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Book part
Publication date: 10 December 2012

Nirupama Prakash

Paper recycling is an environment friendly technology used worldwide. The process involves turning waste paper into new paper products. According to the Society for…

Abstract

Paper recycling is an environment friendly technology used worldwide. The process involves turning waste paper into new paper products. According to the Society for Technology and Action for Rural Advancement (TARA), the process includes shredding of waste paper, soaking the shredded paper in water overnight, feeding the shredded soaked paper inside the hydrapulper, transforming wet material into pulp, forming pulp into required and specified size of paper, squeezing out excess water from wet paper, drying the wet sheet on cloth, removing the paper from the cloth, cutting paper into definite size, and finally manufacturing the product. Handmade paper can be used for making different paper products. This simple technology can reduce environment degradation, produce cost-effective paper, inculcate skill development, and create livelihoods. This chapter highlights a specific activity initiated in 2007 by the author in the capacity of then director, UGC Centre for Women Studies, BITS, Pilani. The activity involved setting up the TARA Mini Paper Recycling Unit, sponsored by the UGC Centre for Women Studies, BITS, Pilani, training 10 rural women on the process of making paper from waste paper and making end products out of recycled paper. The outcome of this activity was economic empowerment and helping women acquire skills of making paper from waste paper.

Details

Linking Environment, Democracy and Gender
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-337-7

Article
Publication date: 14 November 2022

Eman Salim

The aim of the present paper to compare the cleaning treatments of paper samples exposed to artificial aging, toluene and isopropyl alcohol gel in cleaning wax stains.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the present paper to compare the cleaning treatments of paper samples exposed to artificial aging, toluene and isopropyl alcohol gel in cleaning wax stains.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, paper samples were made from wood pulp. They had a deterioration phenomenon represented in the stains of the paraffin wax, so two types of cleaning were used: A traditional method using a toluene solution and another new method using isopropanol gel by a cotton swap in a circular movement until the completion of the cleaning process. Then, all paper samples were treated with toluene and isopropanol to handle the second artificial aging and detect how the samples were affected by artificial aging. For identifying the efficacy of these materials in removing paraffin wax stains, a range of examinations and analyses were used, such as universal serial bus, scanning electron microscope, infrared analysis (IR), pH analysis, color change analysis. Moreover, these results were compared with the standard sample’s results.

Findings

The results of examinations and analyses proved that the use of toluene affected the paper samples. Their effects were twice as weak, fragile and degraded paper fibers compared to isopropanol gel. Therefore, the isopropanol gel is preferred for paper cleaning to the toluene solution.

Originality/value

This paper highlights the efficiency of isopropyl alcohol gel in cleaning wax stains from historical paper supports.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 17 November 2022

Niamh M. Brennan

Unlike quantitative studies, interview data generally cannot be validated; yet, they are typically the only evidence of the research. This study develops protocols for…

Abstract

Purpose

Unlike quantitative studies, interview data generally cannot be validated; yet, they are typically the only evidence of the research. This study develops protocols for using verbatim interview quotations in research and for assessing the quality of interview quotations.

Design/methodology/approach

This research reviews 20 empirical papers using in-depth interviews containing 600 interview quotations to examine authors' approaches to verbatim interviewee quotations. The research analyses the sample papers for interview transcript handling, selection of quotations, the number and length of interview quotations, how they are placed and presented, the proportion of interviewee voices reproduced in quotations and the disclosure of protocols for translating and editing quotations. This paper includes illustrative interview quotations as exemplars of best practice.

Findings

Given the modest discussion of the principles influencing the reproduction of quotations in research, this study develops a framework for evaluating prior research. Researchers use a wide variety of practices to reproduce interview quotations in accounting research. The issues derived from this review, and their application to interview-based papers, frame an argument for a general set of quality criteria and protocols rather than rigid rules for assessing qualitative work. These criteria can serve as anchor points for qualitative evaluation.

