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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2009

A.R. Alina, A.S. Babji and S. Affandi

The purpose of this paper is to improve the nutritional value of chicken nuggets by partial substitution of animal fat with palm stearin. Three nugget formulations with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to improve the nutritional value of chicken nuggets by partial substitution of animal fat with palm stearin. Three nugget formulations with the fat level of 10.3 per cent palm fats consisted of blends from Olein: Stearin at ratios of 30:70, 50:50, 70:30 were used to replace chicken skin (control). Palm fat treatments resulted in a significant decrease of cholesterol content.

Design/methodology/approach

Four nugget formulations with the fat level of 10.3 per cent palm fats consisting of blends from Olein: Stearin at ratio of 30:70, 50:50, 70:30 and a commercial shortening, Socfat 36 are studied. The same formulation using chicken skin as a control and a commercial brand of nugget is used as a comparison. Proximate analysis of raw and cooked palm fat nuggets showed a decrease in the protein content and an increase of the fat content. The cholesterol content were reduced up to 45.9 per cent through the addition of palm fat, when compared against the control treatment. Fatty acid composition of palm fats in the palm substituted formulations increased the level of C16:0 and decreased C16:1, C18:1, C18:2, compared with fat from chicken skin.

Findings

The cholesterol content was reduced by 45.9 per cent when chicken skin and fat were substituted with palm fats. The texture of chicken nugget increased when added with palm fats. Palmitic acid (C16:0) content increased while palmitoleic acid (C16:1), oleic (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) decreased in palm fat treated nuggets.

Originality/value

The paper is of value in showing how palm stearin and olein usage in chicken nuggets helps reduce the product's cholesterol content.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2014

T.S. Lee, C.F. How, Y.J. Lin and T.O. Ting

The purpose of this paper is to investigate and contribute to a better understanding of cutting process characteristics using the proposed RBD Palm Olein-based organic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate and contribute to a better understanding of cutting process characteristics using the proposed RBD Palm Olein-based organic mixed coolant.

Design/methodology/approach

In this research, refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) Palm Olein is selected as the base oil for organic coolant and mixed coolant (base oil mixed with chemicals) to compare with the cutting performance of industrial water-soluble chemical (inorganic) coolant. Using coated carbide tool, JIS SS400 Mild Steel was tested in milling process. At fixed spindle speed, the relations between feed rate and depth of cut (DOC) on cutting temperature and surface roughness were investigated. Also, the dynamic viscosity, specific heat capacity and pH level for each coolant are taken into consideration.

Findings

As predicted, cutting fluid with lower viscosity removes more heat. The cutting temperature increased with increasing feed rate and DOC. However, surface roughness increased with increasing feed rate but decreased with increasing DOC. From the data gathered, the proposed RBD Palm Olein-based organic mixed coolant showed better heat removal properties than organic coolant and it produced a far better machined surface than inorganic coolant.

Originality/value

Overall, the proposed organic mixed coolant has shown great potential to be a good cutting fluid when balance between cooling properties and lubricity, and consistent quality of cutting fluids are sought to produce environmental friendly quality workpiece.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 66 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

S. Shankar and P. Krishnakumar

The purpose of this study was to investigate the frictional characteristics of the mechanical seals by using an efficient pairing by providing a suitable lubricant. Among…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to investigate the frictional characteristics of the mechanical seals by using an efficient pairing by providing a suitable lubricant. Among all techniques and lubrication, deposition of solid lubricants on the sliding surface of the mechanical seal was found to be the most effective method to reduce frictional coefficient, frictional force and seal face temperature, thereby increasing the life time of mechanical seal.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, two coatings, diamond-like carbon (DLC) and tungsten carbide/carbon (WC/C), was deposited over the stationary high-carbon high-chromium steel ring paired with resin-impregnated carbon. Their frictional characteristics were studied under various classes of liquid lubricants such as organic liquids, synthetic oil, mineral oil and vegetable oils using an experimental approach. Further, among all classes of liquid lubricants, the one which showed better frictional characteristics was mixed with 0.5, 1 and 2 wt% of potential environmental friendly solid lubricant – boric acid powder.

