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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Quanquan Liu, Chaoyang Shi, Bo Zhang, Chunbao Wang, Lihong Duan, Tongyang Sun, Xin Zhang, Weiguang Li, Zhengzhi Wu and Masakatsu G. Fujie

Paediatric congenital esophageal atresia surgery typically requires delicate and dexterous operations in a narrow and confined workspace. This study aims to develop a…

Abstract

Purpose

Paediatric congenital esophageal atresia surgery typically requires delicate and dexterous operations in a narrow and confined workspace. This study aims to develop a novel robot assisted surgical system to address these challenges.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed surgical robot consists of two symmetrical slave arms with nine degree of freedoms each. Each slave arm uses a rigid-dexterous configuration and consists of a coarse positioning manipulator and a distal fine operation manipulator. A small Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm (SCARA) mechanism was designed to form the main component of the coarse positioning unit, ensuring to endure large forces along the vertical direction and meet the operational demands. The fine positioning manipulator applied the novel design using flexible shafts and universal joints to achieve delicate operations while possessing a high rigidity. The corresponding kinematics has been derived and then was validated by a co-simulation that was performed based on the combined use of Adams and MATLAB with considering the real robot mass information. Experimental evaluations for the tip positioning accuracy and the ring transfer tasks have been performed.

Findings

The simulation was performed to verify the correctness of the derived inverse kinematics and demonstrated the robot’s flexibility. The experimental results illustrated that the end-effector can achieve a positioning accuracy within 1.5 mm in a confined 30 × 30 × 30 mm workspace. The ring transfer task demonstrated that the surgical robot is capable of providing a solution for dexterous tissue intervention in a narrow workspace for paediatric surgery.

Originality/value

A novel and compact surgical assist robot is developed to support delicate operations by using the dexterous slave arm. The slave arm consists of a SCARA mechanism to avoid experiencing overload in the vertical direction and a tool manipulator driven by flexible shafts and universal joints to provide high dexterity for operating in a narrow workspace.

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2018

Wencheng Ni, Hui Li, Zhihong Jiang, Bainan Zhang and Qiang Huang

The purpose of this paper is to design an exoskeleton robot and present a corresponding rehabilitation training method for patients in different rehabilitation stages.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to design an exoskeleton robot and present a corresponding rehabilitation training method for patients in different rehabilitation stages.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a lightweight seven-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) cable-driven exoskeleton robot that is wearable and adjustable. After decoupling joint movement caused by a cable-driven mechanism, active rehabilitation training mode and passive rehabilitation training mode are proposed to improve the effect of rehabilitation training.

Findings

Simulations and experiments have been carried out, and the results validated the feasibility of the proposed mechanism and methods by a fine rehabilitative effect with different persons.

Originality/value

This paper designed a 7-DOF cable-driven exoskeleton robot that is suitable for patients of different body measurements and proposed the active rehabilitation training mode and passive rehabilitation training mode based on the cable-driven exoskeleton robot.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2019

Yanan Li, Keng Peng Tee, Rui Yan and Shuzhi Sam Ge

This paper aims to propose a general framework of shared control for human–robot interaction.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a general framework of shared control for human–robot interaction.

Design/methodology/approach

Human dynamics are considered in analysis of the coupled human–robot system. Motion intentions of both human and robot are taken into account in the control objective of the robot. Reinforcement learning is developed to achieve the control objective subject to unknown dynamics of human and robot. The closed-loop system performance is discussed through a rigorous proof.

Findings

Simulations are conducted to demonstrate the learning capability of the proposed method and its feasibility in handling various situations.

Originality/value

Compared to existing works, the proposed framework combines motion intentions of both human and robot in a human–robot shared control system, without the requirement of the knowledge of human’s and robot’s dynamics.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2020

Chengguo Zong, Zhijian Ji, Junzhi Yu and Haisheng Yu

The purpose of this paper is to study the adaptability of the tracked robot in complex working environment. It proposes an angle-changeable tracked robot with human–robot

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the adaptability of the tracked robot in complex working environment. It proposes an angle-changeable tracked robot with human–robot interaction in unstructured environment. The study aims to present the mechanical structure and human–robot interaction control system of the tracked robot and analyze the static stability of the robot working in three terrains, i.e. rugged terrain, sloped terrain and stairs.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents the mechanical structure and human–robot interaction control system of the tracked robot. To prevent the detachment of the tracks during obstacle navigation, a new type of passively adaptive device based on the relationship between the track’s variable angle and the forces is presented. Then three types of rough terrain are chosen to analyze the static stability of the tracked robot, i.e. rugged terrain, sloped terrain and stairs.

