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Book part
Publication date: 10 May 2017

Leslie Joan Harris

Legal standards that allow teens to make health care decisions, or any important decisions, must account for the contingency and variability of minors’ capacity…

Abstract

Legal standards that allow teens to make health care decisions, or any important decisions, must account for the contingency and variability of minors’ capacity. Traditional law denied minors’ legal authority to make any decisions, giving all power to parents. This rule goes too far; the Supreme Court has held that minors have constitutionally protected autonomy-based rights, and modern views about adolescence are inconsistent with the rule. The question is how and where to draw lines.

Legal standards are based on minors’ evolving maturity, policy favoring decisions that follow medical advice, and policy supporting parental authority. This paper uses four hard cases to show how these considerations factor into legal rules.

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Studies in Law, Politics, and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-344-9

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2008

Marshall H. Medoff

The purpose of this paper is to empirically estimate the effect the costs of an abortion have on the supply of infants relinquished for adoption in the USA.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically estimate the effect the costs of an abortion have on the supply of infants relinquished for adoption in the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper, using pooled time‐series cross‐section state data, over the years 1982, 1992, and 2000, empirically estimates an adoption supply equation based on the rational choice economic model of fertility.

Findings

The empirical results find that increases in the price of an abortion and the enforcement of a Parental Involvement Law decrease the number of infants available for adoption in a state. States that do not fund Medicaid abortions do not have higher rates of infant relinquishment.

Research limitations/implications

One implication of the results in this paper is that to have an abortion or relinquish an infant for adoption are not considered to be substitutes by women with unwanted pregnancies and that for poor women with unwanted pregnancies either an abortion or raising an infant is preferable to relinquishing an infant for adoption. It would be of interest to see whether comparable results occur in other countries which have changed their abortion policies.

Originality/value

If the goal of society is to increase the number of adoptable infants, the conclusions reached in this paper suggest ways to accomplish this goal.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Suzette Woodward, Linda Franck and Duncan Wilcox

A total of 63 parents whose children underwent urological surgery at a tertiary referral specialist paediatric hospital were surveyed at three times points: immediately…

Abstract

A total of 63 parents whose children underwent urological surgery at a tertiary referral specialist paediatric hospital were surveyed at three times points: immediately after signing consent; two to three days after surgery (at discharge); and by telephone two to three weeks after discharge. The survey was to assess parents’ perceptions of the consent process and parental recall of information given about the surgical procedure and risks. Results demonstrated that despite the majority of parents being satisfied with the consent process, operation, aftercare and the subsequent health of their child, their recall of risk information was poor, with 60 per cent of parents unable to recall any explained risks of the operation. This study pre‐dated the introduction of the national consent policies and forms, but provides evidence which supports the need for this consistent approach across the NHS which emphasises the effective communication of risks and benefits in relation to proposed treatment.

Details

Clinical Governance: An International Journal, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7274

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2020

Zafeiroula Georgiopoulou, Eleni-Laskarina Makri and Costas Lambrinoudakis

The purpose of this paper is to give a brief guidance on what a cloud provider should consider and what further actions to take to comply with General Data Protection…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to give a brief guidance on what a cloud provider should consider and what further actions to take to comply with General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents in detail the requirements for GDPR compliance of cloud computing environments, presents the GDPR roles (data controller and data processor) in a cloud environment and discusses the applicability of GDPR compliance requirements for each cloud architecture (Infrastructure as a Service, Platform as a Service, Software as a Service), proposes countermeasures for satisfying the aforementioned requirements and demonstrates the applicability of the aforementioned requirements and countermeasures to a PaaS environment offering services for building, testing, deploying and managing applications through cloud managed data centers. The applicability of the method has been demonstrated on in a PaaS environment that offers services for building, testing, deploying and managing applications through cloud managed data centers.

Findings

The results of the proposed GDPR compliance measures for cloud providers highlight the effort and criticality required from cloud providers to achieve compliance.

Originality/value

Details

Information & Computer Security, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4961

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Book part
Publication date: 23 November 2017

Georgiann Davis and Chris Wakefield

Historically, it has been common practice for doctors and parents to withhold the diagnosis from their minor intersex patients. This study seeks to integrate intersex…

Abstract

Purpose

Historically, it has been common practice for doctors and parents to withhold the diagnosis from their minor intersex patients. This study seeks to integrate intersex youth experiences into the growing body of literature on diagnosis disclosure for intersex patients.

Methodology/approach

Using gender structure theory as a model, 16 intersex youth were given in-depth surveys regarding their experiences with their intersex identity in individual, interactional, and institutional contexts.

Findings

Participants more positively experience intersex than the earlier generations of intersex people. They were not deeply troubled by their diagnosis as doctors have historically feared, and they are open about their diagnosis with their non-intersex peers and teachers. They also find peer support valuable.

Research limitations/implications

Data was collected from a single event and cannot represent all intersex youth. Future research must continue to engage with intersex youth experiences both inside of and beyond activist and support group networks.

Practical implications

These findings are strong exploratory evidence for the importance of diagnosis disclosure for intersex youth. Policies of withholding intersex diagnoses in clinical and familial contexts should be reevaluated in light of the experiences of intersex youth.

Social implications

Diagnosis disclosure for intersex youth creates the potential for increased medical decision-making participation and increased capacity for activism and community building around intersex issues.

Originality/value

Our results encourage future studies that center the experiences of intersex youth, for we conclude that theorizing the lived experiences of intersex people is incomplete without their perspectives.

