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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2008

Margherita Cigola and Paola Modesti

Recently numerous mergers have been realized. The paper aims to discuss famous static models about the exchange ratio. The paper then seeks to propose a simple dynamical…

Abstract

Purpose

Recently numerous mergers have been realized. The paper aims to discuss famous static models about the exchange ratio. The paper then seeks to propose a simple dynamical model to valuate both the immediate merger's effects and the delayed ones.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines from an analytical viewpoint the inequalities of Larson and Gonedes and of Yagil about the exchange ratio. Then, it looks for a possible valuation of future dividends through a dynamical approach.

Findings

The paper shows that the results of Larson and Gonedes and of Yagil are substantially the same and, in spite of appareances, do not propose real limitations, but only formal constraints, which need to be further treated before obtaining useful information. The paper then provides sufficient conditions to have dividends and/or prices greater than dividends and/or prices in absence of merger. Finally, an index to valuate synergy is proposed.

Research limitations/implications

On the basis of real data, the model may be tested. Moreover, non‐linear models and a stochastic framework could be considered.

Practical implications

The paper provides a critical viewpoint to consider classical models. Furthermore, the valuation method for future dividends may be applied and the synergy index may be calculated.

Originality/value

Both the results about the classical inequalities (to the authors' knowledge, there is no study in such a sense) and the dynamical model (the paper studies possible gains within a time horizon T and not only at time 0 and it does not obtain the fundamental value of stocks, as Yagil does, but their market price) are original.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2012

Sonny Perseil

To study sexual deals, the Italian ethnologist Paola Tabet introduced an original frame of analysis, the “economico‐sexual exchanges” frame, which she conceives as a…

Abstract

Purpose

To study sexual deals, the Italian ethnologist Paola Tabet introduced an original frame of analysis, the “economico‐sexual exchanges” frame, which she conceives as a continuum, from marriage to prostitution. The purpose of this paper is to know if we have to accept the idea of a sexual social contract as a holistic way of understanding, like Carole Pateman, or whether we have to admit the heterogeneity of sexual transactions.

Design/methodology/approach

According to the social function of the contract presented by Yvon Pesqueux, this paper will try to seize the contractual forms of sexual transactions, developing at the same time in the logic of the psychological contract, in particular to approach more finely the notion of consent, a notion at the heart of the debates concerning economic sexuality and which cannot be reduced to the expression of personal freedom. Pateman's work is also too fundamental to be ignored and so the author summarizes the main ideas.

Findings

It can be said that the social reality of sexual transactions exists between two opposite contractual and anti‐contractual ideologies, between a gender idealistic point of view and a management realistic one. Individuals, men and women, are more or less free to sell or buy sexual services. If freedom exists, contracts can be spoken about; if not, a contractual point of view appears only as a justification for the strong.

Originality/value

The paper presents a sexual/gender point of view in the contractual theories.

Details

Society and Business Review, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5680

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2015

Ana Paola Sanchez-Lezama, Judith Cavazos-Arroyo, Cidronio Albavera-Hernández, Aarón Salinas-Rodríguez, Mario Lagunes-Pérez and Beatriz Perez-Armendariz

– The purpose of this paper is to determine which socioecological factors encourage rural women to participate in mammographies rather than avoiding taking the test.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine which socioecological factors encourage rural women to participate in mammographies rather than avoiding taking the test.

Design/methodology/approach

The study mainly uses data from the 2007 Rural Households Evaluation Survey (ENCEL-2007). These crossover data are analyzed using the framework proposed in the Spatial-Interaction Model of Mammography Use (SIMMU), through a three-level logistic regression model to examine the likelihood that a woman will choose to participate in a mammography.

Findings

At the woman-household level, the completion of the Pap smear and the asset index is the strongest determinant of mammography participation. Obtaining preventive medicine services or being enrolled in the Popular Insurance System prevent women from undergoing screening. At the interpersonal level, the probability of screening use decreases with lower social coverage. At the intermediate level, availability of health centers is negatively related to the use of screening.

Research limitations/implications

The study fails to take into account the fact that women’s propensity to have a mammography may vary over time relatively to life changes. Moreover, findings were restricted to women ages from 40 to 49 and limited due to the lack of published data or data quality issues.

Practical implications

The results of this research can give health planners, policymakers and social marketers a platform for how to approach social change and promote the cancer screening health behavior through the marketing mix (price, place, promotion and product) in the design of their programs.

Originality/value

In addition to be informative and persuasive with people to change their behavior, this paper also seeks to provide a direction for using commercial marketing tools through social marketing to “sell” the health behavior. Due to target population variation, this paper addresses the health behavior change strategy by audience segmentation, regarded as essential to successful health communication campaigns.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Decolonising Sambo: Transculturation, Fungibility and Black and People of Colour Futurity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-347-1

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Mohammed M. Almossawi

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of religion on the effectiveness of product packages in attracting customers’ attention, and forming their…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of religion on the effectiveness of product packages in attracting customers’ attention, and forming their attitudes, preferences, and buying decisions. In other words, the study aims at finding out how do Muslims respond to product packages including elements believed to disagree with the Islamic values, in this study referred to as “contentious packages.”

Design/methodology/approach

To test the five hypotheses, the study recruited 300 young Muslims in Bahrain, chosen from the population of 14,000 students of the University of Bahrain aged between 20 and 25, 26 percent male and 74 percent female. The primary data were collected through personal interviews with the selected sample, using a specially designed questionnaire. The questionnaire included ten questions covering two personal questions for age and gender and eight other questions attempting to find out Muslims’ responses to contentious packages in terms of attention, attitudes, buying intention, company image, and word-of-mouth.

Findings

Findings indicate that use of contentious packaging runs a high risk of tarnishing a company’s reputation and appeal. Muslims who live by Shari’a and the dictates of the Kuran will consider such companies to be promoters of fornication, and will therefore boycott such companies in order to prevent them from corrupting the purity and piety of the community. If advertising firms continue to fail in recognizing the profundity of these beliefs within Muslim communities, both their fiscal success and reputation run the risk of suffering substantial damage.

Practical implications

The findings of this study send six important messages to multinational companies doing business in Islamic countries. First, Islam governs all aspects of Muslim life, including consumer behavior. Second, to prosper in Islamic countries, choose packaging that does not contradict or offend the principles and values of Islam. Third, recognize that much packaging that has proven to be effective in Western countries will not be successful in Islamic countries due to vastly different cultural environments. Fourth, a contentious package may result in a steep drop in the sales. Fifth, using contentious packages may damage the reputation. Sixth, you can attract more Muslims by using non-contentious packages.

Originality/value

This paper is of great value to companies who wish to expand their practice in Muslim countries. Its findings promise to improve advertising standards and to increase both company profits and customer satisfaction.

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