Search results

1 – 10 of over 1000
Article
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Jia-Yuh Chen and Manish Khadka

The agency problem inherent in governing public corporations predicts a management not acting in shareholders’ best interest. The purpose of this paper is to use the Green…

Abstract

Purpose

The agency problem inherent in governing public corporations predicts a management not acting in shareholders’ best interest. The purpose of this paper is to use the Green Bay Packers’ unique ownership structure as a case study to show that a disperse shareholder base does not necessarily lead to failures in corporate governance.

Design/methodology/approach

The Packers have been run by a great management team since 1992. The authors argue that the new management has become the de facto owners of the Packers organization and dealt away the agency costs as a result. This argument is in line with the Coase Theorem.

Findings

The ownership of the Packers is a property. As would be argued with the Coase Theorem, if the property right is well defined, who controls the property, under certain circumstances, is irrelevant in regard of maximizing ownership value.

Research limitations/implications

With only one sample point, the authors, however, cannot rule out the randomness of the Packers’ stellar performance and also the possibility that the new management acts in the best interest of Packers shareholders because they have well-designed employment contracts.

Originality/value

Nevertheless, the findings offer a new perspective to the corporate governance literature.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 41 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 March 2012

Steve W. Martinez

This paper aims to provide an assessment of the growth in marketing contracts in the US pork industry as an efficient means to control pork quality and reduce transaction costs.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide an assessment of the growth in marketing contracts in the US pork industry as an efficient means to control pork quality and reduce transaction costs.

Design/methodology/approach

Information collected from pork quality and safety summits sponsored by the National Pork Producers Council in cooperation with the National Pork Board, published surveys of large packers related to contract use, and 15 contracts submitted by producers to the Iowa Attorney General's Office from 1996 to 2001 were examined. The theoretical framework used combines branches of the industrial organization literature.

Findings

The paper provides information documenting the growing importance of addressing pork quality problems in the 1990s and how marketing contracts between packers and producers can help address these problems. Recognizes their role in reducing transaction costs associated with carcass pricing programs, reducing pork quality measuring costs, providing quality control, and reducing costs of adapting to quality uncertainty.

Research limitations/implications

The list of contracts examined is a small collection of contracts voluntarily submitted by producers, and pertains to a specific geographic section of the USA. Thus, they may not be representative of the entire industry.

Practical implications

The paper provides background information on quality issues faced by the US pork industry and a framework for better understanding the potential role of marketing contracts in addressing these issues.

Originality/value

This paper provides rather unique institutional background information on important changes occurring in the US pork industry in the 1990s and the role of the growth in marketing contracts in addressing related pork quality issues over time. Given the proprietary nature of specific contract terms, a small sample of long‐term marketing contracts is analyzed to better understand contract design.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 114 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 October 2019

Stéphanie Baggio, Simon Guillaume-Gentil, Patrick Heller, Komal Chacowry Pala, Hans Wolff and Laurent Gétaz

Body-packing means concealing packets of illicit psychoactive substances in the digestive or genital system. The purpose of this paper is to investigate profiles of body…

Abstract

Purpose

Body-packing means concealing packets of illicit psychoactive substances in the digestive or genital system. The purpose of this paper is to investigate profiles of body-packers and comorbidities associated with body-packing.

Design/methodology/approach

A retrospective study (2005–2016) was conducted among all patients hospitalized for suspicion of body-packing in the Geneva hospital prison unit (n=287). Data were extracted from medical records and included demographics, somatic/psychiatric diseases, suicidal ideation and psychological distress.

Findings

Body-packers were mostly young men (mean age=33.4). A total of 42.2 percent of the participants had at least one psychiatric or somatic comorbidity reported during incarceration (somatic: 28.2 percent, psychiatric: 18.8 percent). The most frequent somatic diseases were infectious (10.5 percent), cardiovascular (10.1 percent), and endocrinological (4.2 percent) diseases, and more precisely HIV (4.5 percent), hepatitis B (3.5 percent), hepatitis C (1.4 percent), high blood pressure (8.0 percent) and diabetes (4.2 percent). The most frequent psychiatric conditions were substance use disorders (10.5 percent) and mood disorders (8.0 percent). Depressed mood/psychological distress and suicidal ideation were frequently reported during hospitalization (27.2/6.6 percent). Comorbidities were associated with demographics: Females were more likely to have somatic and psychiatric diseases detected during hospitalization in detention and participants from Western, educated, industrialized, rich and democratic countries were more likely to report diseases known before detention.

