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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Padma S. Vankar, Dhara Shukla, Samudrika Wijayapala and Asish Kumar Samanta

Natural dyes are mostly used for dyeing of natural fibre textiles to improve their eco-friendly features. For successful commercial use of natural dyes, the appropriate…

Abstract

Purpose

Natural dyes are mostly used for dyeing of natural fibre textiles to improve their eco-friendly features. For successful commercial use of natural dyes, the appropriate and standardized dyeing techniques need to be adopted. Appropriate scientific techniques or procedures need to be derived from scientific studies on dyeing methods, dyeing process variables, dyeing kinetics and compatibility of selective natural dyes with minimal use of hazardous chemicals.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present study, different enzymes (protease, amylase, xylanase, pectinase, phytase) were used efficiently with Rubia dye by using simultaneous and two-step processes; both the processes were developed with an aim for conservation of time and energy, for the ease of industrial use. The highlights of the study are twofold: eco-friendly natural dyeing by using enzyme replacing metal mordant and room temperature dyeing, which is a completely new concept.

Findings

Experiments showed that enzymatic treatment can give good colour strength to silk fabric using Rubia as a dye source and has good potential for commercial dyeing. It is a non-toxic dye. Use of enzymes were a deliberate attempt to avoid metal mordanting in silk dyeing, as it would make textile dyeing eco-friendlier. The order of reactivity of enzymes in one-step process was found to be protease > phytase > xylanase > amylase > pectinase. Similarly, for two-step dyeing process, the order of reactivity of enzymes observed was protease > amylase > xylanase = pectinase > phytase. Protease enzyme was the best option in both the cases. Overall, it can be concluded that in the case of enzymatic treatment, the two-step process was better in terms of larger K/S values, colour coordinate values and dye adherence.

Research limitations/implications

A new domain of room temperature dyeing technique has been introduced.

Originality/value

In the present study, different enzymes (protease, amylase, xylanase, pectinase, phytase) were used efficiently with Rubia dye by using simultaneous and two-step processes; both the processes were developed with an aim for conservation of time and energy, for the ease of industrial use. The highlights of the research are twofold: eco-friendly natural dyeing by using enzyme replacing metal mordant and room temperature dyeing, which is a completely new concept. Overall, the ease of use for industrial application. Rubia dye from Sri Lanka has been used in conjunction with different enzymes to show that metal mordanting can be easily replaced by the use of eco-friendly and biodegradable enzymes. The most attractive feature of this study is the low-temperature dyeing at 30-40°C. For any dyeing house, this process can be easily adapted on jigger, winch or even in continuous padding machine. Good fastness properties and dye adherence have been the other highlights of this study.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 46 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 5 January 2015

Jyoti Srivastava and Padma S. Vankar

This paper aims to study carotenoids as a natural food colorant from Canna flowers. There is a growing demand for eco-friendly and non-toxic colorants, specifically for…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study carotenoids as a natural food colorant from Canna flowers. There is a growing demand for eco-friendly and non-toxic colorants, specifically for health-sensitive applications such as colours of food and textiles. Red Canna variety can be grown in normal garden situations and gives ample of flowers yielding good amount of natural colorant for both the purposes.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present work, ultrasound extraction of natural colorant from Canna indica flowers has been studied. The use of ultrasound is found to have a significant improvement in the extraction efficiency of colorants obtained from dry and fresh Canna flowers in different mediums. Ultrasonic cavitational processing has twofold advantages, it is an eco-friendly and cost-effective process.

Findings

The total carotenoid content in dry and fresh flower extract was found to be between 136.56 and 978.89 mg/kg. The assessment of antioxidant activity (AOA) in dry and fresh flower extract was found to be 5.78-78.33 per cent assayed by scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and identified by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies.

Research implications/limitations

The use of ultrasonication for the extraction of colorant has been the main feature and a step towards technological advancement in the area of finding newer method of efficient extraction of the colorant.

Practical implications

The ease of extraction due to ultrasound waves has been the highlight.

