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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Philip Gharghori, Howard Chan and Robert Faff

Daniel and Titman (1997) contend that the Fama‐French three‐factor model’s ability to explain cross‐sectional variation in expected returns is a result of characteristics…

Abstract

Daniel and Titman (1997) contend that the Fama‐French three‐factor model’s ability to explain cross‐sectional variation in expected returns is a result of characteristics that firms have in common rather than any risk‐based explanation. The primary aim of the current paper is to provide out‐of‐sample tests of the characteristics versus risk factor argument. The main focus of our tests is to examine the intercept terms in Fama‐French regressions, wherein test portfolios are formed by a three‐way sorting procedure on book‐to‐market, size and factor loadings. Our main test focuses on ‘characteristic‐balanced’ portfolio returns of high minus low factor loading portfolios, for different size and book‐to‐market groups. The Fama‐French model predicts that these regression intercepts should be zero while the characteristics model predicts that they should be negative. Generally, despite the short sample period employed, our findings support a risk‐factor interpretation as opposed to a characteristics interpretation. This is particularly so for the HML loading‐based test portfolios. More specifically, we find that: the majority of test portfolios tend to reveal higher returns for higher loadings (while controlling for book‐to‐market and size characteristics); the majority of the Fama‐French regression intercepts are statistically insignificant; for the characteristic‐balanced portfolios, very few of the Fama‐French regression intercepts are significant.

Details

Pacific Accounting Review, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0114-0582

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2008

P. de Jager

Empirical accounting research frequently makes use of data sets with a time‐series and a cross‐sectional dimension ‐ a panel of data. The literature review indicates that…

Abstract

Empirical accounting research frequently makes use of data sets with a time‐series and a cross‐sectional dimension ‐ a panel of data. The literature review indicates that South African researchers infrequently allow for heterogeneity between firms when using panel data and the empirical example shows that regression results that allow for firm heterogeneity are materially different from regression results that assume homogeneity among firms. The econometric analysis of panel data has advanced significantly in recent years and accounting researchers should benefit from those improvements.

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Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1022-2529

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Article
Publication date: 8 November 2018

Rohit Bansal, Arun Singh, Sushil Kumar and Rajni Gupta

The purpose of this paper is to quantify several measures to examine the determinants of profitability for the listed Indian banks. The authors include both public sector…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to quantify several measures to examine the determinants of profitability for the listed Indian banks. The authors include both public sector (PSUs) and private sector’s banks in the study. The authors have taken all the banks that are registered on the Bombay stock exchange (BSE) in the sample. This paper also intends to identify the association between the net profit margin (PM) and return on assets (ROA) with the several other independent variables of the Indian banking sector including private banks and public banks over the past six years starting from April 1, 2012 to March 31, 2017. Therefore, a sample of 39 listed banking companies and total 195 balanced observations are selected for the analysis purpose.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors have used profitability as a dependent variable represented by net PM, ROA and several financial ratios as independent variables. Financial statement and income statement of all listed banks were obtained from BSE and particular company’s website. Panel data regression has been analyzed with both the descriptive research techniques, i.e., fixed effects and random effects. The authors also verified both panel techniques with Hausman’s specification test, which is a widely used procedure for selecting a panel effect. The authors applied PP – Fisher χ2, PP – Choi Z-statistics and Hadri to testing whether the data set is free from unit root problem and data set is a stationary series.

Findings

Results imply that interest expended interest earned (IEIE) and credit deposit ratio (CRDR) reduced the profitability of private banks in India. IEIE, CRDR and quick ratio (QR) reduced the profitability of public banks in India, while cash deposit ratio (CDR) and Advances to Loan Funds (ALF) increased the effectiveness of public banks. Under the total banks IEIE, CRDR reduced the profitability, on the other side, CDR, ALF and Total Debt to Owners Fund (TDOF) increased the profitability of total banks in India. Under the dependency of ROA, CRDR and TDOF reduced the return of private banks in India, while CDR, ALF and QR enhanced the profitability of private banks.

Originality/value

No variables found significant under public banks while taking ROA as a dependent variable. Under the overall banking data, CRDR reduced the profitability. On the other side, capital adequacy ratio and ALF increased the profitability of total banks in India. The findings of this study will support policy creators, financial executives and investors in constructing investment decisions.

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Asian Journal of Accounting Research, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2443-4175

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2017

Felix Canitz, Panagiotis Ballis-Papanastasiou, Christian Fieberg, Kerstin Lopatta, Armin Varmaz and Thomas Walker

The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate the methods commonly used in accounting literature to correct for cointegrated data and data that are neither…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate the methods commonly used in accounting literature to correct for cointegrated data and data that are neither stationary nor cointegrated.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted Monte Carlo simulations according to Baltagi et al. (2011), Petersen (2009) and Gow et al. (2010), to analyze how regression results are affected by the possible nonstationarity of the variables of interest.

Findings

The results of this study suggest that biases in regression estimates can be reduced and valid inferences can be obtained by using robust standard errors clustered by firm, clustered by firm and time or Fama–MacBeth t-statistics based on the mean and standard errors of the cross section of coefficients from time-series regressions.

Originality/value

The findings of this study are suited to guide future researchers regarding which estimation methods are the most reliable given the possible nonstationarity of the variables of interest.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2013

Richard Hauser

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether corporate dividend policy changed during the financial crisis.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether corporate dividend policy changed during the financial crisis.

Design/methodology/approach

For this study, a life‐cycle model is used to predict the probability that a firm pays a dividend. The data sample for this research follows that of Fama and French and of DeAngelo et al., for the time period of 2006‐2009. The panel logistic regression analysis considers the firm cluster effects and the autoregressive correlation of the firm clusters.

