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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2016

Marcus Enoch and Stephen Potter

This chapter adopts a transport systems approach to explore why the adoption of paratransit modes is low and sporadic. Regulatory and institutional barriers are identified…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter adopts a transport systems approach to explore why the adoption of paratransit modes is low and sporadic. Regulatory and institutional barriers are identified as a major reason for this. The chapter then reviews key trends and issues relating to the uptake of, and barriers to, paratransit modes. Based on this analysis a new regulatory structure is proposed.

Design/methodology/approach

Case studies and research/practice literature.

Findings

Following an exploration of the nature of paratransit system design and traditional definitions of ‘paratransit’, it is concluded that institutional barriers are critical. However, current societal trends and service developments, and in particular initiatives from the technology service industry, are developing significant new paratransit models. The chapter concludes with a proposed redefinition of paratransit to facilitate a regulatory change to help overcome its institutional challenges.

Research limitations/implications

A paratransit transformation of public transport services would produce travel behaviours different from models and perspectives built around corridor/timetabled public transport services.

Practical implications

Technology firm invaders (e.g. Uber) are viewed as disrupters from normal transport planning to be controlled or excluded. However they may be the key to a transport system transformation.

Social implications

Existing public transport modes are ill-suited to modern patterns of travel demand. A system involving paratransit could produce enhanced social mobility and system-level improvements in CO2 emissions.

Originality/value

This chapter identifies the key issues raised by the emergence of new paratransit modes and the new actors involved. A new regulatory structure is proposed which reflects this understanding.

Details

Paratransit: Shaping the Flexible Transport Future
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-225-5

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2016

David Koffman

To explore how the rise of Transportation Network Companies (TNCs) may affect paratransit.

Abstract

Purpose

To explore how the rise of Transportation Network Companies (TNCs) may affect paratransit.

Design/methodology/approach

A review of published material and interviews with paratransit managers.

Findings

TNCs, typified by Uber and Lyft, are having a significant impact on the taxi industry, which is affecting some US paratransit programs for people with disabilities because it limits the ability of those programs to partner with taxis for a portion of their service. However, some programs have avoided these negative impacts by contracting with taxi companies in a way that provides guaranteed work for some number of drivers.

Paratransit programs might be able to partner with TNCs much as they do now with taxis. However, a number of significant issues would have to be addressed including the lack of any way to schedule a trip in advance, little or no monitoring or dispatching assistance provided to drivers at the time of service, insurance coverage that does not meet typical public agency requirements for contracts, limited screening of drivers or inspection of vehicles, lack of specialized driver training, lack of any provision to negotiate rates, and lack of wheelchair accessible vehicles.

US civil rights legislation applies to TNCs and requires them to serve individuals with disabilities who can use the service; assist with the stowing of mobility devices; not charge higher fares or fees for people with disabilities; and allow service animals.

Originality/value

The value is to help paratransit programs and policy makers adapt to changes in the market for transportation services brought on by technology.

Details

Paratransit: Shaping the Flexible Transport Future
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-225-5

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2016

Alaina Maciá

The purpose of this chapter is to communicate an innovative approach for public transit agencies to best balance ever growing Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to communicate an innovative approach for public transit agencies to best balance ever growing Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) paratransit ridership and decreasing budgets.

Design/methodology/approach

A variety of best practices from Medical Transportation Management, Inc. (MTM)’s current paratransit brokerage operations and historical nonemergency medical transportation (NEMT) operations are discussed, along with recommendations from nationally recognized organizations.

Findings

The paratransit brokerage model can help public transit agencies contain paratransit service costs and remove community barriers for passengers through the use of nondedicated vehicle fleets.

Originality/value

This chapter offers practical solutions to public transit agencies interested in exploring new paratransit management methods.

Details

Paratransit: Shaping the Flexible Transport Future
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-225-5

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2016

Steve Yaffe

This chapter applies the Consortium for Advanced Management, International (CAM-I) Activity-Based Cost Management (ABC/M) tool to paratransit. The intent is to enable…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter applies the Consortium for Advanced Management, International (CAM-I) Activity-Based Cost Management (ABC/M) tool to paratransit. The intent is to enable agencies sponsoring rides to save money through sharing rides and vehicle-time.

Design/methodology/approach

Several paratransit cost-allocation models from Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) and other sources are reviewed and one is adapted to the ABC/M methodology, based upon the author’s previous work proportionately allocating ride time among sponsoring agencies at a consolidated human service transportation agency and the price sheets used in contracted operations to minimize financial risk.