Originality/value

There is little guidance on the use of interview quotations in qualitative research which this study bridges.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 35 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 September 2022

Qin Lu, Nadja Damij and Jason Whalley

High performance computing (HPC) is used to solve complex calculations that personal computing devices are unable to handle. HPC offers the potential for small- and…

Abstract

Purpose

High performance computing (HPC) is used to solve complex calculations that personal computing devices are unable to handle. HPC offers the potential for small- and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) to engage in product innovation, service improvement and the optimization of resource allocation (Borstnar and Ilijas, 2019). However, the expensive infrastructure, maintenance costs and resource knowledge gaps that accompany the use of HPC can make it inaccessible to SMEs. By moving HPC to the cloud, SMEs can gain access to the infrastructure without the requirement of owning or maintaining it, but they will need to accept the terms and conditions of the cloud contract. This paper aims to improve how SMEs access HPC through the cloud by providing insights into the terms and conditions of HPC cloud contracts.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts a systematic literature review by implementing a four-step approach. A comprehensive search was undertaken and results synthesized to enable this paper’s objectives to be met.

Findings

This paper proposes that SMEs could gain competitive advantage(s) by understanding their own needs and improving their contract negotiation abilities, service management skills and risk management abilities before accepting the terms and conditions of the cloud contract. Furthermore, a checklist, service-level agreement, easily ignored elements and risk areas are presented as guidance for SMEs when reviewing their HPC cloud contract(s).

Originality/value

While HPC cloud contracts are a niche research topic, it is one of the key factors influencing the ability of SMEs to access HPC through the cloud. It is, however, by no means a level playfield with SMEs at a distinct disadvantage because of not influencing the writing up of the HPC cloud contract. The added value of the paper is that it contributes to our overall understanding of the terms and conditions of HPC cloud contracts.

Details

Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5038

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 October 2022

Dhruba Jyoti Borgohain, Raj Kumar Bhardwaj and Manoj Kumar Verma

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is an emerging technology and turned into a field of knowledge that has been consistently displacing technologies for a change in human life…

Abstract

Purpose

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is an emerging technology and turned into a field of knowledge that has been consistently displacing technologies for a change in human life. It is applied in all spheres of life as reflected in the review of the literature section here. As applicable in the field of libraries too, this study scientifically mapped the papers on AAIL and analyze its growth, collaboration network, trending topics, or research hot spots to highlight the challenges and opportunities in adopting AI-based advancements in library systems and processes.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was developed with a bibliometric approach, considering a decade, 2012 to 2021 for data extraction from a premier database, Scopus. The steps followed are (1) identification, selection of keywords, and forming the search strategy with the approval of a panel of computer scientists and librarians and (2) design and development of a perfect algorithm to verify these selected keywords in title-abstract-keywords of Scopus (3) Performing data processing in some state-of-the-art bibliometric visualization tools, Biblioshiny R and VOSviewer (4) discussing the findings for practical implications of the study and limitations.

Findings

As evident from several papers, not much research has been conducted on AI applications in libraries in comparison to topics like AI applications in cancer, health, medicine, education, and agriculture. As per the Price law, the growth pattern is exponential. The total number of papers relevant to the subject is 1462 (single and multi-authored) contributed by 5400 authors with 0.271 documents per author and around 4 authors per document. Papers occurred mostly in open-access journals. The productive journal is the Journal of Chemical Information and Modelling (NP = 63) while the highly consistent and impactful is the Journal of Machine Learning Research (z-index=63.58 and CPP = 56.17). In the case of authors, J Chen (z-index=28.86 and CPP = 43.75) is the most consistent and impactful author. At the country level, the USA has recorded the highest number of papers positioned at the center of the co-authorship network but at the institutional level, China takes the 1st position. The trending topics of research are machine learning, large dataset, deep learning, high-level languages, etc. The present information system has a high potential to improve if integrated with AI technologies.

Practical implications

The number of scientific papers has increased over time. The evolution of themes like machine learning implicates AI as a broad field of knowledge that converges with other disciplines. The themes like large datasets imply that AI may be applied to analyze and interpret these data and support decision-making in public sector enterprises. Theme named high-level language emerged as a research hotspot which indicated that extensive research has been going on in this area to improve computer systems for facilitating the processing of data with high momentum. These implications are of high strategic worth for policymakers, library stakeholders, researchers and the government as a whole for decision-making.

