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Applying Partial Least Squares in Tourism and Hospitality Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-700-9

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Book part
Publication date: 24 November 2010

Edward E. Rigdon, Christian M. Ringle and Marko Sarstedt

Alongside structural equation modeling (SEM), the complementary technique of partial least squares (PLS) path modeling helps researchers understand relations among sets of…

Abstract

Alongside structural equation modeling (SEM), the complementary technique of partial least squares (PLS) path modeling helps researchers understand relations among sets of observed variables. Like SEM, PLS began with an assumption of homogeneity – one population and one model – but has developed techniques for modeling data from heterogeneous populations, consistent with a marketing emphasis on segmentation. Heterogeneity can be expressed through interactions and nonlinear terms. Additionally, researchers can use multiple group analysis and latent class methods. This chapter reviews these techniques for modeling heterogeneous data in PLS, and illustrates key developments in finite mixture modeling in PLS using the SmartPLS 2.0 package.

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Review of Marketing Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-475-8

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Article
Publication date: 26 February 2019

Gohar F. Khan, Marko Sarstedt, Wen-Lung Shiau, Joseph F. Hair, Christian M. Ringle and Martin P. Fritze

The purpose of this paper is to explore the knowledge infrastructure of methodological research on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) from a…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the knowledge infrastructure of methodological research on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) from a network point of view. The analysis involves the structures of authors, institutions, countries and co-citation networks, and discloses trending developments in the field.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on bibliometric data downloaded from the Web of Science, the authors apply various social network analysis (SNA) and visualization tools to examine the structure of knowledge networks of the PLS-SEM domain. Specifically, the authors investigate the PLS-SEM knowledge network by analyzing 84 methodological studies published in 39 journals by 145 authors from 106 institutions.

Findings

The analysis reveals that specific authors dominate the network, whereas most authors work in isolated groups, loosely connected to the network’s focal authors. Besides presenting the results of a country level analysis, the research also identifies journals that play a key role in disseminating knowledge in the network. Finally, a burst detection analysis indicates that method comparisons and extensions, for example, to estimate common factor model data or to leverage PLS-SEM’s predictive capabilities, feature prominently in recent research.

Originality/value

Addressing the limitations of prior systematic literature reviews on the PLS-SEM method, this is the first study to apply SNA to reveal the interrelated structures and properties of PLS-SEM’s research domain.

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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2016

Christian Nitzl, Jose L. Roldan and Gabriel Cepeda

Indirect or mediated effects constitute a type of relationship between constructs that often occurs in partial least squares (PLS) path modeling. Over the past few years…

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7276

Abstract

Purpose

Indirect or mediated effects constitute a type of relationship between constructs that often occurs in partial least squares (PLS) path modeling. Over the past few years, the methods for testing mediation have become more sophisticated. However, many researchers continue to use outdated methods to test mediating effects in PLS, which can lead to erroneous results. One reason for the use of outdated methods or even the lack of their use altogether is that no systematic tutorials on PLS exist that draw on the newest statistical findings. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This study illustrates the state-of-the-art use of mediation analysis in the context of PLS-structural equation modeling (SEM).

Findings

This study facilitates the adoption of modern procedures in PLS-SEM by challenging the conventional approach to mediation analysis and providing more accurate alternatives. In addition, the authors propose a decision tree and classification of mediation effects.

Originality/value

The recommended approach offers a wide range of testing options (e.g. multiple mediators) that go beyond simple mediation analysis alternatives, helping researchers discuss their studies in a more accurate way.

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Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 116 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2020

Nicole Franziska Richter, Sandra Schubring, Sven Hauff, Christian M. Ringle and Marko Sarstedt

This research introduces the combined use of partial least squares–structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and necessary condition analysis (NCA) that enables researchers…

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1385

Abstract

Purpose

This research introduces the combined use of partial least squares–structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and necessary condition analysis (NCA) that enables researchers to explore and validate hypotheses following a sufficiency logic, as well as hypotheses drawing on a necessity logic. The authors’ objective is to encourage the practice of combining PLS-SEM and NCA as complementary views of causality and data analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors present guidelines describing how to combine PLS-SEM and NCA. These relate to the specification of the research objective and the theoretical background, the preparation and evaluation of the data set, running the analyses, the evaluation of measurements, the evaluation of the (structural) model and relationships and the interpretation of findings. In addition, the authors present an empirical illustration in the field of technology acceptance.

Findings

The use of PLS-SEM and NCA enables researchers to identify the must-have factors required for an outcome in accordance with the necessity logic. At the same time, this approach shows the should-have factors following the additive sufficiency logic. The combination of both logics enables researchers to support their theoretical considerations and offers new avenues to test theoretical alternatives for established models.