Findings

Through application of the principles of ABC/M, paratransit providers can properly allocate costs, determine the costs of providing proposed new services, plan for future vehicle acquisitions, and motivate their customers to tailor their transportation needs in a manner that will save them money and boost efficiency.

Research limitations/implications

University-based transportation studies programs may be motivated to apply these strategies to urban and rural paratransit providers that serve several customer agencies.

Practical implications

If agencies sponsoring paratransit rides understand that funds can purchase more rides during off-peak hours or if rides are shared with clients of other agencies, then paratransit resources can be used more efficiently and to the benefit of more individuals.

Social implications

By enabling the provision of more rides, a greater number of riders will be enabled to reach necessary services and participate in community life.

Originality/value

This is the first application of the ABC/M methodology to paratransit (and transit) and possibly to social services.

Details

Paratransit: Shaping the Flexible Transport Future
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-225-5

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2016

Eric Bruun and Roger Behrens

Sub-Saharan African cities suffer from poor quality transport options, excessive congestion and pollution. The informal transport sector contributes to these problems, but…

Abstract

Purpose

Sub-Saharan African cities suffer from poor quality transport options, excessive congestion and pollution. The informal transport sector contributes to these problems, but also represents part of the solution. This chapter reflects upon research undertaken to better understand the nature of these services, in the hope of providing insights into possible remediation.

Design/methodology/approach

Three case cities were studied: Cape Town; Dar es Salaam; and Nairobi. Each was examined by resident universities with respect to the quantity and quality of paratransit services provided, user satisfaction, business models and industry governance.

Findings

Each city has differences, but there are recurring themes. All are experiencing population growth and increased motorization, which steadily deteriorates operating environments. Law enforcement capability is limited and sometimes impeded by corruption. Operating enterprises tend to be fragmented. Financial resources are typically limited such that vehicle maintenance and replacement suffers. The safety and quality of service for passengers are therefore often poor. The prevalence of paratransit services is, however, such that any strategy to reform public transport systems needs to consider a role for them within a scheduled-paratransit hybrid network. Numerous challenges will need to be overcome for successful integration, but significant improvements to service quality can be made in the near- to medium-term through supporting interventions in business development, operating environment, vehicle fleets and operations.

Research limitations/implications

Extension of the research programme could yield some significant improvements to operations and financial sustainability, through the piloting of innovative, lower cost technologies based on smartphone and other ICT technologies.

Originality/value

The chapter reveals that significant improvements to service quality can be made in the near- to medium-term through supporting interventions in business development, operating environment, vehicle fleets and operations.

Details

Paratransit: Shaping the Flexible Transport Future
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-225-5

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Tri Widianti, Sik Sumaedi, I Gede Mahatma Yuda Bakti, Tri Rakhmawati, Nidya Judhi Astrini and Medi Yarmen

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that influence the behavioral intention (BI) of paratransit passengers in three major cities in Indonesia, namely…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that influence the behavioral intention (BI) of paratransit passengers in three major cities in Indonesia, namely Bandung, Medan, and Surabaya. More specifically, this paper will examine the relationship between the BI and other factors, including satisfaction (SAT), perceived sacrifice (SAC), perceived value (PV), service quality (SQ), and frequency of usage.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical data were collected through a survey with 264 respondents. Structural equation modeling was employed to test the proposed hypotheses.

Findings

SQ affects word-of-mouth (WOM) of paratransit passengers directly and indirectly through PV. However, SQ has no statistically significant direct effects on repurchase intention. SAC is proved to affect WOM and repurchase intention of paratransit passengers indirectly via PV. In addition, it is also found that SAT and frequency of usage have no statistically significant effect on WOM and repurchase intention of paratransit passengers.

Research limitations/implications

The data collection using convenience sampling method as well as the use of small sample size caused the limitation of the research results in representing across all paratransit passengers in the three cities where the research was conducted in. This study can be replicated with larger sample size in order to examine the stability of the results in other contexts.

Practical implications

The research results shows that sacrifice, SQ, and PV affect the BI of paratransit passengers. Thus, the management of paratransit service provider should consider and manage all of these factors proactively.

Originality/value

The paper has established a BI model of public transport passengers that can help organizations to manage the formation of BI of their passengers. The model has some novelties, which are first, the model includes frequency of usage, second, it uses BI as a multidimensional construct, consisting of repurchase intention and WOM, rather than a single dimensional construct, and third, it also includes the direct relationship between SAC and BI (repurchase intention and WOM).