Findings

The high hardness and low surface roughness of DLC- and WC/C-coated seal with the lubricant of palm olein oil containing 1 wt% of boric acid powder contributed a hybrid tribofilm and resulted in low and stable friction coefficient in the range of 0.04-0.05 without any measurable wear.

Originality/value

A pair involving stationary DLC- and WC/C-coated seal ring and resin-impregnated carbon seal rotating ring for the application of mechanical seal was suggested and its frictional characteristics were studied under various classes of lubricants.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 68 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2021

Nombulelo Zulu, Eugenie Kayitesi and Opeolu M. Ogundele

The effect of the addition of red palm olein (RPO) as a natural antioxidant to sunflower (SF) on chemical properties and deep-frying oxidative stability of resultant oil…

Abstract

Purpose

The effect of the addition of red palm olein (RPO) as a natural antioxidant to sunflower (SF) on chemical properties and deep-frying oxidative stability of resultant oil during storage.

Design/methodology/approach

RPO was added to SF at different levels 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 50, 75 and 100 (w/w), and potato chips were fried in oil blends repeatedly at 180 °C for 2.5 min for five days to evaluate the effect on chemical properties and oxidative stability.

Findings

The results revealed that linoleic acid and total polar compound (TPC) contents decreased in all RPO and SF resultant oil after five days of storage. Colour significantly (p = 0.05) decreased, while peroxide and iodine values were significantly lowered during storage. The oxidative stability increased significantly in the resultant oil. However, an increase in free fatty acid (FFA) before frying significantly reduced with repeated frying of resultant oil during storage. RPO (5–75%) therefore retards oxidative rancidity in the resultant oil after repeated deep frying and storage.

Originality/value

SF oil is high in polyunsaturated fatty acids but prone to oxidation upon heating and storage. RPO is an important ingredient used in industrial frying rich in phytonutrients and a better replacement to synthetic antioxidants. This study indicated that supplementing SF oil with RPO may be recommended to improve the oxidative stability of oils during frying.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 24 July 2019

Grobert A. Guadalupe, María Jesús Lerma-García, Ana Fuentes, José Manuel Barat, María del Carmen Bas and Isabel Fernández-Segovia

The purpose of this paper is to determine the presence of palm oil in food products on sale, and to study and compare consumers’ opinions about this oil type in Spain…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the presence of palm oil in food products on sale, and to study and compare consumers’ opinions about this oil type in Spain (importing country) and Peru (producing country).

Design/methodology/approach

Recent news published in both countries, which could influence consumer perceptions, were analysed. A study on the labelling of foodstuffs in Spain was carried out, as was a survey with Spanish and Peruvian consumers.

Findings

Palm oil was found in a large number of products and in a wide range of foods, especially those from the bakery sector. The percentages of saturated fats varied substantially within the same product type. Spanish consumers showed much more interest in the labelling and information on nutritional properties, especially energy values, saturated fats and sugars, while Peruvians focused more on energy values, and protein, vitamin and mineral contents. In Spain, palm oil was considered the worst quality fat/oil and had a clearly negative effect on both health and the environment. In Peru, palm oil was neither perceived by the majority of respondents as low quality oil nor associated with negative health effects. However, they were aware of the environmental problems that could result from its production.

Originality/value

These results confirm that the food industry should make efforts to reduce or replace palm oil in foods, mainly in Spain, as most consumers believe that palm oil negatively affects their health and the environment.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 121 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2019

Muhammad Arif Dandan, Syahrullail Samion, Nurul Farhanah Azman, Fazila Mohd Zawawi, Mohd Kameil Abdul Hamid and Mohamad Nor Musa

The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of polymeric viscosity improver on the tribological performance of palm kernel methyl ester (PKME).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of polymeric viscosity improver on the tribological performance of palm kernel methyl ester (PKME).

