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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2017

Martin Christopher Saier

Investigating the beginning of project management (app. 30 BC) with a focus on business models similar to the “PDCA” cycle, the purpose of this paper is to find an…

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Abstract

Purpose

Investigating the beginning of project management (app. 30 BC) with a focus on business models similar to the “PDCA” cycle, the purpose of this paper is to find an approach which could be used as a new standard procedure for the eradication of projects in Lean project management.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on literature research of models similar to Walter A. Shehwart’s three-step and Edward W. Deming’s four-step (PDC(A)) wheel, the investigated models are interconnected to form a new concept which represents an innovative cycle logic proposed to be applied in Lean project management. This new cycle logic is rolled out on three different levels, which are transferred from the Lean management hoshin kanri model to Lean project management. In addition to literature research, semi-structured interviews were performed to get an indication as to the integration of Lean management (with a focus on PDCA) in project management today.

Findings

It was found that the “Check Plan Do” cycle is a Lean variant of the “Plan Do Check Act” model that is already used in consulting projects in practice, partially appears in project management standards, in governance models of ambulance, fire services, human aid and military forces and in quality management models of Six Sigma, design for Six Sigma and an excellence model of the European Foundation for Quality Management. To ensure continuous improvement it was found that the new CPD cycle can be used on different “planning” levels in analogy to the hoshin kanri logic.

Originality/value

To the best of the author’s knowledge, a discussion as to how the PDCA cycle can be adapted to Lean project management, considering the implication of business models similar to the PDCA wheel, has not yet been conducted within the field of project management.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2019

Daniel Luiz de Mattos Nascimento, Osvaldo Luiz Goncalvez Quelhas, Rodrigo Goyannes Gusmão Caiado, Guilherme Luz Tortorella, Jose Arturo Garza-Reyes and Luis Rocha-Lona

This paper aims to explore synergies between lean production (LP) and six sigma principles to propose a lean six sigma (LSS) framework for continuous and incremental…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore synergies between lean production (LP) and six sigma principles to propose a lean six sigma (LSS) framework for continuous and incremental improvement in the oil and gas sector. The Three-dimensional LSS framework seeks to provide various combinations about the integration between LP principles, DMAIC (define–measure–analyse–improve–control) cycle and plan-do-check-act (PDCA) cycle to support operations management needs.

Design/methodology/approach

The research method is composed of two main steps: diagnosis of current problems and proposition of a conceptual framework that qualitatively integrates synergistic aspects of LP and six sigma and analysis of the application of the construct through semi-structured interviews with leaders from oil and gas companies to assess and validate the proposed framework.

Findings

As a result, a conceptual framework of LSS is developed contemplating the integration of LP and six sigma and providing a systemic and holistic approach to problem-solving through continuous and incremental improvement in the oil and gas sector.

Originality/value

This research is different from previous studies because it integrates LP principles, DMAIC and PDCA cycles into a unique framework that fulfils a specific need of oil and gas sector. It presents a customized LSS framework that guides wastes and cost reduction while enhancing quality and reducing process variability to elevate efficiency in operations management of this sector. This is an original research that presents new and original scientific findings.

Details

International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-4166

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2019

Ping Wang, Kathryn Marley, John Joseph Vogt and Joan Mileski

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the contingency effects that contextual factors of a networked service environment have on the phased Lean Six Sigma (LSS…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the contingency effects that contextual factors of a networked service environment have on the phased Lean Six Sigma (LSS) implementation frameworks.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper employs the critical realism (CR) case study research methodology to examine the contingent and causal relationships between contextual configurations of business networks, the DMAIC or PDCA phases in an LSS implementation agenda, and business management functions. The authors conducted a single case study on the basis of challenges they met in kicking off lean transportation in the Port of Houston.