Findings

This study shows evidence that the probability that a firm paid a dividend declined in 2008 and 2009, even after taking the firm's financial condition into account. Furthermore, the analysis also shows that dividend policy did shift during the financial crisis.

Originality/value

The results of this study show that dividend policy did shift during the financial crisis. The research provides evidence that firms placed additional emphasis on financial viability after the financial crisis.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 39 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2019

Tessa Soetanto and Pei Fun Liem

Intellectual capital (IC) has been considered as a valuable asset in the wealth creation and sustainability of the company; however, limited and mixed results are found on…

Abstract

Purpose

Intellectual capital (IC) has been considered as a valuable asset in the wealth creation and sustainability of the company; however, limited and mixed results are found on its impact on firm financial performance and market value (MV). This paper aims to investigate the influence of IC toward MV and financial performance of publicly listed firms in Indonesia. In addition, this research also presents the comparison of the high and low level of knowledge industries regarding IC performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A balanced panel data of 127 firms from 12 industries in Indonesia during 2010 until 2017 was evaluated using dynamic panel regression and administering a well-developed Blundell–Bond instrument (dynamic panel data estimator) to account for endogeneity problem.

Findings

The results of this study showed that IC had a significant and positive impact on firm performance. Specifically, structural capital efficiency and capital employed (CE) efficiency have been contributed to the value creation of the company, after controlling for firm size and type of industry. Different to the theoretical expectation, this research found no significant relationship between IC and MV of the firm. However, when the sample was clustered into high-level and low-level knowledge industry, CE displayed positive and significant relationship in high-level industry.

Originality/value

This research contributes to IC research by having a larger sample of Indonesian firms from all industries except banks and financial institutions and using Modified Value Added Intellectual Capital measurement model. To address the endogeneity problem, dynamic panel regression using system generalized method of moment was applied.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

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Book part
Publication date: 18 October 2019

Mohammad Arshad Rahman and Angela Vossmeyer

This chapter develops a framework for quantile regression in binary longitudinal data settings. A novel Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method is designed to fit the model…

Abstract

This chapter develops a framework for quantile regression in binary longitudinal data settings. A novel Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method is designed to fit the model and its computational efficiency is demonstrated in a simulation study. The proposed approach is flexible in that it can account for common and individual-specific parameters, as well as multivariate heterogeneity associated with several covariates. The methodology is applied to study female labor force participation and home ownership in the United States. The results offer new insights at the various quantiles, which are of interest to policymakers and researchers alike.

Details

Topics in Identification, Limited Dependent Variables, Partial Observability, Experimentation, and Flexible Modeling: Part B
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-419-9

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2020

Rohit Apurv and Shigufta Hena Uzma

The purpose of the paper is to examine the impact of infrastructure investment and development on economic growth in Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to examine the impact of infrastructure investment and development on economic growth in Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) countries. The effect is examined for each country separately and also collectively by combining each country.

Design/methodology/approach

Ordinary least square regression method is applied to examine the effects of infrastructure investment and development on economic growth for each country. Panel data techniques such as panel least square method, panel least square fixed-effect model and panel least square random effect model are used to examine the collective impact by combining all countries in BRICS. The dynamic panel model is also incorporated for analysis in the study.

Findings

The results of the study are mixed. The association between infrastructure investment and development and economic growth for countries within BRICS is not robust. There is an insignificant relationship between infrastructure investment and development and economic growth in Brazil and South Africa. Energy and transportation infrastructure investment and development lead to economic growth in Russia. Telecommunication infrastructure investment and development and economic growth have a negative relationship in India, whereas there is a negative association between transport infrastructure investment and development and economic growth in China. Panel data results conclude that energy infrastructure investment and development lead to economic growth, whereas telecommunication infrastructure investment and development are significant and negatively linked with economic growth.

Originality/value

The study is novel as time series analysis and panel data analysis are used, taking the time span for 38 years (1980–2017) to investigate the influence of infrastructure investment and development on economic growth in BRICS Countries. Time-series regression analysis is used to test the impact for individual countries separately, whereas panel data regression analysis is used to examine the impact collectively for all countries in BRICS.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

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Abstract

Details

Panel Data Econometrics Theoretical Contributions and Empirical Applications
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-836-0

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Shuyun Ren and Tsan-Ming Choi

Panel data-based demand forecasting models have been widely adopted in various industrial settings over the past few decades. Despite being a highly versatile and…

Abstract

Purpose

Panel data-based demand forecasting models have been widely adopted in various industrial settings over the past few decades. Despite being a highly versatile and intuitive method, in the literature, there is a lack of comprehensive review examining the strengths, the weaknesses, and the industrial applications of panel data-based demand forecasting models. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap by reviewing and exploring the features of various main stream panel data-based demand forecasting models. A novel process, in the form of a flowchart, which helps practitioners to select the right panel data models for real world industrial applications, is developed. Future research directions are proposed and discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

It is a review paper. A systematically searched and carefully selected number of panel data-based forecasting models are examined analytically. Their features are also explored and revealed.

Findings

This paper is the first one which reviews the analytical panel data models specifically for demand forecasting applications. A novel model selection process is developed to assist decision makers to select the right panel data models for their specific demand forecasting tasks. The strengths, weaknesses, and industrial applications of different panel data-based demand forecasting models are found. Future research agenda is proposed.

Research limitations/implications

This review covers most commonly used and important panel data-based models for demand forecasting. However, some hybrid models, which combine the panel data-based models with other models, are not covered.

Practical implications

The reviewed panel data-based demand forecasting models are applicable in the real world. The proposed model selection flowchart is implementable in practice and it helps practitioners to select the right panel data-based models for the respective industrial applications.

Originality/value

This paper is the first one which reviews the analytical panel data models specifically for demand forecasting applications. It is original.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 116 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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