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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2018

Sue Holttum

Humans have close relationships with animals for companionship and in working roles. The purpose of this paper is to discuss recent papers on pets and dog-assisted…

Abstract

Purpose

Humans have close relationships with animals for companionship and in working roles. The purpose of this paper is to discuss recent papers on pets and dog-assisted interventions, and relates their findings to social inclusion.

Design/methodology/approach

A search was carried out for recent papers on pets, animal-assisted therapy and social inclusion/exclusion.

Findings

One paper discusses theories (often lacking in studies of animal-assisted therapy) of why animals may be good for human health and development. A recent review shows evidence that family pet ownership may aid children’s well-being, learning and social development, but too few studies have followed children over time in pet and non-pet households. Studies of dog-assisted interventions show stress-reduction, which in turn may explain why therapy for mental health in young people and adults was more effective with a dog than without. Social inclusion is hinted at but not measured directly, yet dog-assisted therapy might be helpful in this regard.

Originality/value

All the papers discussed in detail here represent up-to-date understanding in this area of knowledge. Benefits of human-animal bonds, especially with dogs, appear to be well-supported by biological as well as observational and self-report evidence. More research is needed on how much these attachments may assist social relating and relationships with other people, and social inclusion.

Details

Mental Health and Social Inclusion, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-8308

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

R. Jeziórska

To convert the post‐production polyethylene terephthalate (PET)‐containing fabrics waste into new value‐added polymeric materials using maleic anhydride grafted linear…

Abstract

Purpose

To convert the post‐production polyethylene terephthalate (PET)‐containing fabrics waste into new value‐added polymeric materials using maleic anhydride grafted linear low‐density polyethylene (LLDPE‐g‐MAH) for improved toughness and to optimise the results of such a modification.

Design/methodology/approach

For effective toughening, various blends were made of polyamide 6 (PA) and post‐production PET‐containing fabrics waste (PET) by incorporating different concentrations of maleic anhydride grafted, linear low‐density polyethylene (LLDPE‐g‐MAH). The reactions of LLDPE‐g‐MAH with blend components were studied by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, solubility behaviour of the products in formic acid and rheological measurements. Blends investigated were prepared in a co‐rotating twin‐screw extruder and characterised by differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy. The static tensile property and impact strength of the blends were also measured.

Findings

The modification of polyamide 6 and post‐production PET‐containing fabrics waste using LLDPE‐g‐MAH showed significant enhancement of impact and interfacial adhesion over the unmodified one. The modification caused a chemical linkage between LLDPE‐g‐MAH and blend components which led not only to forming PA‐co‐LLDPE‐g‐MAH‐coPET copolymers, but also to ensuring the intrinsically strong chemical bonds across LLDPE‐g‐MAH phase/PET phase/PA matrix interface, which was the main cause to the improved impact strength and interface adhesion. The optimum results were obtained at 10 per cent of LLDPE‐g‐MAH.

Research limitations/implications

The post‐production PET‐containing fabrics waste used in the present context was defibrated before processing.

Practical implications

The method developed provided a simple and practical solution to recycling and improving the toughness of post‐production PET‐containing fabrics waste.

Originality/value

The method of recycling post‐production PET‐containing fabrics waste was novel and the new polymeric materials obtained could find numerous applications such as hybrid films, fibres and engineering polymers.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

June McNicholas

The purpose of this paper is to summarise some of the major scientific research projects that identify the value of pet ownership and pet interaction to older people with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to summarise some of the major scientific research projects that identify the value of pet ownership and pet interaction to older people with a view to disseminating such findings to health professionals and care workers engaged in the welfare of older people.

Design/methodology/approach

A review of findings from major international studies across a number of health related disciplines.

Findings

Pets may serve significant functions that enhance the physical, emotional and social well-being of older people. With recognition from health professionals, pet ownership may rank highly amongst those elements which should be preserved wherever possible.

Originality/value

The dissemination of the importance of pet ownership to the health and well-being of older people, with special implications for policy development amongst care providers.

Details

Working with Older People, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-3666

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2010

Hye Rim Kim and Wha Soon Song

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the conditions of the treatment using commercial lipase to improve the hydrophilicity of the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabrics.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the conditions of the treatment using commercial lipase to improve the hydrophilicity of the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabrics.

Design/methodology/approach

The lipase treatment conditions, such as the pH, temperature, treatment time, and concentration, are controlled by measuring the hydrolytic activity, moisture regain, and wettability of the treated fabrics. The effects of calcium ions on the moisture regain and wettability of the treated fabrics are also evaluated.

Findings

The lipase treatment conditions for PET fabrics are controlled at a pH of 7.5, a temperature of 30°C, a treatment time of 60 min, and a lipase concentration of 50 percent (owf). The moisture regain of the PET fabrics that are treated with lipase improved 3.3 times that of the untreated PET fabric. Calcium chloride did not affect the moisture regain of the treated fabrics but affected their wettability. The surface of the PET fabrics that are treated under optimum conditions and in the presence of calcium chloride showed many cracks and voids, unlike the surface of the untreated PET fabrics.

