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Article
Publication date: 31 January 2011

Steve Moxon

The notion of partner‐violence as a male‐perpetrated phenomenon is not a scientific position but an amelioration of cognitive‐dissonance within a political mindset…

Abstract

The notion of partner‐violence as a male‐perpetrated phenomenon is not a scientific position but an amelioration of cognitive‐dissonance within a political mindset. Against all the data, this ‘gender paradigm’ persists as a series of staged retreats as new research debunks each in turn. Supposed highly sex‐differential injury rates, male unilaterality of perpetration, female self‐defence, male ‘control’, and female especial fear are all discredited as reasons to focus solely on men's aggression. By contrast, scientific theorising regarding the root of the great bulk of partner‐violence is in terms of the biological phenomenon of mate‐guarding. However, the usual model of male proprietariness over female fertility itself is in part a ‘gender paradigm’ position. Recently revealed sex‐symmetries necessitate a major overhaul of this model. Drawing on new understanding of the basis of pair‐bonding, outlined here is a parsimonious account of mate‐guarding as being by both sexes; notably women, owing to sex‐dichotomous mate‐value trajectory. This framework heralds the complete abandonment of the ‘gender paradigm’ and thus the end of a highly inappropriate intrusion of extreme ideology into science.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2007

John M. Ingham

This paper aims to o review understandings of complexity in anthropology.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to o review understandings of complexity in anthropology.

Design/methodology/approach

A number of works in the field of anthropology are discussed.

Findings

Anthropologists generally agree that human behavior is complex, although they differ about the meaning of complexity. For many in this era of postmodernism, it involves emphasizing cultural differences and social contexts. Earlier interests in underlying cultural meanings and structures, meanwhile, have become somewhat passé. Nonetheless, some social anthropologists, encouraged by chaos science, continue to explore hidden meanings and structures. While there is much to like in their attention to ethnographic detail, one concern is their metaphorical use of the science of chaos. Another is failure to deal with intention and agency.

Originality/value

Lévi‐Strauss doubts that psychoanalysis has anything substantial to contribute to anthropology. This conclusion helped to set the stage for postmodernist anthropology, and its consequences are evident in the works under review here.

Details

On the Horizon, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1074-8121

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1974

Z. AHMAD, M. GHAFELEHBASHI and S. NATEGH

Introduction The degree of adsorption of organic inhibitors on a metal surface in presence of halide anion is predominantly influenced by the synergistic effect. The…

Abstract

Introduction The degree of adsorption of organic inhibitors on a metal surface in presence of halide anion is predominantly influenced by the synergistic effect. The synergistic effect brings about an improvement in inhibition as a result of chemisorption or physical adsorption depending on the nature of the interaction between the halide and the cation of the inhibitor. This effect is partly attributed to the stabilization of the adsorbed anion layer by an organic cation through a possible covalent linkage. The degree of availability of electrons influences the mode of adsorption. Investigations on ferric ion corrosion have shown that the synergistic inhibition effects the corrosion processes by primarily increasing the polarization of the cathodic reaction. The adsorption of quinoline on 18–8 steel in the presence of halider ions is predominantly influenced by the synergistic effect. It has been found that the addition of smaller concentration of quinoline inhibits the cathodic reaction and higher concentrations of quinoline inhibit the anodic reaction as well. According to Iofa the formation of an adsorbed layer of positively charged ion retards the transfer of cation through a binary layer and lowers the transfer rate. Work on amines has shown that tertiary and secondary amines are stronger than the primary amines as a result of increase of dipole moment of the doublet, increase of ionisation energy and increase of polarizability. Basicity and stearic effects, both are important. The high effectiveness of cyclic amines with more than seven carbon atoms appears to be correlated with the character of the free electron. It has been shown that whereas the organic compounds of cationic type were weakly absorbed on the iron surface in H2SO4 the addition of halides produced a considerable increase in the adsorption. Cavallaro and others have shown that several nitrogen molecules inhibit both the anodic and cathodic reactions.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 21 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2014

John Frederiksen

The purpose of this paper was to present a number of issues regarding broadband access strategies in the coming years with at least four different competing broadband…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to present a number of issues regarding broadband access strategies in the coming years with at least four different competing broadband access forms. Pricing, investment and financing in relation to these issues are presented. The developments of interconnection and Internet governance are also presented.

Design/methodology/approach

Description of trends for demand and supply for broadband access and the challenges for financing of the necessary investments.

Findings

The most probable outcome for the coming decade is that a broadband access strategy is very dependent on where you believe the saturation level for the demand of bandwidth from normal residential household will be. Wireline and mobile wireless solutions will probably mainly be complements. Furthermore, there is a challenge for the whole telecommunication sector in relation to financing the necessary investments, because several factors are forcing the profit level in the sector downwards. The ongoing merger of two different interconnection regimes has an impact on the economy for network operators. Finally, the challenge of how to govern the Internet is emphasized.

Originality/value

The paper provides a new structure for how to analyse the challenges for the telecom operators regarding choice of access strategy, financing of investments and governance.