Originality/value

It is for the first time that the phytochemical data of red Canna flower and has been studied, the total carotenoid content and antioxidant activities of different extracts of Canna were measured. The extraction of natural dye from C. indica flowers using ultrasound has been found to have significant improvement in the extraction efficiency of the colorant obtained from flowers.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 44 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2011

Padma S. Vankar and Shalini Dixit

Illicium griffithii (local name - Lissi) belongs to the family Illiaceae. It produces yellow colored natural dye from its stem and leaves, which has been…

Abstract

Illicium griffithii (local name - Lissi) belongs to the family Illiaceae. It produces yellow colored natural dye from its stem and leaves, which has been used to dye textiles for the first time here. In the present study, innovative dyeing with Illicium griffithii has been shown to give good dyeing results. Pre-mordanting with 1-2% metal mordants viz. alum, copper sulphate, ferrous sulphate, potassium dichromate, stannous chloride and stannic chloride, and using 5% (o.w.f.) of plant aqueous solution of the extract, is found to be satisfactory and shows very good fastness properties for cotton, wool and silk fabrics. The innovative solvent extraction of the dry stem-leaves of Illicium griffithii is an easy process; the solvent is removed/recovered and the aqueous extract is used for dyeing. The CIELab and color strength (K/S) of the dyed fabrics are also evaluated. The superiority of solvent extraction over conventional extraction has been established through this study.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2012

Jyoti Srivastava and Padma S. Vankar

The purpose of this paper is to carry out phytochemical investigations of different extracts of Eucalyptus globulus bark such as aqueous, methanolic and supercritical…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to carry out phytochemical investigations of different extracts of Eucalyptus globulus bark such as aqueous, methanolic and supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extract (SCFE) with ethyl acetate as entrainer. Three fractions (Eu 8, 9 and 10) containing steroidal δ‐lactone were isolated from SCF extract and the structure of Eu‐10 was earlier determined on the basis of NMR, HPLC‐MS, X‐Ray crystallography.

Design/methodology/approach

Column chromatography led to the isolation of flavonoids, tannins, steroids, etc. in different solvent systems. Isolated steroidal lactone (Eu‐8,9&10) of Withanolide series were tested for the presence of total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and the results were expressed as gGAE/100 g (TPC), and gQE/100 g (TFC), respectively. The antioxidant capacity was evaluated based on their ability to scavenge free radicals generated from ABTS, DPPH, FRAP and H2O2 by spectrophotometric method.

Findings

The result of the present study showed that different extracts of E. globulus bark and the isolated fractions, exhibited different antioxidant activity. This was due to the fact that they contained different amounts of flavonoid and phenolic compounds as per their ability to solubilize these compounds; the high scavenging property of E. globulus may be attributed to hydroxyl groups existing in the phenolic compounds. All the samples exhibited different extent of antioxidant activity (AOA) and showed higher potency when compared with BHT in scavenging action of DPPH free radical. Comparative data analysis showed SCF extract to be better than methanolic and aqueous extracts, both in terms of yield and AOA, while Eu‐10 was the best amongst purified fractions.

Practical implications

The present research has serious implications on identification of natural antioxidants from E. globulus. Natural antioxidants with better structure‐activity relationship are under investigation. Isolation of withanolide from Eucalyptus bark has opened newer horizon for its use.

Social implications

Collection of Eucalyptus bark from the forest (a forest waste) by women folk can be a source of revenue generation and thus has social implication as well. It is an important agro product.

Originality/value

The steroidal lactone (Eu‐10) showed highest radical scavenging effect even at IC50, thus the isolated lactone proved to be the best potential scavenger of free radicals amongst all crude extracts and the isolated fractions.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 42 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 23 March 2012

Jyoti Srivastava, Sarvesh Kumar and Padma S. Vankar

The purpose of this paper is to study the structure‐activity correlation of four medicinal plants – Ocimum basilicum L., Piper betle L., Grewia asiatica L., Lantana camara

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the structure‐activity correlation of four medicinal plants – Ocimum basilicum L., Piper betle L., Grewia asiatica L., Lantana camara L. in crude methanolic extract. These plants have been used in Ayurvedic preparation as alternative medicine. The contents of phenolic compounds (flavonoids, anthocyanin) and antioxidant capacities were evaluated.

Design/methodology/approach

Folin‐Ciocalteu method was used for the analysis of the phenolic compounds. Total flavonoids were also evaluated. DPPH, ABTS+, FRAP and H2O2 assays were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. Most of the assays were determined spectrometrically.