Research limitations/implications

The lipase treatment did not affect the handle of the PET fabrics in the present paper because the weight loss is very small.

Originality/value

In this paper, the control conditions for the improvement of the hydrophilicity of PET fabrics using the low‐cost commercial lipase are determined. The results of the study could further the environment‐friendly finishing of PET fabrics.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Stephen F. Winner

– The purpose of this paper is to share the positive effects pets have on individuals diagnosed with various memory-impairing diseases.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to share the positive effects pets have on individuals diagnosed with various memory-impairing diseases.

Design/methodology/approach

Observations were gathered over a period of approximately 18 years, from 1996 to 2014. These observations, which began in just one Silverado community exclusively for those with memory impairments, have remained consistent over time and are now seen in 33 communities across the USA.

Findings

Frequent interaction and access to various pets adds a sense of purpose and life to Silverado residents, each of whom was diagnosed with dementia or other memory impairing diseases.

Research limitations/implications

The findings rely on a variety of personal observations from caregivers, doctors, nurses, resident families and community leadership.

Practical implications

Including pets in an assisted living community creates an environment filled with life and compassion, which ultimately gives many residents a sense of purpose again.

Social implications

The Silverado Pet Philosophy furthers the organization's mission to change the way the world perceives and cares for those with memory impairments.

Originality/value

There are limited case studies that outline the positive effects of pets in a memory care community over this length of time.

Details

Working with Older People, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-3666

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Book part
Publication date: 7 May 2019

Maria Alejandra Gonzalez-Perez and Andri Georgiadou

This chapter of exploratory nature aims to provide an account of the reviewed literature and presents some empirical cases to come to conceptualize dogs as social actors…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter of exploratory nature aims to provide an account of the reviewed literature and presents some empirical cases to come to conceptualize dogs as social actors with different legitimate roles in the working, social, private, economic, and family life of human beings.

Design/Methodology/Approach

This chapter is the product of a research inspired by the great interest of the authors on rising awareness of the importance of dogs in human working lives. For this, a purposive literature review took place; we consulted scientific studies databases, and also gathered information from market research agencies, and other general media resources. To have a more comprehensive view, and to respond to a specific question on dogs at the workplace, a selection of cases is used to illustrate. For the case studies, secondary data research was used, and individual, structured interviews were conducted and analyzed.

Findings

This chapter reviews the relationship between humans and animals. It identifies attitudes and perception toward animals, highlighting the evolution of the intimate bond and the deep relationship between dogs and humans. It describes some cases of dogs as working beings at the service of human functions and dimensions of the pet care markets. Finally, it presents some cases of pet-friendly work environments.

Originality/Value

The novel contribution of this chapter is putting dogs in the management of diversity academic literature. In this study, we find that the role, meaning, and purpose of dogs in people’s lives (and in many cases in organizations) are being underestimated. Including and making visible the presence of dogs in the personal, work, and well-being of people represents challenges to be addressed by managers. Additionally, it represents challenges to think about and investigate the welfare of dogs that interact with human beings in productive environments.

Details

Diversity within Diversity Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-172-9

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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2021

Abbas Ahmad Adamu, Norazilawati Muhamad Sarih and Seng Neon Gan

Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) waste from soft drink bottles was incorporated into palm olein alkyd to produce new polyol for use in polyurethane resins as surface…

Abstract

Purpose

Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) waste from soft drink bottles was incorporated into palm olein alkyd to produce new polyol for use in polyurethane resins as surface protection on metal surfaces.

Design/methodology/approach

Alkyd was prepared from palm olein, glycerol and phthalic anhydride. PET underwent simultaneous glycolysis and transesterification reactions with the alkyd. Varying the amount of PET has led to polyols with different viscosities. Polyurethane resins were produced by reacting the polyols with toluene diisocyanate. The resins were coated on mild steel panels and cured. Performances of the cured films were tested.

Findings

The polyurethanes (PU) resin cured to a harder film with better thermal stability. Films showed excellent adhesion properties, while higher content of PET exhibited higher pencil hardness, better water, salt, acid and alkali resistance.

Research limitations/implications

Other vegetable oils could also be used. The alkyd structure could be changed by formulation to have different functionality and the ability to incorporate higher amount of PET waste. Rate of glycolysis of PET could be increased by higher amount of ethylene glycol.

Practical implications

This method has managed to use waste PET in producing new polyol and PU resins. The cured films exhibit good mechanical and chemical properties, as well as excellent adhesion and thermal stability.

Social implications

The non-biodegradable PET has created environmental pollution problems connected to littering and illegal landfilling. It has become necessary to pay greater attention to recycling PET bottles for obtaining valuable products.

