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Article
Publication date: 11 February 2019

Innocent Otache

The purpose of this paper is to conceptually explore the relationship between Entrepreneurship Education (EE) and undergraduate students’ self- and paid-employment

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to conceptually explore the relationship between Entrepreneurship Education (EE) and undergraduate students’ self- and paid-employment intentions. Specifically, the paper aims to examine the effect of paid-employment intention on the relationship between EE and self-employment intention.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviewed extensively related literature on EE, entrepreneurial intentions and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). The detailed literature review undertaken formed the basis for the development of the conceptual framework.

Findings

It is found that undergraduate students have two opposing employment intentions within them, namely, self- and paid-employment intentions. The two employment intentions interact and have a tendency to dominate each other, and consequently lead to different employment behaviours. The dominant employment intention determines whether a graduate will exhibit self- or paid-employment behaviour. This confirms that graduates are faced with two career paths or choices, namely, self- and paid-employment.

Research limitations/implications

It is not an empirical paper. Thus, the conceptual framework needs to be further empirically tested. More specifically, the proposition that undergraduate students’ paid-employment intentions moderate the impact of EE on their self-employment intentions needs to be empirically validated.

Practical implications

This paper provides some insightful and practical implications for the government and the policymakers in the education sector, particularly in tackling the menace of graduate unemployment and its associated problems. It provides an insight into the problem of graduate unemployment. The government and the policymakers should initiate enlightenment programmes that will reorient undergraduate students away from having the mentality of securing paid-jobs after graduation. Equally, undergraduate students should be enlightened about the difficulties in securing paid-jobs and the benefits of being a self-employed graduate.

Originality/value

It is the first to explore the moderating effect of undergraduate students’ paid-employment intentions on the relationship between EE and their self-employment intentions. Therefore, it makes a valuable contribution to the existing literature on EE and entrepreneurial intentions. It further strengthens the TPB by applying it to explain how undergraduate students’ paid-employment intentions could neutralise the impact of EE on their self-employment intentions.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 61 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 September 2020

Innocent Otache, Dorcas Omanyo Oluwade and Ele-Ojo Jeremiah Idoko

Undergraduate students have two opposing employment intentions, viz. self-employment intentions and paid-employment intentions (SEIs and PEIs). While a plethora of studies…

Abstract

Purpose

Undergraduate students have two opposing employment intentions, viz. self-employment intentions and paid-employment intentions (SEIs and PEIs). While a plethora of studies have explored the links between entrepreneurship education (EE) and SEIs, it has been noted that previous studies have ignored the effects of PEIs on the relationship between EE and SEIs. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to empirically explore the effects of PEIs on the relationship between EE and SEIs.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopted a descriptive research design and a self-reported questionnaire was administered to collect data from a randomly selected sample of 95 accounting students from two polytechnics in Nigeria. To test the hypotheses formulated, partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was performed using SmartPLS.

Findings

The results of Model 1 showed that EE had a significantly positive link with SEIs. On the other hand, the analysis of Model 2 revealed an inverse relationship between PEIs and SEIs. Furthermore, it was observed that the impact of EE on SEIs did not only reduce significantly when PEIs was added to Model 1 but also the relationship between EE and SEIs that was erstwhile statistically significant became nonsignificant.

Practical implications

The findings have implications for EE curriculum developers, governments and career guidance counsellors.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to provide empirical evidence of the effects of PEIs on the relationship between EE and SEIs. The findings provide important insights into the fundamental issue, which underlies the problem of graduate unemployment.

Article
Publication date: 12 October 2015

Stephen B. Perrott and Brandon D. Blenkarn

The purpose of this paper is to examine similarities and differences in motivational-type and sensation seeking tendencies in male and female firefighters and to determine…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine similarities and differences in motivational-type and sensation seeking tendencies in male and female firefighters and to determine how a growing focus on extrinsically focused reasons to volunteer relates to traditional, intrinsically focused rationales.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 160 volunteer firefighters (29 women, 131 men) were compared to 210 undergraduate controls (171 women, 39 men) across a spectrum of motivation and sensation seeking types in a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based, approach.