Originality/value

Body-packers bear a heavy burden of disease and psychological distress. This vulnerable subgroup of incarcerated people has been overlooked in previous research and their health needs are not correctly understood. This study was a first step to improve their health care and reintegration.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1996

K.K. Klein, A.M. Walburger, Faminow, B. Larue, R. Romain and K. Foster

Examines the hog marketing system in Canada and the development of single‐desk hog marketing agencies, acting as central selling agencies, which have made an important…

1454

Abstract

Examines the hog marketing system in Canada and the development of single‐desk hog marketing agencies, acting as central selling agencies, which have made an important contribution in enhancing the pork supply chain. Reports the results of a 1995 survey, soliciting opinions from representatives of meat packers, provincial marketing agencies and producers across Canada, from which a framework was developed to evaluate the efficiency of five main areas: production and distribution; equitable distribution of rewards; growth in pork processing; investment opportunities; and degree of competition. Emphasizes the vulnerability of the Canadian pork sector to increased competition from producers in other countries, and stresses the need for Canada to develop an effective supply chain in order to maximize its potential in this sector.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 October 2009

Susanne Strömberg and Jan Ch. Karlsson

This article seeks to analyse rituals of humour and joking practices among two groups of meatpacking workers, to better understand the organic dynamics of workplace fun.

2993

Abstract

Purpose

This article seeks to analyse rituals of humour and joking practices among two groups of meatpacking workers, to better understand the organic dynamics of workplace fun.

Design/methodology/approach

This is an ethnographic study of two groups of meatpacking workers within a Swedish food preparation company. Data were collected using multiple methods including observations, field notes, and individual and group interviews.

Findings

This study uncovers ample evidence of joking practices among the workers studied. These are presented on a continuum of pure to applied humour in five types: jokes, physical joking practices, clowning, nicknaming and satire.

Originality/value

This article gives a rich description and analysis of organic workplace humour in a contemporary food production setting and offers a typology of joking practices.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 July 2019

Fuying Zhang, Hao Che Shui and Yufei Zhang

The purpose of this paper is based on the response surface method, the authors determined the conditions for achieving the optimum rubber-sealing performance by using the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is based on the response surface method, the authors determined the conditions for achieving the optimum rubber-sealing performance by using the maximum contact stress as the response value.

Design/methodology/approach

A two-dimensional model of a compression packer rubber was established by finite-element analysis software. Under the single axial load of 53.85 MPa, the four single factors of the end-face inclination angle, subthickness, height of rubber and friction coefficient of the rubber were analyzed.

Findings

Results show that the optimum sealing performance of the rubber tube is achieved when the end-face angle is equal to 45º and the thickness of the rubber tube is 9 mm. The response surface designed by Box–Behnken shows that the sealing performance of the rubber tube is the optimum when the end-face inclination angle is 48.1818°, the subthickness is 9 mm, the height of rubber is 90 mm and the friction coefficient is 0.1. Verification test results show that the model is reliable and effective.

Originality/value

Packer operations are performed downhole, and research on real experiments is limited. In this work, the feasibility of such experiments is determined by comparing finite-element modeling with actual experiments, and the results have guiding significance for actual downhole operations.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 71 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 October 2010

Jing Shi, Jun Zhang and Xiuli Qu

Delivery of safe products while meeting customer demand is a critical marketing requirement for logistics. To meet this requirement, this paper aims to develop a…

3412

Abstract

Purpose

Delivery of safe products while meeting customer demand is a critical marketing requirement for logistics. To meet this requirement, this paper aims to develop a decision‐making model for distribution strategies in cold chain network with the real‐time flow and quality information of perishable foods.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper first presents a real‐time monitoring solution for cold chain distribution by integrating radio frequency identification (RFiD), sensor, and wireless communication technologies. With the enhanced visibility of product flow and quality information, a multi‐stage planning model is developed to determine optimal distribution plans so that the overall cost of the entire cold chain network is minimized.

Findings

The proposed distribution‐planning model can capture the dynamics of logistics due to frequent update of product quality information during distribution. Therefore, the distribution decision will be adjusted at sequential stages to optimally preserve the product value and meet demand. The proposed solution and model can ensure an effective cold chain logistics and thus meet the marketing requirement.

Research limitations/implications

The current planning model cannot quantitatively capture all benefits, such as the social impact, due to the implementation of RFiD and other technologies.

Originality/value

The proposed solution to achieve complete visibility of the cold chain is innovative and addresses the urgent requirements for cold chain logistics from marketing perspective. For the first time, the economic benefits of real‐time information on product quality can be quantitatively evaluated by the multi‐stage planning model and this has been verified by a numerical case study.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 25 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2000

Nigel P. Grigg and Jane Williams

In July 1999, a consultation paper was issued by the DTI relating to the modernisation of Part V of the Weights and Measures Act 1985. This was in response to issues…

Abstract

In July 1999, a consultation paper was issued by the DTI relating to the modernisation of Part V of the Weights and Measures Act 1985. This was in response to issues concerning the complexity of the legislation, the burden it places on traders, and its appropriateness in the modern trading environment. The research described in this was begun shortly before publication of the document, with the aim of establishing the views of Trading Standards Officers on current problems with the legislation and its enforcement, from the point of view of those who are responsible for its enforcement, and for bringing prosecutions. The research was carried out via a survey, results of which were analysed using exploratory Principal Components Analysis, t‐tests, and correlation analysis. Path analysis was used as a final stage in order to produce a model of the factors that significantly influence officers’ perceptions of the legislation/enforcement.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 102 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1941