Design/methodology/approach

Tribological performances of the PKME added with the various concentration of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) were evaluated using four-ball tribotester under extreme pressure condition. The morphologies of the worn surfaces were observed by using the optical microscope.

Findings

The addition of polymeric viscosity improver (EVA copolymer) has produced positive results towards the tribological properties of PKME. In total, 4 per cent of EVA copolymer is found as the optimum concentration by improving the friction reducing properties and anti-wear behaviour due to the formation of film thickness between two rubbing surfaces.

Originality/value

This work might contribute to the development of vegetable oils as a new source of environmental-friendly lubricant.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 10 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2011

M. Husnawan, H.H. Masjuki and T.M.I. Mahlia

The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of palm olein, amine phosphate and 4‐nonyl phenoxy acetic acid (NPAA) added to a commercial lubricant in terms of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of palm olein, amine phosphate and 4‐nonyl phenoxy acetic acid (NPAA) added to a commercial lubricant in terms of tribological properties such as wear and coefficient of friction.

Design/methodology/approach

A tribological study on the lubrication performance of a lubricant‐based palm oil (PO) containing anti‐wear and antioxidant combined corrosion inhibitor additive was carried out using a universal sliding wear machine. In this experiment, amine phosphate and NPAA were selected as additive to be mixed with PO (palm olein) in several concentrations and commercial lubricant 20W‐50 for the tests. Various PO blended samples with additional 1 and 3 percent additive were used in this study. The experiments were performed under 252 rpm sliding speed for 2 h where the oil temperature reached 100°C.

Findings

The analysis showed that the average wear coefficient and the mean wear scar diameter (MWSD) which is normalized to the 1.4 KPa water pressure generates lower values for the PO containing additives than 100 percent PO, commercial lubricant and their blended. The coefficients of friction and wear were also lower for the samples with additives compared to other. To consolidate the result, viscosity of used samples is checked and shows the additives improved the viscosity stability. Finally, the overall study concluded that PO‐added additives have the potential to be one of the ingredients in effective lubricant oil.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is limited to findings based on a Universal Sliding Machine Test under certain conditions. The test has been conducted on the basis of three types of chemical compounds (palm olein, amine phosphate and NPAA) which are designed as a combination of anti‐wear and antioxidant additive. Wear and friction characteristics of the lubricant with and without these additives are analyzed in this paper. However, the film formation and microstructure analysis of the lubricated materials are excluded in this study.

Practical implications

This paper shows a significant reduction of average wear rate and friction coefficient when palm olein and additive added to the lubricant compared to pure commercial lubricant. In terms of wear scar diameter (WSD), with additional palm olein and additive produces lower WSD which is under the standard limit of diesel lubricity. These results have confirmed that by using palm olein as renewable component together with amine phosphate and NPAA additive would improve lubrication performance as well as improves biodegradability of the lubricant.

Originality/value

This paper emphasises the advantages of synthetic additives that are derived from renewable resources. Since environmental issues are now stringent, many lubricant industries have focused on environmentally friendly lubricant and researches on this particular area become important. The presented tests have been carried out in the above area which is close to those applied in lubricant industry. Thus, the results are reliable and could be very useful both for lubricant designers and the researchers of lubricant and additive formulation.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 63 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2019

Nurul Farhanah Azman, Syahrullail Samion, Muhammad Amirrul Amin Moen, Mohd Kameil Abdul Hamid and Mohamad Nor Musa

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the anti-wear (AW) and extreme pressure (EP) performances of CuO and graphite nanoparticles as a palm oil additive.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the anti-wear (AW) and extreme pressure (EP) performances of CuO and graphite nanoparticles as a palm oil additive.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the AW and EP performances of CuO and graphite nanoparticles as additives in palm oil were evaluated using four ball tribotester in accordance to ASTM D4172 and ASTM D2783, respectively. The wear worn surfaces of the steel balls were analysed using high resolution microscope.

Findings

The results obtained demonstrate that CuO and graphite nanoparticles improved the AW and EP performances of the palm oil up to 2.77 and 12 per cent, respectively. The graphite nanoparticles provide better AW and EP performance than that of CuO nanoparticles.