Findings

O. basilicum L. had the highest of total phenolics content (305.11 mg GAE/g), highest content of anthocyanins (15.427 mg/Kg) and total flavonoids (9.692 QE mg/g). The DPPH, ABTS+, FRAP and H2O2 assay indicated that these plants possessed considerable antioxidant activities.

Originality/value

The results also showed that O. basilicum and L. camara from red colored cultivars possessed high contents of phenolic compounds. FRAP assay showed AOA in the following sequence – Lantana camara>Ocimum basilicum>Piper betle>Grewia asiatica. Since L. camara showed highest antioxidant capacity thus it can be a potential resource for commercial antioxidant.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2011

Padma. S. Vankar, Rakhi Shanker and Samudrika Wijayapala

Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam (local name jackfruit) belongs to the family of Moraceae. It produces natural dye from the bark of the tree which has been…

Abstract

Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam (local name jackfruit) belongs to the family of Moraceae. It produces natural dye from the bark of the tree which has been shown as a prospective natural dye source for textiles. In the present study, innovative extraction of yellow colorants using ultrasound energy is shown. Dyeing with jackfruit bark extract has been shown to give good dyeing results. Pretreatment with 1 % metal mordant and 4 % of bark extract (owf) was found to be suitable and showed very good fastness properties for cotton, wool and silk dyed fabrics with hue colors ranging from light brown to greenish to brown. The dye uptake by cotton fabric ranged from 55-62%, 68-70% for silk and 59-73% for wool with different mordants. The effectiveness of metal mordant-artocarpus in better dye uptake appears to be an improved process resulting in good dye adherence and good fastness properties.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2009

Padma S. Vankar, Rakhi Shanker and Samudrika Wijayapala

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of dyeing on cotton wool and silk fabrics with natural dye obtained from kitchen waste of dry skin extract of Allium cepa.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of dyeing on cotton wool and silk fabrics with natural dye obtained from kitchen waste of dry skin extract of Allium cepa.

Design/methodology/approach

The dry skin of onion produces natural dye which has been used for dyeing textiles. In the present study, innovative dyeing with onion has been shown to give good dyeing results. Pretreatment with 2 per cent metal mordant and using 5 per cent of plant extract (owf) was found to be optimum and showed very good fastness properties for cotton, wool and silk dyed fabrics. For effective natural dyeing with dry skin extract of Allium cepa, conventional method of dyeing was carried out using metal mordants. The purpose of using this source was with an idea to produce value addition dyed product from kitchen waste as the dye has very good potential of uptake, adherence to the fabric and has good wash and light fastnesses. Results show very attractive hue colours.

Findings

The preference of using easily and cheaply available material for dyeing by conventional dyeing lowers the cost of natural dyeing and enhances resource productivity and as a result, reduces waste. This makes onion scale one of the easily available materials for natural dyeing industry.

Research limitations/implications

Although metal mordanting with copper sulphate and potassium dichromate are not ecofriendly but we have used only 2 per cent of these metal salts to prepare different shades with dry scales of Allium cepa extract.

Practical implications

The method developed for natural dyeing of cotton, silk and wool fabrics using skin extract of allium in conjunction with metal mordanting has shown very deep coloration. The stepwise dyeing of cotton fabric with metal mordant by the natural dye Allium cepa showed that the stepwise dyeing process gave very good result. The dye uptake in case of stepwise dyeing was from 65‐68 per cent in the case of cotton, 70‐74 per cent in silk and 78‐82 per cent in wool with different mordants.

Originality/value

The method developed for natural dyeing of cotton, silk and wool fabrics using skin extract of allium in conjunction with metal mordanting has shown marked improvement in terms of dye adherence and fastness properties and can thus be recommended for industrial application.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 22 May 2009

Padma S. Vankar, Rakhi Shanker, Shalini Dixit, Debajit Mahanta and S.C. Tiwari

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of ultrasonication on new natural dye obtained from leaves and stem extracts of Daphne papyraceae using metal…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of ultrasonication on new natural dye obtained from leaves and stem extracts of Daphne papyraceae using metal mordant for good cotton, silk and wool dyeing prospects. It also proposes to effect the characterisation of the colorant.

