Jo Carby‐Hall

Discusses the long existing and confusing problems of establishing the relationship of who is, and who if not, a dependent worker. Reflects developments which have…

Abstract

Discusses the long existing and confusing problems of establishing the relationship of who is, and who if not, a dependent worker. Reflects developments which have occurred in British law as it affects the employment field, plus an evaluation and analysis of some of the different types of employment relationships which have evolved by examining, where possible, the status of each of these relationships. Concludes that the typical worker nowadays finds himself in a vulnerable position both economically and psychologically owing to the insecurity which exists.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 44 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article

Knight's Industrial Law Reports goes into a new style and format as Managerial Law This issue of KILR is restyled Managerial Law and it now appears on a continuous…

Abstract

Knight's Industrial Law Reports goes into a new style and format as Managerial Law This issue of KILR is restyled Managerial Law and it now appears on a continuous updating basis rather than as a monthly routine affair.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article

Margunn Bjørnholt

This article outlines the longitudinal consequences for men who participated in the work‐sharing couples study which was a Norwegian, experimental research project in the…

Abstract

Purpose

This article outlines the longitudinal consequences for men who participated in the work‐sharing couples study which was a Norwegian, experimental research project in the early 1970s. The aim of the original project was to promote gender equality and a better work/life balance in families; the design involved both spouses working parttime and sharing childcare and housework. This paper aims to present the results of a longitudinal follow‐up study of the participants in the work‐sharing couples study. In this paper the work‐sharing men's parttime adaptations and the impact of the work‐sharing arrangement on their careers is the main focus.

Design/methodology/approach

The original project had a small scale, interventionist design based on couples working parttime and sharing childcare and housework; effects were documented by questionnaires and time diaries. In the follow‐up study 30 years later, retrospective life‐course couple interviews with the original participants were used. The current paper is based on an analysis of the couple interviews with a particular focus on the men's careers.

Findings

Obtaining parttime work was not difficult, and working parttime was mostly uncomplicated for the men. Neither did their working part time for a substantial amount of time have negative career effects, and they were rather successful professionally. Their experiences as work sharers were mainly positively valued at their workplaces as adding to managerial skills. For those who did not have a managerial career, this was due to personal choice rather than any negative effect of working parttime.

Practical implications

Changing men's adaptations to work and care is high on the agenda in family research as well as in policy making and the findings from this study contributes to new knowledge which is of interest in research as well as policy making.

Originality/value

The original project was unique internationally, and so is the longitudinal follow‐up of this experiment. The work‐sharing men's parttime adaptations and the longitudinal impact on their careers provide new and contra‐intuitive insights into the question of men, work and family.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article

Gbolahan Gbadamosi, Carl Evans, Mark Richardson and Yos Chanthana

Building on the self-efficacy theory and self-theories, the purpose of this paper is to investigate students working part-time whilst pursuing full-time higher education…

Abstract

Purpose

Building on the self-efficacy theory and self-theories, the purpose of this paper is to investigate students working part-time whilst pursuing full-time higher education in Cambodia. It explores individuals’ part-time working activities, career aspirations and self-efficacy.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of 850 business and social sciences degree students, with 199 (23.4 per cent) usable responses, of which 129 (65.2 per cent of the sample) indicated they currently have a job.

Findings

Multiple regression analysis confirmed part-time work as a significant predictor of self-efficacy. There was a positive recognition of the value of part-time work, particularly in informing career aspirations. Female students were significantly more positive about part-time work, demonstrating significantly higher career aspirations than males. Results also suggest that students recognise the value that work experience hold in identifying future career directions and securing the first graduate position.

Practical implications

There are potential implications for approaches to curriculum design and learning, teaching and assessment for universities. There are also clear opportunities to integrate work-based and work-related learning experience into the curriculum and facilitate greater collaboration between higher education institutions and employers in Cambodia.

Social implications

There are implications for recruitment practices amongst organisations seeking to maximise the benefits derived from an increasingly highly educated workforce, including skills acquisition and development, and self-efficacy.

Originality/value

It investigates the importance of income derived from part-time working to full-time university students in a developing South-East Asian country (Cambodia), where poverty levels and the need to contribute to family income potentially predominate the decision to work while studying.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

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Article

Robin Roy, Stephen Potter and Karen Yarrow

This paper aims to summarise the methods and main findings of a study of the environmental impacts of providing higher education (HE) courses by campus‐based and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to summarise the methods and main findings of a study of the environmental impacts of providing higher education (HE) courses by campus‐based and distance/open‐learning methods.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach takes the form of an environmental audit, with data from surveys of 20 UK courses – 13 campus‐based, seven print‐based and online distance learning courses – covering travel, paper and print consumption, computing, accommodation, and campus site impacts. Results were converted into energy and CO2 emissions per student per 100 hours of degree study.

Findings

Distance learning HE courses involve 87 per cent less energy and 85 per cent lower CO2 emissions than the full‐time campus‐based courses. Parttime campus HE courses reduce energy and CO2 emissions by 65 and 61 per cent, respectively, compared with full‐time campus courses. The lower impacts of parttime and distance compared with full‐time campus courses is mainly due to a reduction in student travel and elimination of much energy consumption of students' housing, plus economies in campus site utilisation. E‐learning appears to offer only relatively small energy and emissions reductions (20 and 12 per cent, respectively) compared with mainly print‐based distance learning courses, mainly because online learning requires more energy for computing and paper for printing.