Originality/value

This demonstrates the potential of CuO and graphite nanoparticles for improving AW and EP performances of palm oil base lubricant. Different morphology of nanoparticles will affect the AW and EP performances of nanolubricants.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 10 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2021

Abbas Ahmad Adamu, Norazilawati Muhamad Sarih and Seng Neon Gan

Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) waste from soft drink bottles was incorporated into palm olein alkyd to produce new polyol for use in polyurethane resins as surface…

Abstract

Purpose

Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) waste from soft drink bottles was incorporated into palm olein alkyd to produce new polyol for use in polyurethane resins as surface protection on metal surfaces.

Design/methodology/approach

Alkyd was prepared from palm olein, glycerol and phthalic anhydride. PET underwent simultaneous glycolysis and transesterification reactions with the alkyd. Varying the amount of PET has led to polyols with different viscosities. Polyurethane resins were produced by reacting the polyols with toluene diisocyanate. The resins were coated on mild steel panels and cured. Performances of the cured films were tested.

Findings

The polyurethanes (PU) resin cured to a harder film with better thermal stability. Films showed excellent adhesion properties, while higher content of PET exhibited higher pencil hardness, better water, salt, acid and alkali resistance.

Research limitations/implications

Other vegetable oils could also be used. The alkyd structure could be changed by formulation to have different functionality and the ability to incorporate higher amount of PET waste. Rate of glycolysis of PET could be increased by higher amount of ethylene glycol.

Practical implications

This method has managed to use waste PET in producing new polyol and PU resins. The cured films exhibit good mechanical and chemical properties, as well as excellent adhesion and thermal stability.

Social implications

The non-biodegradable PET has created environmental pollution problems connected to littering and illegal landfilling. It has become necessary to pay greater attention to recycling PET bottles for obtaining valuable products.

Originality/value

This approach is different from the earlier reports, where PET was recycled to recover the raw materials.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2012

Muhammad Tauseef Sultan, Masood Sadiq Butt, Farhan Saeed and Rizwana Batool

Nigella sativa L. (black cumin) has a unique nutritional profile that can be employed in food formulation to improve health of consumers. Black cumin is already used in…

Abstract

Purpose

Nigella sativa L. (black cumin) has a unique nutritional profile that can be employed in food formulation to improve health of consumers. Black cumin is already used in traditional medicines in Pakistan to treat various maladies like diabetes mellitus, gastrointestinal disorders, and as immune booster. The core objective of the present research study is to explore the role of black cumin fixed oil (BCFO) as a functional ingredient in cereal‐based bakery products.

Design/methodology/approach

The BCFO was supplemented in cookies' formulations and impact on nutritive quality, tocopherols and thymoquinone contents was studied.

Findings

The results indicated that addition of fixed oil influenced the physical characteristics of cookies significantly. Chemical attributes varied non‐significantly, but oxidative stability of the cookies was improved as indicated from decreased peroxide (POV) and TBA value. Gradual increase in BCFO in cookies formulations increased the amounts of total tocopherols significantly from 9.85 ± 0.392 to 53.19 ± 1.689 mg/kg‐oil. BCFO addition significantly enhanced α‐, β‐, γ‐, δ‐tocopherols i.e. 8.80±0.630 to 32.19±1.410, 0.96±0.035 to 3.47±0.114, 0.09 ± 0.000 to 14.98 ± 0.520, 0.00 ± 0.000 to 2.55 ± 0.127 mg/kg‐oil, respectively. Likewise, thymoquinone contents were recorded highest in cookies containing 5.0 @ BCFO (7.25 ± 0.482 mg/100 g) as compared to control. Moreover, cookies containing fixed oil @ 4% rated better on hedonic scale as compared with control by the trained taste panel during sensory evaluation.

Originality/value

The results of present research paved the way for the commercial applications of BCFO especially in cereal‐based products. Moreover, present intervention heightened the prospects of using black cumin seed oil in different food products that may produce healthy impact on end consumers.

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