An interesting report has been submitted to the Brighton Watch Committee by Mr. T. J. Metcalfe, Chief Inspector of Weights and Measures. In his report Mr. Metcalfe…

Abstract

An interesting report has been submitted to the Brighton Watch Committee by Mr. T. J. Metcalfe, Chief Inspector of Weights and Measures. In his report Mr. Metcalfe observes that the Sale of Food (Weights and Measures) Act, 1926, which controls trading methods in connection with the sale of most articles of food, does not require that jams, marmalades, syrups or honey should be sold by weight and manufacturers and packers, with few exceptions, have not hitherto applied any weight statement to their prepacked products. Trading has generally been in standard sizes, referred to as “1's” and “2's,” and although most members of the public have understood that packs contain 1‐lb. or 2‐lb. net, no offence can be proved to have been committed when the seller makes no purportation of weight at the time of sale. The introduction of rationing has caused your Inspectors, in association with the Enforcement Officers of the Food Control Committee, to inquire more fully into the position which has developed. A purchaser is entitled to receive from the retailer with whom he is registered a maximum quantity of 2 ozs. of preserves per week. If the retailer, following the established practice, cancels eight ration coupons, hands over a jar of preserve and charges the maximum permitted price per pound, then there would appear to be prima facie evidence of a representation of weight of 1lb. Any deficiency would apparently constitute an offence by the retailer. As, however, the retailer could prove that he purchased the pack in the condition in which he sold it, that the manufacturer or packer should know the implications of the Rationing Order and the Sale of Food Act, and that the packer would strongly object to a retailer interfering with any prepacked preserve or syrup in such manner as might imperil the quality or brand repute of the product, it would appear that the retailer has an adequate defence. He could not, however, rely on a warranty, it not being the custom of the trade to mark a statement of weight on the jars, nor to insert a sufficient warranty in invoices. While the Board of Trade, under powers conferred by Section 9 (1) of the Act of 1926, can make a regulation bringing preserves within the First Schedule to the Act and thus requiring them to be sold only by net weight, this has never been done because manufacturers and packers have emphasised that there are practical difficulties, in my opinion not insurmountable, in guaranteeing the net weight content of a commodity packed gross in containers which may vary appreciably in tare weight. We have recently had evidence of deficiencies of ⅜ oz. and ¾ oz. in jars of golden syrup sold against eight ration coupons and for which the maximum permitted price per pound has been charged. The packers admit the possibility of such deficiencies and, while stating that they are doing their best to give 1lb. net weight they claim that no offence was committed against the Price Control Order in the case of the pack found to be ⅜ oz. short because the value of the shortage was not one farthing, nor was an offence committed against the Sale of Food Act because the deficiency in a single pack sold at the one time was inconsiderable. But the cumulative effect of such a deficiency in thousands of sales must be considerable and the loss to the purchasing public, in an article of food of which they receive so small a ration, is one of some gravity. In taking any legal proceedings for short weight under Section I of the Sale of Food Act, 1926, the Inspector is under an obligation to prove (a) that the deficiency was a considerable one, or (b) that inconsiderable deficiencies existed in a reasonable number of articles of the same kind sold or held for sale at the same time. It would be most undesirable for the Inspector, in seeking to establish proof of short weight, to interfere with, say, a dozen jars of preserves or syrups, having regard to the present supply position. It should not have to be necessary for the Inspector to have to rely on Section I standing alone. If the Board of Trade made a regulation under Section 9 (1) requiring such articles of food to be sold by net weight only, then the manufacturer or packer would need to guarantee the accuracy of weight content and he, I submit, is the person best able to ensure it.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 43 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 4 December 2019

Saji Thazhugal Govindan Nair

This paper, using the model suggested by Cantor and Pecker (1996), aims to explore the relations between sovereign ratings and bond yield spreads in emerging markets.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper, using the model suggested by Cantor and Pecker (1996), aims to explore the relations between sovereign ratings and bond yield spreads in emerging markets.

Design/methodology/approach

The ordinary least square regression procedure administered on the most recent sovereign ratings of 46 countries demonstrates how the macroeconomic information embody in the sovereign rating scores predict their bond yield spreads relative to the yield on US Treasury bond.

Findings

The research finds that the assigned rating scores do not herald the complete elites of the macroeconomic conditions in emerging markets, and there is more incremental information in the publicly available macroeconomic variables, which is much useful in predicting bond yield spreads than that embedded into the sovereign ratings.

Practical implications

The outcomes of the research have strategic implications for global investors and policymakers. The use of credit rating scores along with the macroeconomic fundamentals in emerging economies produces better predictions than the benchmark predictions solely based on the rating scores suggested by the previous research.

Originality/value

This study is the first one to address the issues related to sovereign ratings and bond yield spread in developing and emerging markets using the most recent ratings during the period of the economic recoveries, following the global financial crisis of 2008.

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 1000