Findings

This paper provides the design method of the tracked robot. Owing to its appropriate dimensions, good mass distribution and limited velocity, the tracked robot remains stable on the complex terrains. The experimental results verify the effectiveness of the design method.

Originality/value

The theoretical analysis of this paper provides basic reference for the structural design of tracked robots.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 April 2019

Chengguo Zong, Zhijian Ji and Haisheng Yu

This paper aims to provide a theoretical principle for the stability control of robot climbing stairs, autonomously based on human–robot interaction. Through this…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide a theoretical principle for the stability control of robot climbing stairs, autonomously based on human–robot interaction. Through this research, tracked mobile robots with human-robot interaction will be extensively used in rescue in disaster, exploration on planetary, fighting in battle, and searching for survivors in collapsed buildings.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper introduces the tracked mobile robot, based on human–robot interaction, and its six moving postures. The dynamic process of climbing stairs is analyzed, and the dynamic model of the robot is proposed. The dynamic stability criterion is derived when the tracked mobile robot contacts the stairs steps in one, two and more points. A further conduction of simulation on the relationship of the traction force and bearing force vs the velocity and acceleration in the three cases was carried out.

Findings

This paper explains that the tracked mobile robot, based on human–robot interaction, can stably climb stairs so long as the velocity and acceleration satisfy the dynamic stability criterion as noted above. In addition, the experiment tests the correctness of dynamic stability analysis when the tracked mobile robot contacts the stair steps in one, two or more points.

Originality/value

This paper provides the mechanical structure and working principle of the tracked mobile robot based on human–robot interaction and proposes an identification method of dynamic stability criterion when the robot contacts the stairs steps in one, two and more points.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2015

Carlos Eduardo Díaz, Roemi Fernández, Manuel Armada and Felipe de Jesús García Gutiérrez

– This paper aims to provide an insight into recent advancements and developments of robotics for Natural Orifice Transluminal Surgery (NOTES) procedures.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide an insight into recent advancements and developments of robotics for Natural Orifice Transluminal Surgery (NOTES) procedures.

Design/methodology/approach

Following an introduction that highlights the evolution from Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) to NOTES in the medical field, this paper reviews the main robotics systems that have been designed and implemented for MIS and NOTES, summarising their advantages and limitations and remarking the technological challenges and the requirements that still should be addressed and fulfilled.

Findings

The state-of-the-art presented in this paper shows that the majority of the platforms created for NOTES are laboratory prototypes, and their performances are still far from being optimal. New solutions are required to solve the problems confronted by the proposed systems such as the limited number of DOFs, the limited resolution, the optimal fixation and stiffening of the instruments for enabling stable and precise operation, the effective transmission of forces to the tip tools, the improvement of the force feedback feeling and the proper visualization and spatial orientation of the surgical field. Advances in robotics can contribute significantly to the development and future implementation of the NOTES procedure.

Originality/value

This paper highlights the current trends and challenges ahead in robotics applied to NOTES procedure.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 42 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 August 2020

Kun Li, Shuai Ji, Guojun Niu, Yue Ai, Bo Pan and Yili Fu

Existing robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RMIS) system lacks of force feedback, and it cannot provide the surgeon with interaction forces between the surgical

Abstract

Purpose

Existing robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RMIS) system lacks of force feedback, and it cannot provide the surgeon with interaction forces between the surgical instruments and patient’s tissues. This paper aims to restore force sensation for the RMIS system and evaluate effect of force sensing in a master-slave manner.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a four-DOF surgical instrument with modular joints and six-axis force sensing capability and proposes an incremental position mode master–slave control strategy based on separated position and orientation to reflect motion of the end of master manipulator to the end of surgical instrument. Ex-vivo experiments including tissue palpation and blunt dissection are conducted to verify the effect of force sensing for the surgical instrument. An experiment of trajectory tracking is carried out to test precision of the control strategy.

Findings

Results of trajectory tracking experiment show that this control strategy can precisely reflect the hand motion of the operator, and the results of the ex-vivo experiments including tissue palpation and blunt dissection illustrate that this surgical instrument can measure the six-axis interaction forces successfully for the RMIS.