Design/methodology/approach

For effective natural dyeing with leaves and stem extracts of D. papyraceae, both conventional and sonication methods for cotton, silk and wool dyeing were carried out using metal mordants. The purpose of using sonication was for betterment of dye uptake, improved dye adherence and good wash and light fastnesses. Results show marked improvement by the chosen dyeing method. Simultaneously, chemical characterisation of the colorant was carried out by first column chromatographic separation of the crude extract, followed by spectral analysis of the isolated products.

Findings

The superiority of sonicator dyeing over conventional dyeing in terms of enhanced resource productivity and, as a result, reduced wastes makes it the established best available technique in the natural dyeing industry. This fact has been examined for several natural dyes. Use of sonicator shows marked enhancement for cotton‐, silk‐ and wool‐dyed fabrics. Typical bath liquor to fabric ratio for conventional dyeing varies from 20:1 to 15:1 and for sonicator dyeing from only 12:1 to 10:1, thereby reducing specific water and energy consumption by 30 and 50 per cent, respectively. The cycle time for dyeing was also reduced by 50 per cent and this would benefit the dyeing process with more tonnage of fabric per unit time and with lower waste generation. This would also result in improved capacity utilization leading to enhanced productivity levels in the dyeing houses.

Research limitations/implications

Although metal mordanting with copper sulphate and potassium dichromate is not ecofriendly, only 2 per cent of these metal salts has been used to prepare different shades with leaves and stem extracts of D. papyraceae for cotton, silk and wool fabrics.

Practical implications

The method developed for natural dyeing of cotton, silk and wool fabrics using sonication in conjunction with metal mordanting has shown marked improvement. The chemical composition of the crude extract shows the presence of flavonoids and other specific natural pigments.

Originality/value

The method developed for natural dyeing of cotton, silk and wool fabrics using stem and leaves extracts of D. papyraceae under sonication in conjunction with metal mordanting has shown marked improvement in terms of dye adherence and fastness properties and can thus be recommended for industrial application. This is a new source of natural dye.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2012

Jyoti Srivastava and Padma S. Vankar

This study is designed to determine the antioxidant profile of the crude aqueous and organic (Ethyl acetate) extract of 11 plants. These plants are mainly distributed in…

Abstract

Purpose

This study is designed to determine the antioxidant profile of the crude aqueous and organic (Ethyl acetate) extract of 11 plants. These plants are mainly distributed in north eastern (NE) zones of India. Extracts of the aerial and/or underground parts have been applied in traditional medicine for the treatment of different diseases hence they have gained sufficient importance in alternate medicinal therapy.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activities of extracts NE in vitro systems to gain mechanistic insights.

Findings

Results from antioxidant assays together with authentic antioxidant standards revealed that aqueous extract (AqEx) showed strong superoxide radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and ferrous ion‐chelating ability. The ranges of total phenolic contents was determined and found from 2.0860 to 7.1193 in aqueous extract and 1.7716 to 5.4330 mg (GAEq/100 g) in ethylacetate extract. The results revealed that total flavonoid contents in the selected plant from NE and the range of the extract varied from 0.1769 to 1.6990 mg (QEq/100 g), respectively.

Originality/value

The present study focuses on the antioxidant activity of 11 extracts of Indian origin. The plant extracts are also screened for flavonoid contents and total phenolics.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Padma S. Vankar and Rama Shanker Sahu

A graft copolymer (PBW-g-PAM) of Moringa seed was prepared. The phosphate buffer washed seed powder and polyacrylamide were reacted, using ceric ion initiator. The grafted…

Abstract

Purpose

A graft copolymer (PBW-g-PAM) of Moringa seed was prepared. The phosphate buffer washed seed powder and polyacrylamide were reacted, using ceric ion initiator. The grafted copolymer was tested for its efficiency for metal removal (Cr-VI) from tannery effluent and for color removal from textile effluent using standard spectroscopic methods. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The PBW-g-PAM was prepared by standard method and characterized by FT-IR, SEM, UV-vis, XRD and DSC/TGA analyses.

Findings

The effects of PBW-g-PAM dose, contact time and pH on percent removal of Cr-VI and dye color, have been reported.

Originality/value

The efficiency of metal removal was shown to be 99 per cent in just 15 min. Similar results were obtained for efficient color removal from textile effluents. It is for the first time that graft polymer of Moringa seed has been used for metal and color removal.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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