Findings

The key finding from the study is a mid-range theory regarding the contingency effects of contextual factors of service business networks on the phased LSS implementation frameworks. The authors found that when there are complexity and dynamics of contextual factors at the field layer, management should focus more on tasks in early LSS phases to emphasize influencing. When there is no centralized authority in the network and the value-system is loosely coupled, management needs to execute more tasks as described in the define, measure and analyze phases with the purpose of both influencing and orchestrating. When individual actors have goals not aligned well with the goal of the business network and have unmatched operations capabilities, these factors should be considered as early as possible in these LSS phases. When a business network has complicated business processes with high unpredictability and uncertainty and individual actors’ value-creation systems are not well embedded in the entire value-creation system, PDCA will be the preferred core structure of an LSS implementation agenda.

Research limitations/implications

This study contributes to the LSS research stream by introducing a causal/contingency model that prescribes the contingency effects of three contextual configurations on LSS implementation. It also contributes to the emerging discipline, business network management, regarding how to use LSS frameworks in strategic planning. It also contributes to the CR school of problem-driven case study by using a strategic initiative framework as a platform and each phase in the framework as a unit. This conceptualization of the entity of interest helps explore the interactions among three theoretical constructs: contextual configurations, phased LSS implementation agenda and management functions.

Practical implications

Managerial implications of this study are twofold. One is the procedure of analyzing the impacts of contextual factors on the causal relationships between LSS implementation phases and network management functions. The entire procedure represents the agenda-setting process of LSS implementation, the most daunting and challenging managerial task in LSS projects. Another one is the guideline on how to determine whether DMAIC or PDCA is appropriate for the LSS agenda when used in a networked environment.

Originality/value

This paper would serve as an excellent resource for both academicians and LSS practitioners in initiating, orchestrating and managing an LSS project in a networked service environment. This study represents the first effort to explore the impact of contextual factors of business networks on lean transformation.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article
Publication date: 26 March 2010

Gregory H. Watson and Camille F. DeYong

The purpose of this paper is to describe the historical approach to concurrent engineering (CE) which has resulted in product line management (PLM) and then evaluates the…

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2114

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the historical approach to concurrent engineering (CE) which has resulted in product line management (PLM) and then evaluates the theoretical models that have been proposed for design for Six Sigma (DFSS) in order to determine which model is able to provide the most consistent approach with historical development of PLM.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach begins with an overview of the approach taken by the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE) in the development of a coherent quality methodology for structured analysis and problem solving – the Deming Wheel of plan‐do‐check‐act (PDCA) which has become the standard model in Japanese total quality management to define a logical decomposition in process management. In Japan, PDCA is the single logical model which has been broadly accepted as the construct for understanding how to develop both strategic and operational quality methods. The second step in the approach is to examine a similar American development of the model for statistical problem solving that is applied in the Six Sigma method for statistical problem solving: define‐measure‐analyze‐improve‐control (DMAIC). Next, the paper examines the historical sequence in the way the product development process has developed over the past forty years, with emphasis on its military origins (especially CE) and which resulted in the generic model for PLM. The final part of this paper examines the models that have been proposed to implement DFSS over the past ten years and evaluate their logical congruence with the engineering community's design process.

Findings

Problems in alignment with the engineering design process were identified with all of the DFSS models and with the non‐structured or “heuristic” approach to developing a coherent body of knowledge related to DFSS.

Originality/value

This paper provides a challenge to the quality community as well as to the academic community. The paper points out the need for rigorous examination of logical models that are proposed for guiding the thinking of practitioners in the use of quality methods for both the engineering of products and business systems. An expose of lack of rationality in the way an approach to DFSS has been investigated calls for more responsibility in the management of the development of this body of knowledge.

Details

International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-4166

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Mathew Nicho

The frequent and increasingly potent cyber-attacks because of lack of an optimal mix of technical as well as non-technical IT controls has led to increased adoption of…

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1506

Abstract

Purpose

The frequent and increasingly potent cyber-attacks because of lack of an optimal mix of technical as well as non-technical IT controls has led to increased adoption of security governance controls by organizations. The purpose of this paper, thus, is to construct and empirically validate an information security governance (ISG) process model through the plan–do–check–act (PDCA) cycle model of Deming.