Originality/value

The authors provide insights into the logic, assessment, challenges and benefits of NCA for researchers familiar with PLS-SEM. This novel approach enables researchers to substantiate and improve their theories and helps practitioners disclose the must-have and should-have factors relevant to their decision-making.

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Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 120 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2019

Joseph F. Hair, Jeffrey J. Risher, Marko Sarstedt and Christian M. Ringle

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive, yet concise, overview of the considerations and metrics required for partial least squares structural equation…

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50644

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive, yet concise, overview of the considerations and metrics required for partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) analysis and result reporting. Preliminary considerations are summarized first, including reasons for choosing PLS-SEM, recommended sample size in selected contexts, distributional assumptions, use of secondary data, statistical power and the need for goodness-of-fit testing. Next, the metrics as well as the rules of thumb that should be applied to assess the PLS-SEM results are covered. Besides presenting established PLS-SEM evaluation criteria, the overview includes the following new guidelines: PLSpredict (i.e., a novel approach for assessing a model’s out-of-sample prediction), metrics for model comparisons, and several complementary methods for checking the results’ robustness.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides an overview of previously and recently proposed metrics as well as rules of thumb for evaluating the research results based on the application of PLS-SEM.

Findings

Most of the previously applied metrics for evaluating PLS-SEM results are still relevant. Nevertheless, scholars need to be knowledgeable about recently proposed metrics (e.g. model comparison criteria) and methods (e.g. endogeneity assessment, latent class analysis and PLSpredict), and when and how to apply them to extend their analyses.

Research limitations/implications

Methodological developments associated with PLS-SEM are rapidly emerging. The metrics reported in this paper are useful for current applications, but must always be up to date with the latest developments in the PLS-SEM method.

Originality/value

In light of more recent research and methodological developments in the PLS-SEM domain, guidelines for the method’s use need to be continuously extended and updated. This paper is the most current and comprehensive summary of the PLS-SEM method and the metrics applied to assess its solutions.

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European Business Review, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2018

Faizan Ali, S. Mostafa Rasoolimanesh, Marko Sarstedt, Christian M. Ringle and Kisang Ryu

Structural equation modeling (SEM) depicts one of the most salient research methods across a variety of disciplines, including hospitality management. Although for many…

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11687

Abstract

Purpose

Structural equation modeling (SEM) depicts one of the most salient research methods across a variety of disciplines, including hospitality management. Although for many researchers, SEM is equivalent to carrying out covariance-based SEM, recent research advocates the use of partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) as an attractive alternative. The purpose of this paper is to systematically examine how PLS-SEM has been applied in major hospitality research journals with the aim of providing important guidance and, if necessary, opportunities for realignment in future applications. Because PLS-SEM in hospitality research is still in an early stage of development, critically examining its use holds considerable promise to counteract misapplications which otherwise might reinforce over time.

Design/methodology/approach

All PLS-SEM studies published in the six SSCI-indexed hospitality management journals between 2001 and 2015 were reviewed. Tying in with the prior studies in the field, the review covers reasons for using PLS-SEM, data characteristics, model characteristics, the evaluation of the measurement models, the evaluation of the structural model, reporting and use of advanced analyses.

Findings

Compared to other fields, the results show that several reporting practices are clearly above standard but still leave room for improvement, particularly regarding the consideration of state-of-the art metrics for measurement and structural model assessment. Furthermore, hospitality researchers seem to be unaware of the recent extensions of the PLS-SEM method, which clearly extend the scope of the analyses and help gaining more insights from the model and the data. As a result of this PLS-SEM application review in studies, this research presents guidelines on how to accurately use the method. These guidelines are important for the hospitality management and other disciplines to disseminate and ensure the rigor of PLS-SEM analyses and reporting practices.

Research limitations/implications

Only articles published in the SSCI-indexed hospitality journals were examined and any journals indexed in other databases were not included. That is, while this research focused on the top-tier hospitality management journals, future research may widen the scope by considering hospitality management-related studies from other disciplines, such as tourism research or general management.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature by providing hospitality researchers with the updated guidelines for PLS-SEM use. Based on a systematic review of current practices in the hospitality literature, critical methodological issues when choosing and using the PLS-SEM were identified. The guidelines allow to improve future PLS-SEM studies and offer recommendations for using recent advances of the method.

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International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Book part
Publication date: 6 March 2009

Jörg Henseler, Christian M. Ringle and Rudolf R. Sinkovics

In order to determine the status quo of PLS path modeling in international marketing research, we conducted an exhaustive literature review. An evaluation of double-blind…

Abstract

In order to determine the status quo of PLS path modeling in international marketing research, we conducted an exhaustive literature review. An evaluation of double-blind reviewed journals through important academic publishing databases (e.g., ABI/Inform, Elsevier ScienceDirect, Emerald Insight, Google Scholar, PsycINFO, Swetswise) revealed that more than 30 academic articles in the domain of international marketing (in a broad sense) used PLS path modeling as means of statistical analysis. We assessed what the main motivation for the use of PLS was in respect of each article. Moreover, we checked for applications of PLS in combination with one or more additional methods, and whether the main reason for conducting any additional method(s) was mentioned.