Findings

Female volunteers showed a distinct pattern of motivations for volunteering and though similar to their male counterparts in Thrill and Adventure Seeking were lower in impulsive sensation seeking. Greater levels of career-focused motivation did not come at the cost of intrinsically focused motivation or to the number of years one projected volunteering.

Research limitations/implications

The approach did not provide the means to check if reported intentions translate to behavioural outcomes and the small number of female firefighters sampled compromised power.

Practical implications

Findings of how female volunteers differ from male counterparts and university women might be considered when developing recruitment drives and formulating policy to modify what is rewarded in firefighting. Findings further suggest that the potential of gaining paid employment is unlikely to compromise traditional reasons for volunteering.

Social implications

Evidence that female volunteers possess a distinct and desirable pattern of motivations and sensation seeking relative to their male counterparts seemingly provides a rationale to target women in recruitment drives that extends beyond bolstering numbers. However, that they were also distinct from university females raises questions about their representativeness and, in turn, about the size of the potential pool from which fire services may draw. Hypothesized concern about the negative impact that volunteering as a means to obtain paid work has on more traditional, intrinsically focused motivations appears to be unfounded.

Originality/value

Moves beyond anecdote to provide empirical evidence of the motivations and sensation seeking tendencies of volunteer firefighters, especially women, and contributes to a nascent area of inquiry about how intrinsic and extrinsic motivation can co-exist in this group.

Details

International Journal of Emergency Services, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2047-0894

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 November 2019

Innocent Otache, Kadiri Umar, Yakubu Audu and Ugbede Onalo

The purpose of this paper is to employ a longitudinal approach to assess the effects of entrepreneurship education (EE) on students’ entrepreneurial intentions (EIs…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to employ a longitudinal approach to assess the effects of entrepreneurship education (EE) on students’ entrepreneurial intentions (EIs) through the constructs of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), which include attitudes towards behaviour (ATB), subjective norms (SN) and perceived behavioural control (PBC). Specifically, this study aims to achieve two objectives: first, to determine if students’ ATB, SN, PBC and EIs would increase significantly after their exposure to EE; and second, to establish whether students’ ATB, SN and PBC mediate the relationship between EE and their EIs.

Design/methodology/approach

This longitudinal study employed a one-group pretest-posttest experimental research design. A self-reported questionnaire was administered to a randomly selected sample of 250 National Diploma students from five polytechnics in the North Central part of Nigeria before and after they were exposed to EE. To achieve the objectives of this study, repeated-measures t-test and partial least squares structural equation modelling were performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and SmartPLS, respectively, for data analysis.

Findings

The results of the paired-samples t-test showed that students’ ATB, SN, PBC and EIs increased significantly after their exposure to EE. Also, further data analysis revealed that EE had a significantly positive relationship with students’ ATB, SN, PBC and EIs. Similarly, the results of the structural model indicated that ATB had a significantly positive link with students’ EIs and also mediated the relationship between EE and students’ EIs. SN and PBC had a positive but not statistically significant relationship with students’ EIs and did not mediate the relationship between EE and students’ EIs.

Practical implications

The findings of this study provide interesting implications for EE and entrepreneurship policies in Nigeria. More specifically, the findings provide some practical implications for the Nigerian government and the EE curriculum developers. To achieve greater impact of EE on students’ EIs at the tertiary education level, the Nigerian government should incorporate EE into the curricula at the primary and secondary education levels. Equipping students at the primary and secondary education levels with entrepreneurial knowledge, competencies and skills would enable them to develop a strong entrepreneurial mindset even before they gain admission to tertiary institutions.

Originality/value

It is one of the few studies that have tested empirically both the direct and the indirect effects of EE on students’ EIs in a single study. Thus, it helps to further clarify the links between EE and EIs. Besides, it is among the first studies to adopt a longitudinal approach to assess the effects of EE on students’ EIs through the constructs of the TPB (i.e. ATB, SN and PBC) in the Nigerian context.

Article
Publication date: 23 June 2020

Yisheng Peng and Hanyi Min

Based on the theory of planned behavior, this study aims to examine antecedents of older workers' intentions to engage in postretirement work (PRW) and actual planning for PRW.

