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Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) coupled with support-vector machine (SVM) was carried out to identify and discriminate between the fluorescence spectroscopies of…
Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) coupled with support-vector machine (SVM) was carried out to identify and discriminate between the fluorescence spectroscopies of coconut water brands.
PARAFAC was applied to reduce three-dimensional data of excitation emission matrix (EEM) to two-dimensional data. SVM was applied to discriminate between six commercial coconut water brands in this study. The three largest variation data from fluorescence spectroscopy were extracted using the PARAFAC method as the input data of SVM classifiers.
The discrimination results of the six commercial coconut water brands were achieved by three SVM methods (Ga-SVM, PSO-SVM and Grid-SVM). The best classification accuracies were 100.00%, 96.43% and 94.64% for the training set, test set and CV accuracy.
The above results indicate that fluorescence spectroscopy combined with PARAFAC and SVM methods proved to be a simple and rapid detection method for coconut water and perhaps other beverages.
Joint space multidimensional scaling (MDS) maps are often utilized for positioning analyses and are estimated with survey data of consumer preferences, choices…
Joint space multidimensional scaling (MDS) maps are often utilized for positioning analyses and are estimated with survey data of consumer preferences, choices, considerations, intentions, etc. so as to provide a parsimonious spatial depiction of the competitive landscape. However, little attention has been given to the possibility that consumers may display heterogeneity in their information usage (Bettman et al., 1998) and the possible impact this may have on the corresponding estimated joint space maps. This paper aims to address this important issue and proposes a new Bayesian multidimensional unfolding model for the analysis of two or three-way dominance (e.g. preference) data. The authors’ new MDS model explicitly accommodates dimension selection and preference heterogeneity simultaneously in a unified framework.
This manuscript introduces a new Bayesian hierarchical spatial MDS model with accompanying Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm for estimation that explicitly places constraints on a set of scale parameters in such a way as to model a consumer using or not using each latent dimension in forming his/her preferences while at the same time permitting consumers to differentially weigh each utilized latent dimension. In this manner, both preference heterogeneity and dimensionality selection heterogeneity are modeled simultaneously.
The superiority of this model over existing spatial models is demonstrated in both the case of simulated data, where the structure of the data is known in advance, as well as in an empirical application/illustration relating to the positioning of digital cameras. In the empirical application/illustration, the policy implications of accounting for the presence of dimensionality selection heterogeneity is shown to be derived from the Bayesian spatial analyses conducted. The results demonstrate that a model that incorporates dimensionality selection heterogeneity outperforms models that cannot recognize that consumers may be selective in the product information that they choose to process. Such results also show that a marketing manager may encounter biased parameter estimates and distorted market structures if he/she ignores such dimensionality selection heterogeneity.
The proposed Bayesian spatial model provides information regarding how individual consumers utilize each dimension and how the relationship with behavioral variables can help marketers understand the underlying reasons for selective dimensional usage. Further, the proposed approach helps a marketing manager to identify major dimension(s) that could maximize the effect of a change of brand positioning, and thus identify potential opportunities/threats that existing MDS methods cannot provides.
To date, no existent spatial model utilized for brand positioning can accommodate the various forms of heterogeneity exhibited by real consumers mentioned above. The end result can be very inaccurate and biased portrayals of competitive market structure whose strategy implications may be wrong and non-optimal. Given the role of such spatial models in the classical segmentation-targeting-positioning paradigm which forms the basis of all marketing strategy, the value of such research can be dramatic in many marketing applications, as illustrated in the manuscript via analyses of both synthetic and actual data.
Cooperative driving refers to a notion that intelligent system sharing controlling with human driver and completing driving task together. One of the key technologies is…
Cooperative driving refers to a notion that intelligent system sharing controlling with human driver and completing driving task together. One of the key technologies is that the intelligent system can identify the driver’s driving intention in real time to implement consistent driving decisions. The purpose of this study is to establish a driver intention prediction model.
The authors used the NIRx device to measure the cerebral cortex activities for identifying the driver’s braking intention. The experiment was carried out in a virtual reality environment. During the experiment, the driving simulator recorded the driving data and the functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) device recorded the changes in hemoglobin concentration in the cerebral cortex. After the experiment, the driver’s braking intention identification model was established through the principal component analysis and back propagation neural network.
The research results showed that the accuracy of the model established in this paper was 80.39 per cent. And, the model could identify the driver’s braking intent prior to his braking operation.
The limitation of this study was that the experimental environment was ideal and did not consider the surrounding traffic. At the same time, other actions of the driver were not taken into account when establishing the braking intention recognition model. Besides, the verification results obtained in this paper could only reflect the results of a few drivers’ identification of braking intention.
This study can be used as a reference for future research on driving intention through fNIRS, and it also has a positive effect on the research of brain-controlled driving. At the same time, it has developed new frontiers for intention recognition of cooperative driving.
This study explores new directions for future brain-controlled driving and wheelchairs.
The driver’s driving intention was predicted through the fNIRS device for the first time.
The set of compositional approaches to product space development is expanded to include confirmatory methods. Specifically, describes and compares product space…
The set of compositional approaches to product space development is expanded to include confirmatory methods. Specifically, describes and compares product space development (perceptual mapping) via confirmatory factor analysis and partial least squares with the aid of an empirical example. Both of these procedures are widely used in causal or structural equation modelling. Since they tend to be confirmatory extensions to factor analysis and principal components analysis, the approaches are also well suited to the development of product spaces. Confirmatory approaches have several advantages over exploratory approaches including the incorporation of prior knowledge, the elimination of rotational indeterminacy, and the use of a wide variety of measurement tools to assess the reliability and validity of model results.