Design/methodology/approach

This descriptive research using an interpretive paradigm follows a qualitative methodology using expert interviews of five respondents working in the ISG domain in United Arab Emirates (UAE) to validate the theoretical model.

Findings

The findings of this paper suggest the primacy of the PDCA Deming cycle for initiating ISG through a risk-based approach assisted by industry-wide best practices in ISG. Regarding selection of ISG frameworks, respondents preferred to have ISO 27K supported by NIST as the core framework with other relevant ISG frameworks/standards forming the peripheral layer. The implementation focus of the ISG model is on mapping ISO 27K/NIST IT controls relevant IT controls selected from ISG frameworks from a horizontal and vertical perspective. Respondents asserted the automation of measurement and control mechanism through automation to assist in the feedback loop of the PDCA cycle.

Originality/value

The validated model helps academics and practitioners gain insight into the methodology of the phased implementation of an information systems governance process through the PDCA model, as well as the positioning of ITG and ITG frameworks in ISG. Practitioners can glean valuable insights from the empirical section of the research where experts detail the success factors, the sequential steps and justification of these factors in the ISG implementation process.

Details

Information & Computer Security, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4961

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Article
Publication date: 9 December 2020

Lan Shi and Eric C.K. Cheng

This paper investigates the effectiveness of metacognitive teaching methods on students' reading comprehension through a lesson study case conducted in Shanghai.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper investigates the effectiveness of metacognitive teaching methods on students' reading comprehension through a lesson study case conducted in Shanghai.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopts an experimental design with control groups and experimental groups. Plan–do–check–act (PDCA) cycles of lesson study were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of modeling, self-questioning, think aloud and KWL strategy in Chinese language lessons. Metacognitive teaching strategies were implemented at a junior high school in Shanghai. The data was collected via lesson observation, interviews and pre- and posttests.

Findings

Results identified a significant difference between the incremental scores of students' reading comprehension in the experimental group and control group. The findings from the lesson observation showed that metacognitive teaching strategies in Chinese language developed students' reading comprehension. Moreover, PDCA cycles of lesson study helped the teachers improve metacognitive teaching strategies.

Originality/value

Few studies have been conducted to validate metacognitive teaching through lesson study in the context of China schools, and this study contributes to a new research dimension of lesson study on developing pedagogical practices to improve student learning outcomes.

Details

International Journal for Lesson & Learning Studies, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-8253

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2021

Erin King and Alys Young

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effectiveness of reablement as an outcome-focussed commissioning model within the English domiciliary care market from the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effectiveness of reablement as an outcome-focussed commissioning model within the English domiciliary care market from the perspective of two private domiciliary care agency (PDCA) managers/owners within one local authority (LA) in the North West of England. Specifically, it focusses on owner/managers' perceived ability to effect change from a dependency to a reablement model within the English domiciliary care market.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative interviews with two contrasting owners/managers of PDCAs within one LA in the North West of England were carried out. Explorative analysis followed a constructionist grounded theory methodology.

Findings

Findings revealed how two main factors interacted to effect change from a dependency model to a reablement model of domiciliary care: internal organisational structure and individual emotional investment of the owners/managers. Additionally, fiscal and external organisational systems impact on these drivers, and are perceived to act as potential barriers to the adoption of a reablement model of domiciliary care by PDCAs.

Originality/value

Although based on only two idiographic accounts, the findings shed light on the policy and practice of commissioning models of domiciliary care within England and suggest further studies in this area of practice.

Details

Journal of Integrated Care, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1476-9018

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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Anders Melander, Malin Löfving, David Andersson, Fredrik Elgh and Mikael Thulin

The purpose of this paper is to explore the basic principles and introduction of the Hoshin Kanri (HK) strategic management system, as related to the management practices…

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2340

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the basic principles and introduction of the Hoshin Kanri (HK) strategic management system, as related to the management practices in manufacturing small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reports the findings from the introduction of HK to four manufacturing SMEs by following an assistance support-based research approach where teams of coaches and researchers observed and learned from the introduction phase. The overall design of the project is theory building and learning oriented.