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the theory of planned behavior, this study aims to examine antecedents of older workers' intentions to engage in postretirement work (PRW) and actual planning for PRW.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional survey design was used. About 469 nurses (≥45 years old) from Midwestern United States completed an online survey containing various self-reports on attitude, perceived control, subjective norm, intentions to engage in PRW and actual planning for PRW.

Findings

Results found that attitude and subjective norm (but not perceived control) were positively related to older employees' intentions to engage in PRW. Perceived control was positively related to actual planning for PRW. PRW intentions mediated the effects of attitude and subjective norm on older workers' actual planning for PRW. Finally, perceived control enhanced the positive effect of PRW intentions on actual planning for PRW.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the research by testing the application of the theory of planned behavior to the literature on PRW, further increasing our knowledge of the roles of individuals' attitudinal and cognitive factors in predicting older employees' PRW intentions and actual planning for PRW.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 September 2020

Innocent Otache

The purpose of this study is to explore the mediating role of self-confidence in the relationship between the constructs of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) (i.e…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the mediating role of self-confidence in the relationship between the constructs of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) (i.e. attitudes towards behaviour [ATB], subjective norms [SN] and perceived behavioural control [PBC]) and the entrepreneurial intentions (EIs) of hospitality management students.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopted a quantitative approach. A self-reported questionnaire was used to collect data from a randomly selected sample of 126 hospitality management students from two federal polytechnics in Nigeria. To test the hypotheses formulated, partial least squares structural equation modelling was performed using SmartPLS software.

Findings

The results indicated that ATB and PBC had significantly positive links with EIs. The link between SN and EIs was only positive but not statistically significant. Further analysis showed that self-confidence had a significantly positive link with EIs and mediated the relationships between ATB and EIs and between PBC and EIs.

Practical implications

The findings have policy and practical implications for governments, policymakers and administrators of higher education institutions in Nigeria and other countries.

Originality/value

To the author’s best knowledge, this is the first study to provide empirical evidence of the mediating effect of self-confidence on the relationship between the TPB constructs and students’ EIs. Theoretically, the findings of this study lend credence to the applicability of the TPB in predicting students’ EIs across different contexts. More importantly, this study has modified the TPB by demonstrating that the effectiveness of the TPB constructs in influencing EIs depends on the degree of self-confidence that prospective entrepreneurs possess.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 February 2022

Guobiao Li, Zehai Long, Yujia Jiang, Yangjie Huang, Peng Wang and Zhaoxin Huang

Entrepreneurial competence plays a decisive role in entrepreneurship success. To promote the employment of college students and accelerate economic growth through…

Abstract

Purpose

Entrepreneurial competence plays a decisive role in entrepreneurship success. To promote the employment of college students and accelerate economic growth through entrepreneurial activities, the Chinese government and universities encourage the use of multiple inputs to boost holistic entrepreneurship education and training. This study aims to assesses the entrepreneurial competence of college students by analysing the effects of entrepreneurship education and policy implementation in China.

Design/methodology/approach

The quantitative approach considered a large sample of 12,269 students, who participated in entrepreneurship education in Chinese “double-first-class” universities, to construct a theoretical model of their entrepreneurial competence. Entrepreneurship competition was introduced as a mediating variable in this model.

Findings

This study revealed that college students develop entrepreneurial competence by participating in entrepreneurship competitions unlike students who participate in regular entrepreneurship education. Additionally, there was a significant difference in the measured impact of entrepreneurship policy between students who participated in entrepreneurship competitions and those who did not.

Originality/value

The effects of the implementation of entrepreneurship education and policy were studied using a quantitative design. Additionally, this study highlights the effect of entrepreneurship competitions with empirical evidence from China, and contributes to the discussion of entrepreneurship education at schools and entrepreneurship policy for policymakers.