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2010

D. Spicer, K. Lai, K. Kornelsen, A. Brennan, N. Belov, M. Wang, T‐K. Chou, J. Heck, T. Zhu and S. Akhlaghi

The purpose of this paper is to characterize pressure non‐uniformity in a wafer‐to‐wafer bond chamber using pressure sensitive paper.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to characterize pressure non‐uniformity in a wafer‐to‐wafer bond chamber using pressure sensitive paper.

Design/methodology/approach

Pressure non‐uniformity in a wafer‐to‐wafer bond chamber is characterized using pressure sensitive paper. The effect of poor pressure uniformity is discussed, and the non‐uniformity corrected for use in a eutectic Au/Sn based wafer‐to‐wafer bond.

Findings

Several types of under solder metallization were also investigated, with Nb/Au seed metal providing the best overall result with good solder compression, liquid proof seal and minimal solder spill‐out. Solder compression versus pressure applied was studied to achieve an excellent gap control (2‐3 μm) between the bonded substrates.

Originality/value

This paper shows that characterization of applied pressure measured directly at the substrate is an important aspect in the development of high yielding bond processes.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Emotions, Decision-Making, Conflict and Cooperation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-032-9

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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2014

Gabriele Prati and Luca Pietrantoni

– The purpose of this paper is to replicate Cohan and Cole (2002) Hurricane Hugo study in the context of a different type of natural hazard and in a different country.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to replicate Cohan and Cole (2002) Hurricane Hugo study in the context of a different type of natural hazard and in a different country.

Design/methodology/approach

Change in marriage following the 1997 Umbria-Marche (Italy) earthquake was examined prospectively from 1987 to 2007 for the 15 municipalities declared disaster areas and for the whole Marche region and country.

Findings

Autoregressive integrated moving average time-series analysis showed that the year following the earthquake marriage rates decreased only in the 15 municipalities declared disaster areas.

Originality/value

In the present study, the paper found results in the opposite direction to Cohan and Cole (2002) Hurricane Hugo study. Taken together, the findings suggest that the direction of the change may be in either direction and depends on the characteristics of the disaster, of the response to it, and on social and economic conditions of the context.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2009

Anne Bernassau, David Hutson, Christine E.M. Demore, David Flynn, Farid Amalou, Jonathan Parry, Jim McAneny, Tim W. Button, Marc P.Y. Desmulliez and Sandy Cochran

High‐frequency transducer arrays that can operate at frequencies above 30 MHz are needed for high‐resolution medical ultrasound imaging. The fabrication of such devices is…

Abstract

Purpose

High‐frequency transducer arrays that can operate at frequencies above 30 MHz are needed for high‐resolution medical ultrasound imaging. The fabrication of such devices is challenging not only because of the fine‐scale piezocomposite fabrication typically required but also because of the small size of arrays and their interconnects. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of research to develop solutions for several of the major problems in high‐frequency ultrasound array fabrication.

Design/methodology/approach

Net‐shape 1‐3 piezocomposites operating above 40 MHz are developed. High‐quality surface finishing makes photolithographic patterning of the array electrodes on these fine scale piezocomposites possible, thus establishing a fabrication methodology for high‐frequency kerfless ultrasound arrays.

Findings

Structured processes are developed and prototype components are made with them, demonstrating the viability of the selected fabrication approach. A 20‐element array operating at 30 MHz is patterned and characterised. Furthermore, an electrode pattern suitable for a 20‐element array operating at 100 MHz is created to demonstrate the state of the art of photolithography processing directly on piezocomposite.

Practical implications

The work reported suggests that ultrasound arrays for real‐time biomedical imaging will be viable at higher frequencies than presently available commercially or previously reported in the research literature.

Originality/value

The main elements of a novel, fully mask‐based process for high‐frequency ultrasound transducer array fabrication are presented in outline in this paper.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 22 February 2010

Jean-Paul Carvalho and Mark Koyama

Purpose – How did cooperation emerge in large-scale, fluid societies? Standard theories based on direct and indirect reciprocity among self-regarding agents cannot explain…

Abstract

Purpose – How did cooperation emerge in large-scale, fluid societies? Standard theories based on direct and indirect reciprocity among self-regarding agents cannot explain the high level of impersonal exchange observed in developed market economies.

Approach and findings – Drawing upon recent research from across the behavioral sciences, we attribute the emergence of cooperation in early trade to an evolved characteristic of human psychology that makes revenge sweet: people are willing to pay a price to punish those who betray their trust. Once cooperative expectations became fixed, institutions such as the law merchant and ethnic trading networks, as well as certain “bourgeois virtues,” helped sustain and extend trade during the medieval period.

Contribution of the paper – Our argument continues the tradition begun by F.A. Hayek in The Sensory Order (1952), by providing an integrated explanation for the rise of the market based upon the coevolution of human psychology, culture, and institutions. In our conclusion, we revisit Hayek's (Hayek, 1976, 1978, 1988) analysis of the conflict between our instincts and the institutions that have created the market order.

Details

The Social Science of Hayek's ‘The Sensory Order’
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-975-6

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Abstract

Details

Comprehensive Strategic Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-225-1

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