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Article
Publication date: 21 May 2021

Mirela Polić and Mirela Holy

This paper aimed to research attitudes of women working in the Croatian public relations (PR) industry regarding office culture (networking, banter, dress codes, etc.).

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aimed to research attitudes of women working in the Croatian public relations (PR) industry regarding office culture (networking, banter, dress codes, etc.).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses Bourdieu's habitus theory and analyses the experiences of women working in the Croatian PR industry with a focus on office culture. The study is based on 21 in-depth interviews with women working in the Croatian PR industry. Thematic analysis has been used to analyse data.

Findings

Although female employees (76.84%) dominate the PR industry in Croatia, the so-called masculine patterns still prevail in the PR sector. Results show that women are often exposed to gender discrimination but at the same time, they also perpetuate gender-based prejudices.

Practical implications

Employees in the PR industry should consider working on their own gender stereotypes that impact their patterns of behaviour. Relinquishment of the ideas of patriarchal essentialism would consequently change career progression opportunities, and it would particularly improve networking among women, which could lead to career advancement opportunities.

Social implications

Structural changes are needed in society to avoid women perpetuating inequality through masculine behaviour and unrealistic expectations that many women cannot meet.

Originality

To the best of the author's knowledge, this paper is the first paper that explores gender-biased office culture in the Croatian PR industry. In doing so, the paper also applies Bourdieu's habitus theory, thus contributing to studying cultural masculinities from a Croatian perspective. The paper also introduces the concept of gender-biased behaviour.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1991

Philip J. Kitchen

An interesting phenomenon in recent years has been the virtuallyunrecognised growth in Public Relations (PR) activity in the westernworld. Viewed here in a UK context…

Abstract

An interesting phenomenon in recent years has been the virtually unrecognised growth in Public Relations (PR) activity in the western world. Viewed here in a UK context, this article seeks to address a number of issues. What are the underlying causatory factors occasioning a growth in PR? What effect(s) might such PR growth have on advertising media and agencies? Why should PR be appropriate as a subject deemed of value for academic qualification at undergraduate and postgraduate levels, and is there any evidence of development in this area? These issues are investigated and the author would welcome commentary and interaction from the academic and business community.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1992

Sow‐Lin Chan, Hian‐Chye Koh and Chan‐Kee Low

Illustrates the use of the Bayesian decision‐tree approach inmaking auditing decisions. First reviews the audit process and showsthat the outcomes of auditing decisions…

Abstract

Illustrates the use of the Bayesian decision‐tree approach in making auditing decisions. First reviews the audit process and shows that the outcomes of auditing decisions depend not only on the courses of action but also on some uncontrollable chance events. Explains the Bayesian decision‐tree approach and the concepts of prior and posterior probabilities and expected values. Also illustrates the framework within which the approach is applicable. Shows how the Bayesian decision‐tree approach can be applied in auditing situations (e.g. substantive testing and the review of other auditor′s work). Finally, suggests some probability results that can be used in other auditing contexts. Offers additional insights into the use of Bayesian methods in auditing and presents auditors with a tool which they can use in making auditing decisions.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2002

Sally Sykes

This paper examines the growth of the public relations (PR) discipline in the UK with reference to some of the possible business drivers behind growth and the changing…

Abstract

This paper examines the growth of the public relations (PR) discipline in the UK with reference to some of the possible business drivers behind growth and the changing strategic role of communications in companies. Some of the factors at play are discussed, with particular reference to corporate social responsibility, transparency, stakeholder relationships and reputation management and the role of PR in creating the “employer brand” for those companies competing for the scare resource of new corporate talent. The paper also discusses the role of PR education in the UK in preparing aspirants to the profession for the working life of a PR practitioner and considers the expectations of companies for strategic PR management and whether the supply of practitioners meets the need and demand. Finally, the author draws upon experience in having undertaken a course of further formal PR education at Masters degree level and comments on the practical and strategic communications benefits to be gained from framing experience of PR in action within the growing body of PR and communications theory encountered during academic study.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2012

Li‐li Gao, Song‐bai Xue and Hong Zhu

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of praseodymium (Pr) additions (0, 0.05 and 0.5 wt%) on the mechanical properties and microstructure of SnAgCu…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of praseodymium (Pr) additions (0, 0.05 and 0.5 wt%) on the mechanical properties and microstructure of SnAgCu solder joint during aging process. Moreover, the authors aim to indicate that the decreased soldification undercooling of Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu solder can suppress the formation of Ag3Sn plate to some extent.