Details

Education + Training, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 April 2021

Innocent Otache and Ele-Ojo Iyaji Inekwe

The purpose of this study is to determine the level of job satisfaction, turnover intentions and performance of Nigerian polytechnic lecturers with PhDs and to empirically…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to determine the level of job satisfaction, turnover intentions and performance of Nigerian polytechnic lecturers with PhDs and to empirically examine the relationship between them.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopted a descriptive correlational research design. Thus, an online self-reported questionnaire was used to gather primary data from a purposively selected sample of 167 Nigerian polytechnic lecturers with PhDs. Descriptive statistics and PLS-SEM were employed to analyse the data collected.

Findings

Descriptive results showed a low level of job satisfaction, high level of turnover intention and moderate level of performance of Nigerian polytechnic lecturers with PhDs. The structural model indicated a significantly positive link between job satisfaction and performance of Nigerian polytechnic lecturers with PhDs. Additionally, further analysis showed significantly negative links between job satisfaction and turnover intentions and between turnover intentions and performance of Nigerian polytechnic lecturers with PhDs.

Originality/value

There is a paucity of empirical studies on the impact of turnover intention on employee performance, particularly in the Nigerian context. This study provides empirical evidence of the negative impact of turnover intention on lecturer performance in the Nigerian context. Importantly, the findings of this study provide insights into the fundamental issues, which underlie the brain drain of lecturers in higher education institutions, especially in developing countries.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 September 2020

Tahar Lazhar Ayed

This study aims to assess the effectiveness of entrepreneurial education (EE) through its impact on the predictor of behavior, which is entrepreneurial intention (EI), by…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to assess the effectiveness of entrepreneurial education (EE) through its impact on the predictor of behavior, which is entrepreneurial intention (EI), by studying the context of a Saudi university, in this case, Umm Al Qura University (UQU). The research theorizes a relationship between EE, innovativeness (INN) as a dimension of personality traits (PTs), and EI, mediated by entrepreneurial motivation (EM). Additionally, in this study, INN played a mediator role between EE and EI.

Design/methodology/approach

All direct and indirect effects were tested using a quantitative approach. A sample of 240 undergraduate UQU students from different specialties was applied. UQU is witnessing an unprecedented movement that seeks to spread entrepreneurial culture throughout the educational system as a whole, following the recommendations of the Kingdom's 2030 vision.

Findings

The results indicate that EE and INN significantly predicted EI, though in an uneven manner. However, EM played a significant mediator role only between INN and EI. INN is a significant mediator in the relationship between EE and EI.

Practical implications

Future entrepreneurs must learn how to think, communicate, solve problems, deal with failure and exploit new opportunities. However, the debate over the contribution of EE to entrepreneurs is continuing. All educators, government officials, members of society and others are involved in encouraging entrepreneurial initiative. They should consider and understand how to affect entrepreneurial feasibility and desirability.

Originality/value

Variables included in the research model are not original; however, rarely in recent research works have psychological variables such as EM and INN been integrated into one model to explain the intention to enterprise business. This study provides a well-supported explanation of intention as a good predictor of entrepreneurial behavior that will be useful to all involved in encouraging potential entrepreneurs to succeed.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 62 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 June 2021

Nasra Ahmed Mohamed and Ali Yassin Sheikh Ali

The purpose of the study is to further understanding of entrepreneurship education, highlighting current trends and directions for further research.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study is to further understanding of entrepreneurship education, highlighting current trends and directions for further research.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper used systematic literature review of published articles to collect, evaluate, and interpret entrepreneurship education literature from selected databases between 2009 and 2019. The study reviewed 90 articles from the entrepreneurship education literature. There are several different topics that have been analyzed; with the most researched topic being analyzed was focusing on entrepreneurship education development.

Findings

Entrepreneurship education programs have become an increasingly important focus of attention in recent years. This paper deeply investigates the literature on entrepreneurship education to help entrepreneurship education decision makers to develop better solutions.

Research limitations/implications

It must be noted that this study has some limitations, which suggest avenues for further research. In reviewing the articles, the study used only four databases and only considered papers published between 2009 and 2019. Other studies may include more databases and a longer time frame.

Originality/value

Regarding the theories most used in the reviewed articles, TPB and social learning theory (SLT) were most used in relation to entrepreneurship education. This shows that researchers were focusing on the influence of entrepreneurship education in relation to the entrepreneurial intention, behavior and attitude of the individuals.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

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