Originality/value

The analysis of collaboration, prolific authors/journals using consistency factor and CPP, testing the relationship between consistency (z-index) and impact (h-index), using state-of-the-art network visualization and cluster analysis techniques make this study novel and differentiates it from the traditional bibliometric analysis. To the best of the author's knowledge, this work is the first attempt to comprehend the research streams and provide a holistic view of research on the application of AI in libraries. The insights obtained from this analysis are instrumental for both academics and practitioners.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 December 2022

Rachel Xenia Chang, Marly Monteiro Carvalho and Roberto Sbragia

Performance in virtual teams, which faces cultural and demographic differences, is a relevant phenomenon that has been widely investigated in recent decades, but with…

Abstract

Purpose

Performance in virtual teams, which faces cultural and demographic differences, is a relevant phenomenon that has been widely investigated in recent decades, but with opportunities in exploring other levels of analysis as individual and project. This current research aims to understand how multicultural virtual teams affect individual, team and project performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a systematic literature review (SLR) and bibliometric analysis to capture 273 papers from the Web of Science (WoS) database using a snowball approach. In a second approach, the authors selected 130 papers to conduct a content analysis.

Findings

The authors presented a longitudinal overview regarding the adoption of virtual teams in project management (PM) literature. A conceptual framework was proposed to explore the relationship between multicultural virtual teams and performance with three levels of analysis: individual, teams and project. The authors contributed with research hypotheses to be explored in future empirical studies not only at the team perspective but also at the project and individual levels. The thematic analysis suggested that the literature focus has shifted from hard to soft aspects faced by virtual teams. Social identity/categorization theory was the most prominent theory in this body, but it is not fully explored in PM literature. Other opportunities of future studies are to understand the impact of cultural diversity, the sense of belongingness, the project life cycle and the development of a knowledge management program.

Originality/value

The authors developed a 3-level conceptual framework for future empirical studies and demonstrated that cultural differences are mainly approached at the national level in the literature, bringing suggestions for future empirical research.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 27 October 2016

Diane H. Roberts

This paper explores the contribution of the AAA Symposium on Ethics Research in Accounting to fostering accounting ethics research. For a 17-year period, the contributors…

Abstract

This paper explores the contribution of the AAA Symposium on Ethics Research in Accounting to fostering accounting ethics research. For a 17-year period, the contributors, their schools of affiliation, and their research topics were analyzed to determine the extent of and trends in accounting ethics research. The research rankings of the contributing authors were examined in business ethics journals, top-40 accounting journals, and accounting education journals. Institutional rankings identify supportive places to do accounting ethics research. The impact of significant accounting scandals such as Enron and Madoff was examined and a financial scandal “bump” in paper presentations was found. Authors affiliated with Texas schools had papers following the state requirement of an ethics accounting course. A large amount of ethics education-related research was also presented at the Ethics Symposia. Overall the study results indicate that the Symposium with its AAA affiliation is a high-quality venue for paper presentation.

Details

Research on Professional Responsibility and Ethics in Accounting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-973-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Farley Grubb

The British North American colonies were the first western economies to rely on legislature-issued paper monies as an important internal media of exchange. This system…

Abstract

The British North American colonies were the first western economies to rely on legislature-issued paper monies as an important internal media of exchange. This system arose piecemeal. In the absence of banks and treasuries that exchanged paper monies at face value for specie monies on demand, colonial governments experimented with other ways to anchor their paper monies to real values in the economy. These mechanisms included tax-redemption, land-backed loans, sinking funds, interest-bearing notes, and legal tender laws. I assess and explain the structure and performance of these mechanisms. This was monetary experimentation on a grand scale.

Details

Research in Economic History
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-276-7

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 August 2011

Sharon M. Bruns, Timothy J. Rupert and Yue (May) Zhang

Because of the potential cost savings that online teaching evaluations can deliver, many universities are converting their student evaluations of teaching to this mode of…

Abstract

Because of the potential cost savings that online teaching evaluations can deliver, many universities are converting their student evaluations of teaching to this mode of administration. In this study, we examine the effects of transitioning administration of student evaluations from paper-and-pencil to online. We use data from accounting and other departments in the College of Business Administration of a large private, research university that converted from paper to online administration of teaching evaluations. We examine the average teaching effectiveness rating and response rate for instructors who taught the same course before and after the conversion. In addition, we survey a sample of accounting students to investigate their responses to online teaching evaluations. We find a significant increase in the average effectiveness rating and a significant decrease in response rate. Furthermore, we find that those instructors with lower ratings under the paper administration experience the greatest increase in ratings when the evaluations are converted to online administration. In a follow-up survey, we find that students who are highly motivated and have higher grade point averages are more likely to complete and provide higher evaluations with the online administration. We discuss the implications of our results to accounting and business education literature.

Details

Advances in Accounting Education: Teaching and Curriculum Innovations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-223-4

Abstract

Details

National Identity and Education in Early Twentieth Century Australia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-246-6

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