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New Challenges to International Marketing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-469-6

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Book part
Publication date: 10 December 2015

Chun Kit Lok

Smart card-based E-payment systems are receiving increasing attention as the number of implementations is witnessed on the rise globally. Understanding of user adoption…

Abstract

Smart card-based E-payment systems are receiving increasing attention as the number of implementations is witnessed on the rise globally. Understanding of user adoption behavior of E-payment systems that employ smart card technology becomes a research area that is of particular value and interest to both IS researchers and professionals. However, research interest focuses mostly on why a smart card-based E-payment system results in a failure or how the system could have grown into a success. This signals the fact that researchers have not had much opportunity to critically review a smart card-based E-payment system that has gained wide support and overcome the hurdle of critical mass adoption. The Octopus in Hong Kong has provided a rare opportunity for investigating smart card-based E-payment system because of its unprecedented success. This research seeks to thoroughly analyze the Octopus from technology adoption behavior perspectives.

Cultural impacts on adoption behavior are one of the key areas that this research posits to investigate. Since the present research is conducted in Hong Kong where a majority of population is Chinese ethnicity and yet is westernized in a number of aspects, assuming that users in Hong Kong are characterized by eastern or western culture is less useful. Explicit cultural characteristics at individual level are tapped into here instead of applying generalization of cultural beliefs to users to more accurately reflect cultural bias. In this vein, the technology acceptance model (TAM) is adapted, extended, and tested for its applicability cross-culturally in Hong Kong on the Octopus. Four cultural dimensions developed by Hofstede are included in this study, namely uncertainty avoidance, masculinity, individualism, and Confucian Dynamism (long-term orientation), to explore their influence on usage behavior through the mediation of perceived usefulness.

TAM is also integrated with the innovation diffusion theory (IDT) to borrow two constructs in relation to innovative characteristics, namely relative advantage and compatibility, in order to enhance the explanatory power of the proposed research model. Besides, the normative accountability of the research model is strengthened by embracing two social influences, namely subjective norm and image. As the last antecedent to perceived usefulness, prior experience serves to bring in the time variation factor to allow level of prior experience to exert both direct and moderating effects on perceived usefulness.

The resulting research model is analyzed by partial least squares (PLS)-based Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach. The research findings reveal that all cultural dimensions demonstrate direct effect on perceived usefulness though the influence of uncertainty avoidance is found marginally significant. Other constructs on innovative characteristics and social influences are validated to be significant as hypothesized. Prior experience does indeed significantly moderate the two influences that perceived usefulness receives from relative advantage and compatibility, respectively. The research model has demonstrated convincing explanatory power and so may be employed for further studies in other contexts. In particular, cultural effects play a key role in contributing to the uniqueness of the model, enabling it to be an effective tool to help critically understand increasingly internationalized IS system development and implementation efforts. This research also suggests several practical implications in view of the findings that could better inform managerial decisions for designing, implementing, or promoting smart card-based E-payment system.

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E-services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-709-7

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2021

S. Mostafa Rasoolimanesh, Christian M. Ringle, Marko Sarstedt and Hossein Olya

This study aims to propose guidelines for the joint use of partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to propose guidelines for the joint use of partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to combine symmetric and asymmetric perspectives in model evaluation, in the hospitality and tourism field.

Design/methodology/approach

This study discusses PLS-SEM as a symmetric approach and fsQCA as an asymmetric approach to analyze structural and configurational models. It presents guidelines to conduct an fsQCA based on latent construct scores drawn from PLS-SEM, to assess how configurations of exogenous constructs produce a specific outcome in an endogenous construct.

Findings

This research highlights the advantages of combining PLS-SEM and fsQCA to analyze the causal effects of antecedents (i.e., exogenous constructs) on outcomes (i.e., endogenous constructs). The construct scores extracted from the PLS-SEM analysis of a nomological network of constructs provide accurate input for performing fsQCA to identify the sufficient configurations required to predict the outcome(s). Complementing the assessment of the model’s explanatory and predictive power, the fsQCA generates more fine-grained insights into variable relationships, thereby offering the means to reach better managerial conclusions.

Originality/value

The application of PLS-SEM and fsQCA as separate prediction-oriented methods has increased notably in recent years. However, in the absence of clear guidelines, studies applied the methods inconsistently, giving researchers little direction on how to best apply PLS-SEM and fsQCA in tandem. To address this concern, this study provides guidelines for the joint use of PLS-SEM and fsQCA.

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