Originality/value

This approach is different from the earlier reports, where PET was recycled to recover the raw materials.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2020

David Redmalm

This article adopts Foucault's notion of a bipolar technology of disciplinary power and regulatory biopower to address the tension between discipline and freedom in…

Abstract

Purpose

This article adopts Foucault's notion of a bipolar technology of disciplinary power and regulatory biopower to address the tension between discipline and freedom in domestic relationships between human and nonhuman animals commonly referred to as “pets.” In doing so, the article examines the promises and pitfalls of thinking through pet keeping as a form of lived, posthumanist critique.

Design/methodology/approach

The argument relies on an interview study with 20 pet owners—most of the interviews conducted in their homes together with their pets—to conceptualize how they organize their lives in relation to their pets.

Findings

The analysis shows that the boundaries of the home, the play of power between bodies, and the “conditions of an unconditional love” are central to producing the pet relationship as inherently meaningful and as an indispensable part of the lives of both pet keepers and pets. A balance between discipline and freedom enables the construction of both human and other identities: pet owners produce their pets' subjectivity by speaking of them as autonomous persons, while pets' presence in the home also enables their owners' subjectivity.

Social implications

The article critically examines interspecies relationships, which by extension can benefit nonhuman animals. It argues that pet keeping can challenge anthropocentrism and unsustainable consumption lifestyles, but it may also reinforce prevailing biopolitical logics, if it remains maintained within a secluded domestic or cultural sphere.

Originality/value

The article draws on original data. While Foucauldian theory has been used to discuss pet keeping, empirical studies of pet keeping that rely on this theoretical framework are scarce.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 41 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 18 December 2019

David A. Makin and Leanna Ireland

The purpose of this paper is to explore to what extent the legal environment influences a user’s choice to employ privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs). Drawing upon…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore to what extent the legal environment influences a user’s choice to employ privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs). Drawing upon existing theoretical frames specific to arbitrariness and uncertainty, this research examines whether interest in PETs is influenced by the legal environment of a country.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data from Google Trends, the International Property Rights Index, Freedom House and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the research analyzes interest in Tor, VPN technology and pretty good privacy (PGP) in 153 countries between 2012 and 2016.

Findings

Findings suggest both countries with both higher and lower arbitrariness and uncertainty of law are associated with an increased interest in Tor and PGP. However, interest in VPN technology does not appear influenced by the legal environment and, instead, is influenced by freedom within the press.

Research limitations/implications

The dual use nature of Tor and PGP is influenced by law enforcement and judiciary effectiveness and transparency and arbitrariness contributing to the public’s interest in decentralized technological protections.

Practical implications

Law enforcement should continue to police via the technologies rather than shutting them down to protect the identities of those needing to use these technologies for legitimate purposes. Only by embracing the technologies, as opposed to seeing them as hurdles to be banned, may law enforcement agencies remain vigilant to the threats posted by nefarious actors.

Originality/value

In this study, the authors introduce a more robust measure of interest in PETs, and do so with a larger, more substantive sample. By situating this interest within the context of policing, the authors can document the dual use nature of the technology, which can be useful in guiding future research, specifically in the area of policy development and officer training.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2020

Yinchun Fang, Xinhua Liu and Wenqing Fei

PET fiber is widely used in many fields, such as clothing and decorative materials. However, the high flammability and dripping problem restrict its applications. It is…

Abstract

Purpose

PET fiber is widely used in many fields, such as clothing and decorative materials. However, the high flammability and dripping problem restrict its applications. It is vital for PET fiber to overcome these two main drawbacks for practical applications.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper nacre-mimetic flame retardant coating of chitosan (CH) and Montmorillonite (MMT) was fabricated on PET fabrics through the layer-by-layer assembly method. The flame retardancy and anti-dripping performance of the treated PET fabric were investigated.

Findings

The results of limiting oxygen index (LOI) value and vertical burning test revealed the anti-dripping performance of PET fabrics which was greatly improved, while the flame retardancy has not been improved. The dripping phenomena was eliminated when the CH/MMT bilayers were over 5 BL. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) results revealed that nacre-mimetic coated CH/MMT bilayers on PET fabrics would promote the char formation both under nitrogen atmosphere and under air atmosphere indicating the obviously condensed phase flame retardant action. scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the char residues revealed that coated PET fabrics would promote the formation of char.

Research limitations/implications

However, the char was an unstable char which would further combust to change the thermal degradation and combustion process of PET fabric. Though PET fabric coated by this CH/MMT nacre-mimetic system had no flame retardancy, the anti-dripping performance was greatly improved. This research would provide experimental basis for improving the anti-dripping performance for thermoplastic materials.

Originality/value

This research is the original research for the flame retardant treatment by fabrication nacre-mimetic CH/MMT coating on PET fabric, which has not been reported previously. This research would provide experimental basis for improving the anti-dripping performance for thermoplastic polymer fabrics.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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