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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2021

Sherif Abdelmohsen and Passaint Massoud

Material-based computation has been recently introduced in architectural education, where parameters and rules related to materials are integrated into algorithmic…

Abstract

Purpose

Material-based computation has been recently introduced in architectural education, where parameters and rules related to materials are integrated into algorithmic thinking. The authors aim to identify affordances of material-based computation in terms of supporting the understanding of parametric design, informing the process of parametric form finding in an educational setup and augmenting student learning outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors propose a material-informed holistic systems design framework for parametric form finding. The authors develop a pedagogical approach that employs material-based computation focusing on the interplay between the physical and the digital in a parametrically driven façade design exercise. The approach comprises two phases: (1) enabling physical exploration with different materials to arrive at the design logic of a panel prototype and (2) deducing embedded and controlled parameters, based on the interplay of materials and deriving strategies for pattern propagation of the panel on a façade composition using variation and complexity.

Findings

The results confirmed the initial hypothesis, where the more explicit the material exploration and identification of physical rules and relations, the more nuanced the parametrically driven process, where students expressed a clear goal oriented generative logic and utilized parametric design to inform form finding as a bottom-up approach.

Originality/value

Most precedent approaches developed to teach parametric design concepts in architectural education have focused on universal strategies that often result in fixating students on following standard blindly followed scripts and procedures, thus defying the purpose of a bottom-up form finding framework. The approach expands the pedagogical strategies employed to address parametric design as a form finding process.

Details

Open House International, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 2 April 2019

Zaki Mallasi

Advances in digital design tools enable exploration and generation of dynamic building facades. However, some processes are formally prescribed and manually driven to only…

Abstract

Purpose

Advances in digital design tools enable exploration and generation of dynamic building facades. However, some processes are formally prescribed and manually driven to only visualize the design concepts. The purpose of this paper is to present a proactive framework for integrating parametric design thinking, paying particular attention to building facade patterning.

Design/methodology/approach

This work developed the PatternGen© add-on in Autodesk® Revit which utilizes an analytical image data (AID) overlay approach as a data source to dynamically pattern the building facade. The add-on was used to manipulate the placement rules of curtain panels on facade surface geometry. As means of validating this research model, a real-life design project has been chosen to illustrate the practical application of this approach. Feedback and observations from a short end-user questionnaire assessed qualitatively the facade patterning and panelization approach.

Findings

The proposed merge (or overlay) of AID images can be used as a parametric thinking method rather than just theory to generate and articulate dynamic facade design. The facade panelization responds to an AID that resembles design-performance data (e.g. solar exposure, interior privacy importance and aesthetics).

Originality/value

This work identifies a form of parametric thinking defined as the expression of geometrical relationships and its configuration dependent on the AID pixel Red Green Blue color source values. In this type of thinking, it explores the impact of the digital process and parametric thinking utility when driven by an AID overlay. The framework highlighted the practical application of AID pixel approach within a digital process to benefit both designers and computational tools developer on emerging design innovations.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2021

Erfan Zamani and Theodoros Dounas

This study proposes a DfMA (Design for Manufacture and Assembly) based on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and uses Iranian-Islamic Muqarnas as the main case study due to…

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24

Abstract

Purpose

This study proposes a DfMA (Design for Manufacture and Assembly) based on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and uses Iranian-Islamic Muqarnas as the main case study due to their geometric modularity. In Islamic architecture, different geographic regions are known to have used various design and construction methods of “Muqarnas”, a type of decorated dome.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents a study on parametric analysis of the Iranian-Islamic Muqarnas and analyses its components, geometric relations and construction methods that should be considered when constructing one. This study aims to use the Muqarnas analysis as a driver to generate a DfMA basis on the UAVs and parametric fabrication. In Islamic architecture, different geographic regions use various design and construction methods of Muqarnas. There are four main parameters of the Muqarnas that define their classification; first, their three-dimensional shape, that provides volume. Second, the size of their modules is variable. Third, their own specific generative process-algorithm, and finally, the two-dimensional pattern plan that is used as a basis in the design. Thus, the authors present a global analytical study that drives a generative system to construct Muqarnas, through a careful balance of the four parameters.

Findings

This study thus presents a global analytical study that drives a generative system to construct Muqarnas, through a careful balance of four specifications. The paper reports the result of using a parametric tool, Grasshopper and parametric plugins, for creating a generative system of several types of Muqarnas. This synthetic translation aims at expanding our understanding of parametric analysis and synthesis of traditional architecture, advancing our understanding towards using parametric synthesis, with the scope to fabricate and assemble modules towards UAV-based fabrication of Muqarnas. To do so, the authors are taking advantage of their inherent repetition and recursion.

Originality/value

In the first step, this paper reviews studies on traditional Muqarnas (both Iranian and non-Iranian) and relevant parametric approaches. In the second step, the study aims to create a general generative system for Muqarnas. The creation of a generative system for Muqarnas is driven towards the creation of three-dimensional fabrication of their components so that these are assembled automatically using a swarm of UAVs. This particular drive imposes specific constraints in the parametric system, as the assembly of the final components, the authors posit, can only take place in a pick and place fashion.

