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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2019

Marine Loisy

The purpose of this paper is to examine the adaptation strategies of inhabitants and the forms of participation they adopt in tourism activities in Paris. As public…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the adaptation strategies of inhabitants and the forms of participation they adopt in tourism activities in Paris. As public policies have recently recognized the importance of taking into account inhabitants in the tourism development strategy in Paris and its suburbs, this paper proposes an analysis of the different forms of this participation and its stakes for the territories.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper gathers the first results of a thesis work in anthropology that is based on an ethnographic method combining participant observation, semi-directive interviews and bibliographic work. Observations took place in Paris and in several cities of the Grand Paris with inhabitants involved in tourism activities, or who are experiencing a difficult cohabitation with tourists in their neighborhoods. Thus, some 40 semi-directive interviews were conducted with inhabitants, members of associations and entrepreneurs. There were also participatory observation works within public institutions, mainly at the Paris City Hall, as well as interviews with dozens of tourism professionals from the private, public and associative sectors.

Findings

Not all residents have the same commitment to tourism and they do not all want to meet visitors. The relationship of inhabitants to tourism is complex and heterogenous. Nevertheless, this research shows that the roles played by inhabitants are multiple: producers of tourist services, ambassadors for their city or neighborhood, the permanent resident can also be seen as a product that attracts visitors, and as a tourist himself. The permanent resident offers the possibility of going off the beaten track, and promotes the revalorization of the identity of a territory and its inhabitants.

Originality/value

The originality of this research lies in the choice to focus primarily on the point of view of the visited population in a European capital. Ethnographic work allows for the observation and analysis of practices, in order to understand the stakes of visitor/visitor cohabitation and to anticipate possible movements of anti-tourist rejections.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2010

Solange Montagné Villette and Irene Hardill

Towards the end of the nineteenth century Paris was the global capital of art and fashion. Today it remains a key hub in the global cultural economy. Male and female…

Abstract

Purpose

Towards the end of the nineteenth century Paris was the global capital of art and fashion. Today it remains a key hub in the global cultural economy. Male and female artists/designers develop new products and production techniques and marketing techniques are used to gain an international reputation. The top designers are embedded in a supportive milieu of cooperative competition, where ideas are exchanged and resources accessed. The purpose of this paper is to draw on archival documents to examine the privileged role cities have played as centres of cultural and economic activity, with specific reference to Paris and haute couture.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper employs a case study approach, accessing data from a number of sources including secondary sources and grey literature, the analysis of archival material, and in‐depth interviews with key stakeholders in examining the role of Parisian haute couture.

Findings

Parisian haute couture developed using the system pioneered in the nineteenth century by the Englishman Charles Worth. Their ideas inspired fashion trends globally, and this persisted for over a century. The salons tended to be owned at least partially by the artist/designer. The most successful designers based their reputations on a specific and well defined fashion innovation. A further strategy adopted by couturiers was the use of subsidiary lines of products to offset uncertainties in the market for fashionable clothing, the principal one being perfume.

Originality/value

The paper links the work of French and Anglo‐American writers on the cultural economy, and highlights, using case studies, the pivotal role Paris has played in shaping global fashion trends since the nineteenth century.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 30 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2019

Maria Gravari-Barbas and Sébastien Jacquot

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the mechanisms involved in the progressive integration of marginal and peripheral urban areas, located close to established tourist…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the mechanisms involved in the progressive integration of marginal and peripheral urban areas, located close to established tourist destinations, into the visited tourism perimeter, and the interplay of the supporting public and private actors. It focusses on the intertwining processes of commercial gentrification, heritagization and aestheticization of former “ordinary” or marginal areas as tools for and indications of their tourism development. It explores how the metropolitan tourism geography is progressively redesigned.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a comprehensive literature analysis, the Saint-Ouen flea market was selected as the object of study. The methodology is based on extensive in situ observations, a systematic analysis of the press and a corpus of tourist guides and several in-depth interviews with local public and private stakeholders.

Findings

This paper shows that combined public (Parisian urban and tourism stakeholders) and private interests led to the integration in the tourism perimeter of a space that was once on the margins of the tourism and metropolitan area. It highlights the mechanisms of this integration and the link between touristification, gentrification, aestheticization and artification. It was found that private investors and political decision makers regard Saint-Ouen flea market as a major opportunity for tourism and real estate development, which leads to some contradictions regarding heritage protection. Finally, it shows that market traders opposed the evolution of a commercial place into a place of symbolic consumption. At another level, it shows the stakes of tourism diversification in a metropolitan tourism destination that is characterized by overtourism.