Details

Gender, Sex, and Sexuality Among Contemporary Youth
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-613-6

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Article
Publication date: 20 August 2018

Lucy Bailey and Simon John Williams

The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the authors’ experiences of conducting research with refugees and asylum seekers in Malaysia over multiple research projects in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the authors’ experiences of conducting research with refugees and asylum seekers in Malaysia over multiple research projects in order to identify limitations to current procedures for receiving ethical approval for a study. It argues that the moral complexity of working with marginalized and excluded groups is not reflected in existing approaches.

Design/methodology/approach

Ensuring that research is ethical is integral to any empirical study, using any research design. Procedures for ensuring ethics have been developed by professional bodies across many academic fields, predominantly drawing on western legal frameworks and conceptions of agency. However, these procedures may not have applicability to certain cultural, social and political settings. The discussion in this paper focuses on devising ethical approaches for research participants from marginalized and excluded communities in diverse parts of the world, including those with no possibility of legal recourse.

Findings

Problems with the use of established procedures for four aspects of ethical research are identified, namely, access and gatekeepers; consent; reciprocity; and confidentiality.

Originality/value

The paper develops a framework for continuous ethical reflexivity. It argues that this framework should replace the established procedural approach to ethics, approved by an Institutional Review Board or ethics committee. Instead, the IRB should assign an ethical mentor who is jointly responsible with the researcher for ensuring research ethics through the use of the framework.

Details

Qualitative Research Journal, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1443-9883

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2019

Merli Tamtik

The purpose of this paper is to examine parental and students’ decisions regarding participating in K-12 level study abroad programs in Manitoba, Canada.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine parental and students’ decisions regarding participating in K-12 level study abroad programs in Manitoba, Canada.

Design/methodology/approach

The study reports on data collected through document analysis and semi-structured interviews with 18 international students and 14 parents.

Findings

The findings suggest that the key factors influencing decisions are perceptions of enhanced career prospects, changing global environments and broadened post-secondary education choices. Country-specific factors include quality and safety of the learning environment, multiculturalism and reputation associated with the country and people.

Research limitations/implications

The participants were primarily students and parents from the EU countries associated primarily with horizontal mobility. Experiences of students from the main sending countries (China, South Korea and Japan) might differ.

Practical implications

The results are relevant to educational managers in designing high-quality international programs and recruitment agents.

Originality/value

The study adds important empirical evidence to the limited research that has been conducted on study abroad experiences at the K-12 level. It is one of the first in the Canadian context. It provides unique perspectives in USA and Canada comparisons for study abroad of school-aged children.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2019

Elodie Gentina

France has a long historic heritage with two world wars: the First World War (1914–1918) and the Second World War (1939–1945). Most people associate French culture with…

Abstract

France has a long historic heritage with two world wars: the First World War (1914–1918) and the Second World War (1939–1945). Most people associate French culture with Paris, which is a centre of fashion, luxury, cuisine, art and architecture, but life outside of Paris is very different in its 96 regions. Concerning demographic and economic aspects, people aged between 15 and 24 accounted for 11.79 per cent of the total French population. France is currently the 22nd most competitive economic country in the world, with a high unemployment rate (24%) among those aged 18 to 25 through, which can explain why the French Generation Z is the most pessimistic about the future in Europe (with a score of 59%). Extremism and global terrorism (81%) are thought to be the greatest threats for the future by the young French people, from which the ‘Generation Bataclan’ got its name to refer to French young, open-minded demographic population traumatised by terrorist attacks. Parents are a pillar for the French Generation Z, with 89 per cent of them reporting that their parents influence the values they hold. Beyond the personal and familial sphere, Generation Z requires a reconsideration of management in the workplace. According to a 2017 ‘Gen Z management’ study conducted among 2,300 French young people (Gentina & Delécluse, 2018), the main important criteria for their future careers are ‘working as a team’ (28.8%), ‘developing skills’ (28.4%) and ‘challenging varied roles’ (16.2%). Moreover, 60 per cent of the French Generation Z reveal that they choose face-to-face meetings as their preferred form of communication, as opposed to emailing (16%) or instant messaging (11%).

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Book part
Publication date: 18 November 2004

Judith A. Chafel and Carin Neitzel

What are children’s responses to storybook characters portrayed as socioeconomically disadvantaged? Do these responses vary by gender, race, socioeconomic status, and…

Abstract

What are children’s responses to storybook characters portrayed as socioeconomically disadvantaged? Do these responses vary by gender, race, socioeconomic status, and setting? Sixty-two 8-year-old-children individually listened and responded to a story about a soup kitchen using two different communication systems: drawings and words. Categories generated from the data were analyzed using chi-square analyses, yielding statistically significant findings for each of the variables of interest. Results offer a unique, detailed picture of the conceptual schemas of 8-year-old children about poverty.

Details

Social Contexts of Early Education, and Reconceptualizing Play (II)
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-146-0

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Book part
Publication date: 5 August 2011

Timothy Stablein and Steven H. Jacobs

Purpose – In this chapter, we address the ambiguous nature of parental consent requirement decisions for the purpose of conducting minimal risk research of at-risk youth.…

Abstract

Purpose – In this chapter, we address the ambiguous nature of parental consent requirement decisions for the purpose of conducting minimal risk research of at-risk youth.

Methodology/approach – We evaluate current guidelines, which are used to determine the appropriateness of parental consent waivers, review related literature, and offer a case study to understand some of the resulting dilemmas that arise when seeking approval and researching youth in potentially abusive and neglectful situations.

Findings – We offer the researcher, practitioner, ethics committee, and policy maker new strategies to aid in the determination and application of parental consent waivers for minimal risk research participation among at-risk youth populations.

Details

The Well-Being, Peer Cultures and Rights of Children
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-075-9

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