Research limitations/implications

Assumptions were made in order to calculate the energy and emissions arising from the different HE systems. For example, it was decided to include all the energy consumed in term‐time accommodation for full‐time campus students while parttime campus and distance learning students live at home, only requiring additional heating and lighting for study. Future studies could include more distance and blended learning courses offered by institutions other than the UK Open University and impacts other than CO2 emissions.

Practical implications

Existing HE sustainability programmes should be broadened beyond considering campus site impacts and “greening the curriculum”. Indeed, were HE expansion to take environmental impacts seriously, then parttime and distance education should be prioritised over increasing full‐time provision. This appears compatible with the Leitch Review of Skills on continuing education and training for the UK workforce.

Originality/value

The paper represents the only existing quantitative study of this issue.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

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Article

ARRANGEMENT OF REGULATIONS PART I GENERAL

Abstract

ARRANGEMENT OF REGULATIONS PART I GENERAL

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 7 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article

Madeleine King, Arti Saraswat and John Widdowson

The purpose of this paper is to report research carried out by the Mixed Economy Group of colleges into the student experience of part time (PT) higher education (HE

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report research carried out by the Mixed Economy Group of colleges into the student experience of part time (PT) higher education (HE) delivered in English further education (FE) colleges.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey was completed by 352 PT students. Their responses, including free comments, formed the basis of the report. The authors provide a context for the work by referring to research carried out by other national agencies.

Findings

The research illustrates the strengths of college-based HE, which largely derives from delivery by staff who are qualified teachers and, often, professionally active in their field of expertise. Whilst valuing this, students also seek recognition of the demands of work and family on their study time, as well as an identity as HE students within the greater FE environment.

Social implications

PT HE can drive regional economic growth. By addressing the issues raised by students in the research, local colleges, partner universities, employers and national government can re-build local skill bases. Promoting PT HE develops a vocational ladder to HE, thus widening participation.

Originality/value

Relatively little publically available research exists into the experiences of students pursuing PT HE in colleges. This primary research begins an evidence-based debate about how colleges can improve their offer but also reminds Government of the need to give equal weight to the needs of PT students in future changes to the delivery of HE.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

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Book part

Liz Marr and John Butcher

This chapter focusses on the situation of part-time learners and explores the extent to which policy in England has confounded, rather than facilitated, lifelong learning…

Abstract

This chapter focusses on the situation of part-time learners and explores the extent to which policy in England has confounded, rather than facilitated, lifelong learning opportunities. A brief overview of Lifelong Learning policy at Pan-European level is presented with the findings of a specific project which sought to establish what the barriers were to access for diverse student bodies in England, Denmark, Finland and Germany. Then, the authors focus on the ‘perfect storm’1 in English Higher Education where a catastrophic decline in the numbers of part-time student, generated due to the clash of several policy ‘clouds’, raises questions about the government’s commitment to lifelong learning.

Details

Access to Success and Social Mobility through Higher Education: A Curate's Egg?
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-836-1

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Article

J.R. Carby‐Hall

The status of employee which draws the distinction between a contract of service and a contract for services, and the practical aspects of the two relationships have been…

Abstract

The status of employee which draws the distinction between a contract of service and a contract for services, and the practical aspects of the two relationships have been discussed. The transfer of the employee by the permanent to the temporary employer has also been considered. It is now proposed to treat a variety of employment relationships which will include short term and casual labour, temporary workers supplied by an agency, labour only sub contracting, outworkers, apprentices, students and cadets, part time labour, crown employment, office holders; probationary employees and finally merchant seamen. The criterias discussed and analysed in relation to the status of employee apply to some, but not to all, of these employment relationships.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article

Margunn Bjørnholt

The purpose of this paper is to outline the background as well as methodological and epistemological aspects to, and the effects of, a follow‐up study 30 years later of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to outline the background as well as methodological and epistemological aspects to, and the effects of, a follow‐up study 30 years later of the work‐sharing couples project, which is a Norwegian, experimental research project in the early 1970s. The aim of the project is to promote gender equality and a better work/life balance in families. In this paper the variation in work‐sharing and post work‐sharing trajectories over the life‐course is explored, mainly focusing on the impact of the work‐sharing arrangement on the couples' relations, their work/life balance and the well‐being of participants, the core objectives of the original project.

Design/methodology/approach

The original project has a small scale, interventionist design based on couples working parttime and sharing childcare and housework; effects on family life and gender equality are documented by questionnaires and time diaries. In the follow‐up study, retrospective life‐course couple interviews with the original participants are used.

Findings

Revisiting the original project produced new insights into, the subversive and radical use of sex‐role theory in early Norwegian family sociology as an instrument of changing gender relations. In the follow‐up study, the high level of participation and the long duration of the arrangement would seem to qualify for a heightened level of expectation as to the effects of the experiment on the participants' lives. A high proportion of the couples are still married, and the work‐sharing arrangement has been regarded by the majority of participants to have had a positive impact on their marital relation, work/life balance and well‐being.

Practical implications

Insights gained from revisiting this project may prove fruitful when confronting contemporary dilemmas of work/life balance, as well as demographic and environmental challenges.

Originality/value

The original project is unique internationally owing to its theoretically subversive, interventionist design and reformatory ambition. The longitudinal follow‐up of the experiment is also unique in family research, and of great value for researchers into gender equality and the family.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Keywords

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