Details

Open House International, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 16 June 2020

Çetin Tünger and Şule Taşlı Pektaş

This paper aims to compare designers’ cognitive behaviors in geometry-based modeling environments (GMEs) and parametric design environments (PDEs).

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to compare designers’ cognitive behaviors in geometry-based modeling environments (GMEs) and parametric design environments (PDEs).

Design/methodology/approach

This study used Rhinoceros as the geometric and Grasshopper as the parametric design tool in an experimental setting. Designers’ cognitive behaviors were investigated by using the retrospective protocol analysis method with a content-oriented approach.

Findings

The results indicated that the participants performed more cognitive actions per minute in the PDE because of the extra algorithmic space that such environments include. On the other hand, the students viewed their designs more and focused more on product–user relation in the geometric modeling environment. While the students followed a top-down process and produced less number of topologically different design alternatives with the parametric design tool, they had more goal setting activities and higher number of alternative designs in the geometric modeling environment.

Originality/value

This study indicates that cognitive behaviors of designers in GMEs and PDEs differ significantly and these differences entail further attention from researchers and educators.

Details

Open House International, vol. 45 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2021

Yeonghoon Kang, Jihyun Oh and Sungmin Kim

The development of a parametric garment pattern design system that utilizes anthropometric data for consumer-oriented garment pattern design.

Abstract

Purpose

The development of a parametric garment pattern design system that utilizes anthropometric data for consumer-oriented garment pattern design.

Design/methodology/approach

Action list and interactive user interface were developed to design flat garment patterns. Three-dimensional drape simulation was also implemented to verify the fit of patterns.

Findings

Patterns generated by the parametric design system developed in this study could be modified easily by providing appropriate anthropometric data regardless of their complexities.

Practical implications

Parametric pattern design system can reduce considerable amount of time and cost by replacing the trial-and-error based grading processes.

Social implications

Parametric pattern design system can generate customized garment patterns quickly and easily. Therefore, it is expected to contribute to the production of sustainable fashion and textile by reducing the loss of time and resource.

Originality/value

A versatile and comprehensive action list structure was implemented to manage the drawing actions of the user. Various numerical analysis methods were also used to maintain the geometrical validity of patterns.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2016

Silvana Chambers

Regression discontinuity (RD) design is a sophisticated quasi-experimental approach used for inferring causal relationships and estimating treatment effects. This paper…

Abstract

Purpose

Regression discontinuity (RD) design is a sophisticated quasi-experimental approach used for inferring causal relationships and estimating treatment effects. This paper aims to educate human resource development (HRD) researchers and practitioners on the implementation of RD design as an ethical alternative for making causal claims about training interventions.

Design/methodology/approach

To demonstrate the key features of RD designs, a simulated data set was generated from actual pre-test and post-test diversity training scores of 276 participants from three organizations in the USA. Parametric and non-parametric analyses were conducted, and graphical presentations were produced.

Findings

This study found that RD design can be used for evaluating training interventions. The results of the simulated data set yielded statistically significant results for the treatment effects, showing a positive causal effect of the training intervention. The analyses found support for the use of RD models with retrospective training intervention data, eliminating ethical concerns from random group assignment. The results of the non-parametric model provided evidence of the plausibility of finding the right balance between precision of estimates and generalizable results, making it an alternative to experimental designs.

Practical implications

This study contributes to the HRD field by explicating the implementation of a sophisticated, statistical tool to strengthen causal claims, contributing to an evidence-based HRD approach to practice and providing the R syntax for replicating the analyses contained herein.

Originality/value

Despite the growing number of scholarly articles being published in HRD journals, very few have used experimental or quasi-experimental design approaches. Therefore, a very limited amount of research has been devoted to uncovering causal relationships.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 40 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Article
Publication date: 22 May 2007

Yunchu Yang, Weiyuan Zhang and Cong Shan

The paper aims to provide an overview of the area of digital pattern developing for customized apparel.

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2888

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to provide an overview of the area of digital pattern developing for customized apparel.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper outlines several methods of digital pattern developing for customized apparel, and discusses the principles, characters and applications. Digital pattern developing process has two paths. One path develops apparel according to traditional 2D pattern‐making technology. There are three methods: parametric design, traditional grading technique, and pattern generating based on artificial intelligence (AI). Another path develops pattern through surface flattening directly from individual 3D apparel model.

Findings

For parametric method, it can improve greatly the efficiency of pattern design or pattern alteration. However, the development and application of parametric Computer‐Aided‐Design (CAD) systems in apparel industry are difficult, because apparel pattern has fewer laws in graphical structure. For grading technique, it is the most practical method because of its simple theory, with which pattern masters are familiar. But these methods require users with higher experience. Creating expert pattern system based on AI can reduce the experience requirements. Meanwhile, a great deal of experiments should be conducted for each garment with different style to create their knowledge databases. For 3D CAD technology, two methods of surface flattening have been outlined, namely geometry flattening and physical flattening. But many improvements should be done if the 3D CAD systems are applied in apparel mass customization.