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 32 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2016

Roger F. Teal

To assess how advances in technology are changing the market prospects for paratransit, particularly DRT services.

Abstract

Purpose

To assess how advances in technology are changing the market prospects for paratransit, particularly DRT services.

Design/methodology/approach

To review recent developments in technology-enabled paratransit service through their impact on the supply curve for local transportation.

Findings

Some technology-enabled paratransit services, notably one-way car sharing and shared ride services offered by transportation network companies (TNCs), have been successful in generating significant usage within the past 24 months in Europe as well as the United States. At the same time, the introduction of technological advances in a comprehensive technology platform used for general public DRT services in Denver has not resulted in a ridership response of a large magnitude. Similarly, technology-enabled micro-transit services have had difficulty attracting sustainable levels of ridership. This suggests only some packages of technological innovations are able to shift the transportation supply curve. The key appears to be the development of a comprehensive technology platform which makes the new service simple and convenient to engage, use, and pay for; it is also highly advantageous if the service is less costly to the end user than existing alternatives.

Research limitations/implications

Technology-enabled improvements of paratransit/DRT services are feasible and increasingly available, but the evidence shows that only when the use of technology significantly shifts the supply curve for local transportation that major impacts occur.

Originality/value

To provide concrete evidence as to the circumstances in which technology can make a significant impact on paratransit’s market prospects, but also identifies some of the limits to technology being able to create such impacts.

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2016

Corinne Mulley and John D. Nelson

This chapter provides the context for this book and highlights how the different chapters contribute to a greater understanding of how the flexible transport future may emerge.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter provides the context for this book and highlights how the different chapters contribute to a greater understanding of how the flexible transport future may emerge.

Design/methodology/approach

This chapter reviews the content of the book, drawing together the threads to provide insights into the important issues and policies around the world both in practice and for the future.

Findings

This book benefits from the papers presented at the TRB-sponsored International Paratransit Conference, “Shaping the New Future of Paratransit,” held in Monterey, CA in the United States (US) in October 2014. Over and above this, chapters were commissioned so as to provide a broader understanding of context and operations. The present is affected by the common problem of the silo nature of funding for transport and the need for innovative solutions to develop partnership working and business models which in turn will allow paratransit or flexible transport systems (FTS) to flourish. This chapter also points to the considerable contribution of the chapters which look to the flexible transport future. These detail the way in which our understanding of mobility must change, the role of technology as an enabler, and the way in which automation will change each mobility mode and the connections between them.

Originality/value

This chapter offers a multidimensional perspective of the current status, operational aspects, and a wealth of case study material to underpin policy and practice in paratransit or FTS. Its particular value is centered on providing not only practice-focused policy content but research content which postulates how the flexible future may need to be influenced to emerge in a way to add to sustainability.

Details

Paratransit: Shaping the Flexible Transport Future
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-225-5

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2016

Eliane Wilson

The impetus was to assess pluses and minuses of a national mandate with specific paratransit guidelines per “the” 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) model. Two…

Abstract

Purpose

The impetus was to assess pluses and minuses of a national mandate with specific paratransit guidelines per “the” 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) model. Two European countries were chosen to explore other ways to serve persons with disabilities, not driven by ADA.

Design/methodology/approach

This research compared mandates in each area (via a tri-lingual survey) both as related to ADA’s most common practices and the European model of “Persons with Reduced Mobility” (PMRs). After data collection, analysis compared and contrasted ADA and PMR schemes.

Findings

Even in California, differences were found among survey sites; for instance, the organization type and mix of services varied greatly, despite a national framework. In Europe, there were more similar approaches among regions where, without a national framework, there was flexible, regional decision-making. In Europe, the national focus is on more regular transit accessibility, maximizing transit use rather than special services.

Research limitations/implications

Five recommendations resulted and apply most directly to California and equally for agencies with or without ADA. The strengths of the PMR approach are transferable to California and the trend among a few California partners to go beyond ADA, while only a local option, reinforces the strength of the PMR solution.

Originality/value

How to improve service and financial performance and enlarge the private sector role are put forward. Existing methods, whether Federal or California-driven, need revisiting to achieve true benefits of coordination.

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2016

Abstract

Details

Paratransit: Shaping the Flexible Transport Future
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-225-5

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