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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2000

Alex de Ruyter and John Burgess

Part‐time employment has expanded across most OECD countries over the past 25 years. Over the last two decades the Australian part‐time employment share has more than…

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2610

Abstract

Part‐time employment has expanded across most OECD countries over the past 25 years. Over the last two decades the Australian part‐time employment share has more than doubled to be around 26 percent of the workforce. This paper examines the growth in part‐time employment in Australia and in other OECD economies. In particular we are interested in assessing the extent to which global pressures, as represented by industry restructuring, provide a common explanation for the growing share of part‐time employment. Using shift share analysis the results suggest that industrial restructuring effects do explain some of the growth in part‐time employment, but more important is the growing intensity of part‐time employment across all sectors. This suggests that workforce feminisation, employer strategies and systems of labour regulation also require examination.

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International Journal of Manpower, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Book part
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Xiangmin Liu and Liang Zhang

This study investigates the relationship among preference for full-time employment, primacy of part-time employment, and work-related outcomes in a nationally…

Abstract

This study investigates the relationship among preference for full-time employment, primacy of part-time employment, and work-related outcomes in a nationally representative sample of part-time college instructors. Results based on multilevel cross-classified random effects models indicate that part-time faculty who prefer full-time positions report working on average more hours per week and express greater work-related dissatisfaction than those who choose reduced work hours. Individuals whose part-time jobs are their primary jobs have less job satisfaction but work longer hours than those who treat part-time work as secondary. Finally, those who prefer full-time employment report more negative job satisfaction when the primacy of their part-time jobs is high.

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Advances in Industrial and Labor Relations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-380-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1990

Eileen Drew

The subject of part‐time work is one which has become increasingly important in industrialised economies where it accounts for a substantial and growing proportion of…

Abstract

The subject of part‐time work is one which has become increasingly important in industrialised economies where it accounts for a substantial and growing proportion of total employment. It is estimated that in 1970, average annual hours worked per employee amounted to only 60% of those for 1870. Two major factors are attributed to explaining the underlying trend towards a reduction in working time: (a) the increase in the number of voluntary part‐time employees and (b) the decrease in average annual number of days worked per employee (Kok and de Neubourg, 1986). The authors noted that the growth rate of part‐time employment in many countries was greater than the corresponding rate of growth in full‐time employment.

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Equal Opportunities International, vol. 9 no. 3/4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 10 February 2012

David Robotham

The aim of the paper is to examine the consequences of students engaging in part‐time employment during their studies. It reports the results of a survey of part‐time

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12012

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the paper is to examine the consequences of students engaging in part‐time employment during their studies. It reports the results of a survey of part‐time employment among university students. The research examined the possible consequences of combining part‐time employment with full‐time study, with particular reference to stress.

Design/methodology/approach

The research consisted of an institution‐wide Web‐based survey of full‐time undergraduates within a post‐1992 university in the UK.

Findings

The survey found that part‐time employment, in common with many previous studies, is a majority experience for full‐time undergraduates. It also found that some students were spending longer in their chosen employment than in time‐tabled classes. A central finding was that unlike much previous research, it emerged here that students reported more positive than negative outcomes.

Practical implications

The data shows that students continue to engage in part‐time employment at a significant level and for some studying is almost a secondary activity. This perhaps raises questions about the existing model of higher education delivery and the need for institutions to consider offering more support mechanisms for individual students.

Originality/value

The paper is of value in seeking to clarify the nature of the consequences for students seeking to combine employment and studying. Furthermore the paper builds on our understanding of the continuing growth of student part‐time employment.

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Education + Training, vol. 54 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2009

Janine Leschke

While forms of non‐standard employment (which include part‐time work and temporary employment) have received active promotion in recent years, possible negative effects…

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1432

Abstract

Purpose

While forms of non‐standard employment (which include part‐time work and temporary employment) have received active promotion in recent years, possible negative effects emerging from these forms of employment have not been high on the agenda. This paper, accordingly, aims to compare workers with non‐standard contracts and those with standard contracts in relation to transitions out of employment into unemployment, inactivity, household/care activities and education/training. Country differences in outcome are expected due to varying regulations of standard and non‐standard employment and different reasons for resorting to forms of non‐standard employment.

Design/methodology/approach

The comparison covers four countries, namely Denmark, Germany, the UK and Spain. The segmentation theory is tested by analysing mobility patterns on the basis of the European Community Household Panel data. Event history analysis methods are used. Maximum likelihood multinomial regression models are calculated on the event history data in order to assess competing exits (unemployment, inactivity, household/care and education) between non‐standard and standard workers.

Findings

The risk of temporary workers exiting employment is greatest by far in Spain, but also evident in the other countries: casual employment is even more volatile than fixed‐term employment. Concerning part‐time workers, downward transitions to inactivity and/or household/care are much more frequent than among full‐time workers, and this is true even in Spain and Denmark where part‐time employment is not traditionally used to combine work with family activities. The expectation that there would be no differences in exits to unemployment – insofar as employment protection legislation applies to both full‐time and regular part‐time workers – proves true only for Denmark and Germany.

Originality/value

In contrast to most papers on the segmentation potential of non‐standard employment this paper is comparative. Furthermore, it uses event history methods and places a special focus on potentially employability‐enhancing “sideways transitions” to education/training measures.