Findings

It is suggested that the successful introduction of a strategic management system in manufacturing SMEs has to balance the inherent level of formalization therein, with the individual company’s management practices. Based on HK as the strategic management system, pDCA is proposed as an alternative approach to the introduction, matching differences in management practices.

Research limitations/implications

The explorative nature of this research provides room for subsequent studies by elaborating the knowledge on the introduction of strategic management systems in SMEs.

Practical implications

Awareness of the existing managerial practices is essential when introducing a new strategic management system in manufacturing SMEs. Such awareness is the starting point of customizing the introduction, so that proper levels of engagement and flexibility can be balanced with increasing systematic formalization, and optimized adequacy.

Originality/value

Following an assistance support-based research approach the result of this research project is summarized in the iterative pDCA model emphasizing engagement and flexibility when incrementally introducing strategic management systems in SMEs. This model addresses a hitherto under-researched topic in strategic management.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 54 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Paul G. LeMahieu, Lee E. Nordstrum and Patricia Greco

This paper is one of seven in this volume that aims to elaborate different approaches to quality improvement in education. It delineates a methodology called Lean for Education.

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1683

Abstract

Purpose

This paper is one of seven in this volume that aims to elaborate different approaches to quality improvement in education. It delineates a methodology called Lean for Education.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents the origins, theoretical foundations, core concepts and a case study demonstrating an application in US education, specifically dealing with the problem of improving technology supports and services for instructional purposes in a school district system.

Findings

An approach borrowed from manufacturing, Lean is aimed at creating and delivering the greatest value to the clients or “customers” in education systems while consuming the fewest resources and eliminating waste. Simultaneously, the method engages the organization in continuous problem solving, learning and making quality improvements with Plan-Do-Check-Act cycles. The core concepts that organize the Lean for Education approach are: continuous improvement and respect for people (Emiliani, 2005).

Originality/value

Few theoretical treatments and demonstration cases are currently available on commonly used models of quality improvement in other fields that might have potential value in improving education systems internationally, such as large grade kindergarten-to-12 education systems in the USA. This paper fills this gap by elucidating one promising approach. The paper also derives value as it permits a comparison of the Lean for Education method with other quality improvement approaches treated in this volume.

Details

Quality Assurance in Education, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-4883

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Article
Publication date: 10 November 2020

Konrad Kulikowski

This conceptual paper aims to propose the evidence-based benchmarking model that bridges standard benchmarking practices with evidence-based management (EBMgt) principles…

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441

Abstract

Purpose

This conceptual paper aims to propose the evidence-based benchmarking model that bridges standard benchmarking practices with evidence-based management (EBMgt) principles and lessens tensions between two opposite views of benchmarking as a useful management tool vs a management hype and fashion.

Design/methodology/approach

This conceptual paper is based on the critical reasoning, analysis and integration of so far largely separated research fields of benchmarking and EBMgt. The author employs a method of conceptual model building to identify connections between standard benchmarking model and EBMgt practices and to explain how a sequence of benchmarking events supplemented by EBMgt principles might lead to more reliable managerial decision-making.

Findings

The author argues that although there are no common benchmarking procedures, it is possible to identify a standard benchmarking model that resonates in most contemporary benchmarking procedures and consists of four main phases: plan, do, check and act (PDCA). The author integrated this standard model with EBMgt practices of searching for evidence in four sources of information and a six-step critical thinking process to put forward the model of evidence-based benchmarking.

Originality/value

The proposed model is a novel, comprehensive framework that puts together so far incompatible practices of benchmarking and EBMgt. The model clears up existing conceptual confusions around “casual” benchmarking and advances contemporary understanding of benchmarking practices. The model of evidence-based benchmarking might act as a practical, heuristic tool improving the quality of the managerial decisions and thus positively influencing the bottom line of business performance.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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