Research limitations/implications

More studies are needed to identify not only the potential of flea markets to diversify tourist areas and practices, but also any potential resistance. The consequences on metropolitan tourism can be the subject of additional investigations: can this tourism diversification reduce overtourism in the centre, or is it only a diversification that functions as an additional driver of attractiveness? This research opens new perspectives on the modes of diversification (spatial and experiential) of metropolitan tourism as well as on the role that commercial changes play in these evolutions. It also makes it possible to question the modes of engagement of investors and traders in tourism.

Originality/value

This is an in-depth analysis of the case of Saint-Ouen flea market. The issues raised herein are applicable to similar peripheral urban areas, flea markets especially, that are rarely studied on the tourism-aestheticization-gentrification nexus. The analysis also shows the diversification of places and imaginaries of metropolitan tourism.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2020

Francesca Sobande, Alice Schoonejans, Guillaume D. Johnson, Kevin D. Thomas and Anthony Kwame Harrison

Grounded in experience of co-organizing a two-day photography-based workshop in Paris, this paper explores how photo-dialogues can facilitate anti-racist pedagogy and…

Abstract

Purpose

Grounded in experience of co-organizing a two-day photography-based workshop in Paris, this paper explores how photo-dialogues can facilitate anti-racist pedagogy and generative discussions about how race and racism function in marketplace contexts.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper draws on the authors' involvement in a cross-national and cross-disciplinary team of scholars who worked with local community stakeholders—including activists, artists and practitioners—to discuss, theorize and photo-document issues regarding race and racism in the Parisian marketplace.

Findings

This paper contributes to the literature on visual culture studies and critical race studies as it demonstrates the potentials of photography combined with dialogue to challenge the White supremacy over archiving and visuality in the context of urban spaces. This new methodology is an opportunity to reflect on archetypes of visuality that depart from the traditional Parisian flâneur to be consistent with and reinforce anti-racist stances.

Originality/value

Photography and visual methods often play peripheral roles in anti-racist education across various disciplines and research areas, including critical marketplace studies. This paper expands understanding of the potentials of using photographic methods as part of critical and anti-racist work related to racial and racist dynamics, including issues regarding power, White supremacy and public space. It outlines the use of photographic dialogues in a context (Paris, France) where discussion of race is regularly societally discouraged. Thus, this work shifts the focus away from decontextualized research that regards race as an object, to specifically foreground understandings of racialized experiences and how the photographic gaze produces and is produced by racialized viewers.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2007

Solange Montagné Villette and Irene Hardill

The purpose of this paper is to seek to conribute to debates on disadvantage and social exclusion by examining the evolution of the concept of “periphery”, with specific…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to seek to conribute to debates on disadvantage and social exclusion by examining the evolution of the concept of “periphery”, with specific reference to Paris.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on research undertaken on the “suburbs” of Paris in order to highlight some of the socio‐spatial dimensions of social exclusion.

Findings

The notion of periphery has evolved from being a purely spatial concept, to a functional concept, and during the crises of the 1980s it became a key social concept in France.

Originality/value

Today, it is the absence of employment, or common values which characterises those who make up a social periphery. It is the unwaged, or the poor (in waged work or retirees), and immigrants, who live in the Parisian socio‐suburban periphery.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 27 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 5 November 2016

Andrea Glauser

The landscape of European cities is by no means homogeneous. Nonetheless, the same type of conflict has repeatedly occurred in different places in the last few years: From…

Abstract

The landscape of European cities is by no means homogeneous. Nonetheless, the same type of conflict has repeatedly occurred in different places in the last few years: From Seville to Vienna, from Cologne to St. Petersburg, planned high-rise buildings for inner city districts have provoked fervent arguments and debates. Whether and how European cities should integrate more high-rise buildings is a highly controversial question. This chapter focuses on strategies of vertical construction and related debates about the cityscape in both Paris and Vienna. By studying the urban constellations of Paris and Vienna, it can be shown that what may look comparable at first glance is the outcome of highly different strategies and histories.

Although both cities define themselves to a wide degree with reference to historic structures, the image of tall buildings varies drastically in these cities, which correlates with these cities’ diverse histories and hence experiences with high-rise buildings. Path dependencies and the ways individual cities receive international trends are crucial to understanding processes of urbanization. Based on in-depth interviews with various urban actors and other relevant qualitative data, this chapter aims to demonstrate that a city’s high-rise strategy cannot be attributed to any single factor; rather, it is the result of a complex interplay between various aspects and actors, which crucially includes present and past struggles over cityscapes and therefore over urban spaces.

