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Special problems arise in the valuation of property which is transacted in a market distorted by government policy in the particular form of the enterprise zone. This…
Special problems arise in the valuation of property which is transacted in a market distorted by government policy in the particular form of the enterprise zone. This paper seeks to outline the nature of enterprise zones, the effect they have had on local property markets and the impact upon values and valuations created by rates exemptions and capital allowances. A case study illustrates how these factors may be taken into account in the valuation of industrial property in an enterprise zone.
BRITISH Aerospace (Commercial Aircraft) Airbus Division has announced a multi‐year partnership with Mentor Graphics' Context Division. The company selected Context's…
BRITISH Aerospace (Commercial Aircraft) Airbus Division has announced a multi‐year partnership with Mentor Graphics' Context Division. The company selected Context's technical publishing and documentation management system for producing and revising maintenance documentation for Concorde, Airbus and BAC 1–11 aircraft.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact and techniques for mitigating the effects of web robots on usage statistics collected by Open Access (OA…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact and techniques for mitigating the effects of web robots on usage statistics collected by Open Access (OA) institutional repositories (IRs).
A close review of the literature provides a comprehensive list of web robot detection techniques. Reviews of system documentation and open source code are carried out along with personal interviews to provide a comparison of the robot detection techniques used in the major IR platforms. An empirical test based on a simple random sample of downloads with 96.20 per cent certainty is undertaken to measure the accuracy of an IR’s web robot detection at a large Irish University.
While web robot detection is not ignored in IRs, there are areas where the two main systems could be improved. The technique tested here is found to have successfully detected 94.18 per cent of web robots visiting the site over a two-year period (recall), with a precision of 98.92 per cent. Due to the high level of robot activity in repositories, correctly labelling more robots has an exponential effect on the accuracy of usage statistics.
This study is performed on one repository using a single system. Future studies across multiple sites and platforms are needed to determine the accuracy of web robot detection in OA repositories generally.
This is the only study to date to have investigated web robot detection in IRs. It puts forward the first empirical benchmarking of accuracy in IR usage statistics.
Research in the discipline of antitrust economics, which encompasses legal as well as economic aspects, reveals a young and expanding area that has established its own literature within the past twenty years. The citations in this bibliographic essay were selected for their particular relevance to the subject and represent a core collection of materials that would be most useful to the study of American antitrust economics.
The term ‘integrative levels’ was introduced by Joseph Needham in 1937. He recognized a series of eight levels. Others have since proposed various different and often longer series. Now, by the rigorus application of two ad hoc rules or criteria for the discrimination of ‘major integrative levels’, the number of such major levels (on present knowledge) is found to be nine. Short terms are available for designating the members of the different levels. Having performed the formal classification of objects, according to integrative level, several new quantitative generalizations become apparent. For instance, there is now clear evidence of a general long‐term acceleration throughout most of the period of biological and social evolution.
Some sociologists are more interested in using quantification as a source of legitima‐tion than in confronting mathematics as a central element of culture. Yet mathematics may be viewed as an institution with a normative core developing alongside experience of the physical world, susceptible of both “internalist” and “externalist” program‐mes of investigation.