Design/methodology/approach

The shear strength evolution of SAC, SAC‐0.05Pr and SAC‐0.5Pr solder joint were studied under 150°C aging process with STR‐1000. The effect of Pr additions on the solidification behavior of SnAgCu solder was also studied by differential scanning calorimetry. To study the microstructure evolution, the cross‐sections of all specimens were observed by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Meanwhile, the etchant, consisting of 20%HNO3+distilled water was used for deep etching to reveal the interfacial morphology.

Findings

The shear force reduction rate of SAC solder joint during aging was restrained by 0.05%Pr addition but promoted with 0.5% Pr addition. The growth of IMC layer of SnAgCu joint in the aging process was suppressed significantly by different amounts of Pr additions. However, the beneficial effect of Pr addition due to the suppression of IMC layer growth was weakened by the micro‐cracks formed in PrSn3 compounds in SnAgCu‐0.5Pr joint. Pr additions (0.05, 0.5 wt%) decrease the solidification undercooling of SnAgCu solder, which will suppress the formation of Ag3Sn plate to some extent.

Research limitations/implications

Further studies are necessary for confirmation of the practical application, especially of the manufacturing technology of solder paste containing Pr.

Practical implications

The appropriate amount of Pr in Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu solder is about 0.05 wt%. It is found that SAC‐0.05Pr solder has an improvement in solder joint reliability in long aging processes. The results suggested the novel solder alloys can meet the requirements of high reliability application.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates that: Pr additions promote the solidification of SAC solder; shear force reduction rate of SAC solder joint was reduced by 0.05%Pr addition; the IMC layer growth rate of SnAgCu solder joint was suppressed by Pr additions; and micro‐cracks were found in PrSn3 phases after aging.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2002

Michael Fairchild

Theory and exhortation about planning, research and evaluation (PRE) in PR still outweighs best practice. The tools exist to enable PRE to be used as a means of…

Abstract

Theory and exhortation about planning, research and evaluation (PRE) in PR still outweighs best practice. The tools exist to enable PRE to be used as a means of demonstrating PR effectiveness. Yet research continues to demonstrate that PR is either not validated or the methodologies used are considered suspect. Behind the lack of PRE usage are weaknesses in PR training and reluctance to do the obvious, such as tap into existing sources of research. While it is important to prove the effectiveness of PR through PRE, there is a bigger prize: to demonstrate the strategic role that PR can play in organisations and to raise the standing of PR. With growing recessionary pressure and the threat of competition from other service providers such as management consultants, the PR profession should seize on PRE as a means of putting PR on to a higher plane.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1998

William Mallinson

Reliable, specific, comprehensive and frank data about the fate of PR graduates is hard to find. The problem is compounded by the CAM professional qualifications, since…

Abstract

Reliable, specific, comprehensive and frank data about the fate of PR graduates is hard to find. The problem is compounded by the CAM professional qualifications, since CAM people are often lumped together with ‘academic’ PR graduates in research into careers. The problem is further compounded by media studies, which overlap, and often encompass, PR studies. The PRCA has obtained data from members which show an apparent reticence to provide the actual number of ‘pure’ PR graduates employed. The sparse data gathered to date do suggest that media and communications graduates are more successful in being employed than are ‘pure’ PR graduates. It is difficult to define what a pure PR degree is since, very often, despite the degree title, only a small component covers pure PR training. Many consultancies employ on an ad hoc basis, and few PR graduates are likely to be ready to take on immediate responsibility, unless they have had a fulfilling sandwich year. Moreover, there is stiff competition from graduates of cognate disciplines such as history, English and philosophy, who can be adept in communicating clearly and succinctly, especially on paper, unlike some PR graduates. Even this initial research, thanks to the PRCA's responding with alacrity to this author's request, shows that far more needs to be done, especially regarding the numbers of pure PR graduates employed. Some educational institutions are responsible for this studiedly lackadaisical lack of precision, preferring to hype all the way to the bank. The question arises as to whether comprehensive research already exists, but is too embarrassing to be shown the light of day.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2006