Details

Public Spaces: Times of Crisis and Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-463-1

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2016

Bernadett Csurgó, Imre Kovách and Nicole Mathieu

The chapter focuses on rural-urban food links in the context of governance. We seek to understand a rural-urban innovator mechanism is emerging through the food system and…

Abstract

The chapter focuses on rural-urban food links in the context of governance. We seek to understand a rural-urban innovator mechanism is emerging through the food system and the renewed question of proximity and relative autonomy in the alimentary supply of this type of space and local society. We present case studies from Paris and Budapest metropolitan rural areas exploring institutional and private actors of governance, their power networks, food and related cultural components of rural-urban relations, the function of food links and the way in which they are governed. We have found several differences in governance methods between the Paris and Budapest metropolitan ruralities. The areas surrounding Paris are characterised by multi-level governance methods. However, an isolated form of rural governance of the rural-urban local food link can be identified in Budapest’s rural areas. Understanding the complex and dynamic interaction of food links and related activities within metropolitan areas offers the possibility of a far greater understanding of the complex and multiple links between sustainability, renewal of social interaction and cohesion.

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2013

Martin Frické

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the ontological and epistemological basis of classification.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the ontological and epistemological basis of classification.

Design/methodology/approach

Attention is drawn to a 1785 article on abstraction by Thomas Reid and the contents and theories of the article are explained. The Reid article both provides a sound approach to classification and is interesting historically as it influenced the classification pioneer Charles Ammi Cutter who, in turn, is responsible for much of the modern theory of functional bibliography. Reid's account is supplemented by brief descriptions of fallibilism and fuzziness. An associated view, Aristotelian essentialism is explained and criticized. Some observations are offered on the role of prototypes in classification and on the monothetic‐polythetic distinction.

Findings

Reid's theories, suitably embedded in fallibilism and augmented with a respect for truth, provide a sound ontological and epistemological basis for classification.

Originality/value

Reid's essay, together with an appreciation of fallibility and determinate and indeterminate properties, amount to a good basic theoretical foundation for cataloging.

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2011

Bruce Hearn

This paper aims to review the development of the Channel Islands exchange and assess the potential diversification benefits arising from the inclusion of this market in…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the development of the Channel Islands exchange and assess the potential diversification benefits arising from the inclusion of this market in investment portfolios containing UK and French equity assets.

Design/methodology/approach

First this paper uses a simple stochastic drift, GARCH, and time‐varying parameter CAPM to model total returns indices. Second, it uses the unconditional and conditional means and variances from first stage as inputs into a mean‐variance portfolio quadratic optimisation problem: the solutions of which denote the optimal asset weights.

Findings

The evidence suggests that although there are serious difficulties in modelling time series from small illiquid equity markets owing to price‐rigidity, the limited benefits that do exist for the inclusion of Channel Islands assets in portfolios do so preferentially with Paris as opposed to London assets.

Originality/value

This paper extends the literature development policy options for small offshore markets and provides the first analysis of the Channel Islands.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 September 2019

Rony Germon, Séverine Leloarne, Myriam Razgallah, Imen Safraou and Adnane Maalaoui

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role that sexual orientation can play in entrepreneurial intention.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role that sexual orientation can play in entrepreneurial intention.

Design/methodology/approach

By conducting a survey on a sample of 654 individuals and, among them, 266 LGB people in the Paris region (France), and using linear regressions, The authors test the impact of sexual orientation on the antecedents of entrepreneurial intention, as defined by Ajzen (1991), and on entrepreneurial intention.

Findings

The study reveals that LGB people express a higher entrepreneurial intention than non-LGB people. The study also reveals that sexual orientation positively impacts the three antecedents of entrepreneurial intention, namely attitudes, perceived behavioral control and subjective norms.

Research limitations/implications

The study was conducted in a specific context: an LGB-friendly region and among a population of well-educated people. One could also have investigated the impact of femininity and masculinity on entrepreneurial intention among this population.

Practical implications

LGB people adopt entrepreneurial cognition different to that of other minorities, which tends to confirm that LGB entrepreneurial norms and beliefs are not really the same as those of the dominant culture. The study sheds light on the key antecedent one has to work on to increase the entrepreneurial intention of LGB people.

Originality/value

This study reveals that LGB people, even in friendly LGB geographical areas, are still suffering from a lack of self-esteem. The study also confirms that creating any new venture, as job creation process, is perceived as to be the alternative to difficult employment.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

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