Originality/value

This paper addresses the important role of force sensing and force feedback in RMIS, clarifies the feasibility to apply this instrument prototype in RMIS for force sensing and provides technical support of force feedback for further clinical application.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. 47 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2020

Robert Bogue

The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into how augmented reality (AR) technologies are being applied to robotics.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into how augmented reality (AR) technologies are being applied to robotics.

Design/methodology/approach

Following an introduction and a brief historical background to AR, this first provides examples of AR applications in robot programming. It then gives examples of recent research into AR-based robot teleoperation. Research activities involving the virtual fixtures (VF) technique are then discussed and finally, brief conclusions are drawn.

Findings

Because AR concepts were first investigated in the 1990s, applications involving robotics have been widely studied. Programming with the aid of AR devices, such as the HoloLens headset, can be simplified and AR methods, including the VF technique, can improve the accuracy and speed of teleoperation, manipulation and positional control tasks. They can also provide visual or haptic feedback which leads to more intuitive operation and significantly reduces the cognitive load on the operator.

Originality/value

This provides an insight into the growing role of AR in robotics by providing examples of recent research in a range of applications.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. 47 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2013

Aimee van Wynsberghe

With the rapid and pervasive introduction of robots into human environments, ethics scholars along with roboticists are asking how ethics can be applied to the discipline…

Abstract

Purpose

With the rapid and pervasive introduction of robots into human environments, ethics scholars along with roboticists are asking how ethics can be applied to the discipline of robotics. The purpose of this paper is to provide a concrete example of incorporating ethics into the design process of a robot in healthcare.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach for including ethics in the design process of care robots used in this paper is called the Care‐Centered Value Sensitive Design (CCVSD) approach. The CCVSD approach presented here provides both an outline of the components demanding ethical attention as well as a step‐by‐step manner in which such considerations may proceed in a prospective manner throughout the design process of a robot. This begins from the moment of idea generation and continues throughout the design of various prototypes. In this paper, this approach's utility and prospective methodology are illustrated by proposing a novel care robot, the “wee‐bot”, for the collection and testing of urine samples in a hospital context.

Findings

The results of applying the CCVSD approach inspired the design of a novel robot for the testing of urine in pediatric oncology patients – the “wee‐bot” robot – and showed that it is possible to successfully incorporate ethics into the design of a care robot by exploring and prescribing design requirements. In other words, the use of the CCVSD approach allowed for the translation of ethical values into technical design requirements as was shown in this paper.

Practical implications

This paper provides a practical solution to the question of how to incorporate ethics into the design of robots and bridges the gap between the work of roboticists and robot ethicists so that they may work together in the design of a novel care robot.

Social implications

In providing a solution to the issue of how to address ethical issues in the design of robots, the aim is to mitigate issues of societal concern regarding the design, development and implementation of robots in healthcare.

Originality/value

This paper is the first and only presentation of a concrete prospective methodology for including ethics into the design of robots. While the example given here is tailored to the healthcare context, the approach can be adjusted to fit another context and/or robot design.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 40 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 December 2017

Mohammadreza Dehghani, Majid Mohammadi Moghadam and Pourya Torabi

Removing the bone flap is a compulsory step in open skull surgeries and is very cumbersome and time-consuming. Exerting large forces during the milling and cutting of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Removing the bone flap is a compulsory step in open skull surgeries and is very cumbersome and time-consuming. Exerting large forces during the milling and cutting of the skull renders the surgeon exhausted and consequently increases probable errors in further task of manipulating the sensitive brain tissue. This paper aims to present the development of a robotic system capable of perforating and cutting the required bone flap without restraining the surgeon.

Design/methodology/approach

For the purpose of optimization, the target workspace is estimated by 3D modeling of the sample skull and bone flaps of targeted surgeries. The optimization considers kinematic performance matrices and the extracted workspace requirements by assigning scores to each possible design and finally selects the design with highest score.

Findings

The design utilizes a parallel remote center of motion mechanism. Coordinating the remote center of motion (RCM) of the mechanism with the center of a sphere which circumscribes the skull, the milling tool is always nearly perpendicular to the skull bone. The paper presents the concept design, optimization criteria and finally the optimal design of the robot and the fabricated prototype. Tests indicate that the prototype is able to sweep the target workspace and to exert the required forces for bone milling.

Originality value

The workspace requirements of the craniotomy/craniectomy surgeries are investigated and converted into one quantitative target workspace. An optimized design for a surgical robot is developed which satisfies the workspace requirements of the targeted surgeries.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 45 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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