Yung‐Kuang Yang

The investigation uses design of experiments (DOE) approach to determine the optimal parameters of photo resist (PR) coating process for photolithography in wafer manufacturing.

Abstract

Purpose

The investigation uses design of experiments (DOE) approach to determine the optimal parameters of photo resist (PR) coating process for photolithography in wafer manufacturing.

Design/methodology/approach

Plans of experiments via nine experimental runs are based on the orthogonal arrays to determine the optimum factor condition. In this study, the mean thickness and the uniformity of thickness of the PR are adopted as the quality targets of the PR coating process. This partial factorial design of the DOE method provides an economical and systematic method of determining the optimal process parameter.

Findings

A model for the mathematical prediction of the mean thickness and the uniformity of thickness for the PR has been developed in terms of the PR temperature, the chamber humidity, the spinning rate, and the dispensation rate by means of the DOE method. The PR temperature and the chamber humidity are found to be the most significant factors in both the mean thickness and the uniformity of thickness for a PR coating process.

Research limitation/implications

This analysis is valid of dynamic dispensing of the specific type of PR with constant material properties and applying onto a wafer size of eight inches.

Practical implications

A systematic method has been developed to find suitable combinations of process parameters; hence, the traditional approach such as the trial‐and‐error method that is very time‐consuming can be avoided. Furthermore, the efficiency of designs the parameter and the quality of the products are greatly improved.

Originality/value

This approach can be easily applied to design an optimal parameter setting to meet various requirements of different types of products.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2002

James E. Grunig and Larissa A. Grunig

The 15‐year study of excellence in public relations and communication management in the USA, the UK and Canada produced an explanation of the value of PR to an…

Abstract

The 15‐year study of excellence in public relations and communication management in the USA, the UK and Canada produced an explanation of the value of PR to an organisation and a set of theoretical principles describing how the communication function should be organised, structured and practised in an organisation. These principles provide a theoretical benchmark for auditing the quality of a PR unit. This paper identifies the implications of these principles for PR education at the undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing education levels and for management education in MBA programmes. The excellence study suggests, first, that all PR education must instil in students the view that PR is a strategic managerial function rather than a technical support function for other managerial functions. Undergraduate programmes should continue to develop superior communication skills in their students, but they must frame these technical skills in principles of strategic management, research and ethics and social responsibility. Postgraduate and continuing education programmes should focus on strategic management and research skills and educate future managers to be ethics officers in the organisation. MBA programmes should include a unit on PR in a subject area such as strategic management, public affairs or corporate social responsibility to prepare them to work with PR professionals when they become senior executives. PR education at all of these levels and in both communication and MBA programmes should educate students to practise PR globally.

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2014

Provides an interview with Alex Singleton, author of The PR Masterclass.

Abstract

Purpose

Provides an interview with Alex Singleton, author of The PR Masterclass.

Design/methodology/approach

Provides an interview with Alex Singleton, author of The PR Masterclass.

Findings

Discusses the current state of PR.

Practical implications

Offers advice on how the PR industry can develop best practice, suggesting that membership of a professional body is a must for any PR professional, and should be adopted more widely.

Originality/value

Draws on Singleton's experience in both journalism and PR to outline the need for PR professionals to write engaging, newsworthy copy, that takes into account the needs of the journalist as well as those of the business.

Details

Strategic Direction, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0258-0543

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