Originality/value

The paper provides information of value to the future research on developing a practical made‐to‐measure apparel pattern system.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 19 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Zhijia Dong, Gaoming Jiang, Zhiming Wu and Honglian Cong

The purpose of this paper is to develop a parametric design method for 3D human bodies to be used in computer-aided style design and the 3D presentations of warp-knitted…

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1614

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a parametric design method for 3D human bodies to be used in computer-aided style design and the 3D presentations of warp-knitted seamless garment.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to obtain 3D human bodies of different sizes, all of which have been based on anthropometric measurement, a human body model template was constructed by importing vertices and facets information in an OBJ model file which had been exported from POSER. A parametric model was then established by extracting feature information from the template model using a method combining 3D geometry analysis and human semantic analysis; this information included the template model’s feature points and measurements. By applying a mesh deformation method, based on the radius basis function interpolation, to the template model, different size human bodies were then generated according to user-specific anthropometric measurements.

Findings

The test results validated the method presented in this paper as a useful and effective approach to generate diffident size human models from a template model by modifying anthropometric measurements, which establishes a foundation for the style design and 3D presentations of warp-knitted seamless garments.

Originality/value

This paper provides parametric design methods for generating bodies of varying size according to different anthropometric measurements in the 3D domain, which is the basis of style design and 3D presentation for warp-knitted seamless garments.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1998

C.K. Chua and S.L. Lye

This paper describes the use of parametric modelling techniques in the design of drinking bottles. A customised application programme is developed and integrated for the…

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1156

Abstract

This paper describes the use of parametric modelling techniques in the design of drinking bottles. A customised application programme is developed and integrated for the design and manufacture of a blow mould bottle within a proprietary CAD/CAM software named Duct5. One such conceptual design is physically realized and verified through the use of the stereolithography technique. Overall, by equipping designers with a library of “bottle‐design” features from a CAD/CAM system, the design period is shortened and simplified, and the same geometrical data can be passed downstream for manufacturing.

Details

Integrated Manufacturing Systems, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6061

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Article
Publication date: 24 November 2020

Hyoung Seog Chung, Seung Pil Kim and Younseok Choi

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new approach of using additively manufactured parametric models in the wind tunnel test-based aerodynamic shape optimization…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new approach of using additively manufactured parametric models in the wind tunnel test-based aerodynamic shape optimization (ASO) framework and to present its applicability test results obtained from a realistic aircraft design problem.

Design/methodology/approach

For aircraft shape optimization, the following three methodologies were used. First, as a validation study, the possibility of using rapid prototyping (RP) model in the wind tunnel test was verified. Second, through the wind tunnel test-based ASO, the application and feasibility of the real fighter aircraft shape optimization were verified. A generic fighter configuration is parameterized to generate various test models using additive manufacturing. Wind tunnel tests are conducted to measure their stability criteria in high angle of attack (AOA). Finally, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study was performed and analysis procedures, costs and results compared to the wind tunnel test were compared and reviewed.

Findings

RP technology can significantly reduce the time and cost of generating parametric wind tunnel models and can open up new possibilities for wind tunnel tests to be used in the rigorous aerodynamic design loop. There was a slight difference between the results of the RP model and the metallic model because of rigidity and surface roughness. However, the tendency of the aerodynamic characteristics was very similarly predictable. Although there are limitations to obtaining precise aerodynamic data, it is a suitable method to be applied to comparative studies on various shapes with large geo-metric changes in the early phase of design. The CFD analysis indicates that the wind tunnel-based ASO using the RP model shows the efficiency corresponding to the CFD shape optimization.

Research limitations/implications

The RP parametric models may have various assembly error sources and rigidity problems. The proposed methodology may not be suitable for collecting the accurate aerodynamic database of a final design; rather, the methodology is more suitable to screen out many configurations having fairly large shape variation in the early stage of the design process.

Practical implications

The wind tunnel test-based ASO can replace or supplement CFD-based ASO. In areas where CFD accuracy is low, such as high AOA flight characteristics, RP model wind tunnel-based ASO can be a research method that can secure both efficiency and accuracy advantages, providing ten times more effective in terms of cost and time. The wind tunnel test is used to obtain aerodynamic data at the final stage of shape design. It can be extended to a comparative study of several shapes in the early design phase. This procedure can be applied for both industrial level and educational aircraft design activities.

Originality/value

This study is the application to be applied as a parametric study on the whole aircraft, rather than using the RP model applying a simple partial control surface or configuration change of a part of the wing. The possibility of using the RP model was confirmed by comparing and verifying each other in a medium-sized wind tunnel using a relatively large RP model and a metallic model. It was verified that it can be applied in the shape design process, not the shape verification in the traditional design procedure, and a comparison with the CFD method was also performed. With further development and validation efforts, the new design framework may become an industrial standard for future aircraft development.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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