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International Journal of Manpower, vol. 30 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Book part
Publication date: 19 December 2017

Sojung Lim

Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) from 1979 to 2008, this study examines how employment precarity is associated with the transition to first…

Abstract

Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) from 1979 to 2008, this study examines how employment precarity is associated with the transition to first marriage. Building upon research on precarious work and economic determinants of marriage, I employ various measures of precarious work, including health insurance coverage, the provision of pension benefits, and part-time work. Results from the discrete-time hazard models show that precarious work delays men’s marriage entry more than women’s. For men, all indicators of precarious work decrease the odds of first marriage by up to 40%. Compared to men, women’s entry into first marriage is delayed when they have part-time employment. My study findings contribute to the theoretical discussions of the causes of family inequality, which have suggested the precarization of work and associated deterioration of job quality as one of the leading influences on the retreat from marriage. Further, results of this study indicate that the spread of precarious work has profound social consequences through its impact on family formation. In light of limited empirical research on the impact of precarious work on non-work-related outcomes, subsequent research needs to continue examining how employment precarity and family inequality are intertwined with various substantive foci across societies.

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Precarious Work
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-288-8

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Book part
Publication date: 29 March 2021

Liang Zhang, Ronald Ehrenberg and Xiangmin Liu

We use panel data models to examine variations and changes in faculty employment at four-year colleges and universities in the United States. The share of part-time

Abstract

We use panel data models to examine variations and changes in faculty employment at four-year colleges and universities in the United States. The share of part-time faculty among total faculty has continued to grow during the last two decades, while the share of full-time lecturers and instructors has been relatively stable. Meanwhile, the share of nontenure track faculty among full-time faculty has been growing, especially among the professorial ranks. Dynamic panel data models suggest that employment levels of different types of faculty respond to a variety of economic and institutional factors. Colleges and universities have increasingly employed faculty whose salaries and benefits are relatively inexpensive; the slowly deteriorating financial situations at most colleges and universities have led to an increasing reliance on a contingent academic workforce. A cross-sectional comparison of the share of full-time nontenure track faculty also reveals significant variations across institutions.

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2002

Raymond Markey, Ann Hodgkinson and Jo Kowalczyk

The international trend in the growth and incidence of “non‐standard employment”, and its highly gendered nature, is well documented. Similarly, interest in employee…

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3631

Abstract

The international trend in the growth and incidence of “non‐standard employment”, and its highly gendered nature, is well documented. Similarly, interest in employee involvement or participation by academics and practitioners has seen the emergence of a rapidly growing body of literature. Despite the continued interest in each of these areas, the literature is relatively silent when it comes to where the two areas intersect, that is, what the implications are for employee participation in the growth of non‐standard employment. This paper seeks to redress this relative insularity in the literature by examining some broad trends in this area in Australia. The literature lacks one clear, accepted definition of “non‐standard” employment. For ease of definition, and because of the nature of the available data, we focus on part‐time employment in this paper. The paper analyses data from the Australian Workplace Industrial Relations Survey of 1995 (AWIRS 95). It tests the hypotheses that part‐time employees enjoy less access to participatory management practices in the workplace than their full‐time counterparts, and that this diminishes the access to participation in the workplace enjoyed by female workers in comparison with their male colleagues, since the part‐time workforce is predominantly feminised. These hypotheses were strongly confirmed. This has major implications for workplace equity, and for organisational efficiency.

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Employee Relations, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2009

Paul Barron and Constantia Anastasiadou

The purpose of this paper is to examine the pattern of part‐time working amongst a cohort of full time hospitality and tourism students studying at a university in Scotland.

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10345

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the pattern of part‐time working amongst a cohort of full time hospitality and tourism students studying at a university in Scotland.

Design/methodology/approach

Students studying hospitality and tourism management were chosen due to the vocational nature of their program and the part‐time opportunities available in the hospitality industry. A questionnaire was developed to investigate the extent of part‐time employment amongst hospitality and tourism students. The questionnaire solicited demographic information, level, type and extent of part‐time employment. The questionnaire also explored students' impressions of the benefits of part‐time working, their likes and dislikes in their part‐time employment and what they felt might be done to develop the relationship between the parties involved in part‐time work.

Findings

Evaluating responses from 150 students, the study found that almost two thirds of this cohort were engaged in part‐time employment and had been with their current employer for an average of 14 months. Focussing on aspects of gender and nationality the study identified that females were more likely to have a part‐time job and students from Eastern European countries worked significantly longer hours than their peers.

Practical implications

It is suggested that educators more fully recognise the constraints of contemporary student life and consider the provision of flexible teaching methods, part‐time contacts and formal credit for students' part‐time work.

Originality/value

The paper concurs with previous research into the extent of part‐time working amongst students and it found that students from Eastern Europe were more likely to work part‐time and that all students would like more recognition of their employment commitments.

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International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

Jo Carby‐Hall

Discusses the long existing and confusing problems of establishing the relationship of who is, and who if not, a dependent worker. Reflects developments which have…

Abstract

Discusses the long existing and confusing problems of establishing the relationship of who is, and who if not, a dependent worker. Reflects developments which have occurred in British law as it affects the employment field, plus an evaluation and analysis of some of the different types of employment relationships which have evolved by examining, where possible, the status of each of these relationships. Concludes that the typical worker nowadays finds himself in a vulnerable position both economically and psychologically owing to the insecurity which exists.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 44 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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