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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1989

Melba Jesudason

At the 1983 winter meeting of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), Proposition 48 (P48) was enacted as an initial step in reforming the state of collegiate…

Abstract

At the 1983 winter meeting of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), Proposition 48 (P48) was enacted as an initial step in reforming the state of collegiate athletics. Proposition 48 has two components: P48 and P48B. The first component states that 1) incoming first‐year students must have attained at least a 2.0 grade point average in eleven “core” college preparatory courses, which must include three English courses, two math courses, two social science courses, and two natural or physical sciences courses (including one lab section); and 2) incoming first‐year students must score at least seven hundred on the SAT or fifteen on the ACT. P48B states that 1) first‐year students who do not meet the minimum grade requirements of P48 may still enroll in the university of their choice if accepted; 2) first‐year students who do not meet the minimum requirements of P48 are ineligible for athletics their first year; 3) they will have three years of eligibility remaining provided their academic progress is satisfactory during their ineligible year. The rulings, which stipulate that the nation's 277 Division I college and universities meet the requirements, became effective in August 1986. P48 has thus taken a small step in communicating to high school and college athletes that they must do well academically if they wish to receive athletic scholarships.

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Reference Services Review, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 18 November 2019

Masoud Kavoosi, Maxim A. Dulebenets, Olumide Abioye, Junayed Pasha, Oluwatosin Theophilus, Hui Wang, Raphael Kampmann and Marko Mikijeljević

Marine transportation has been faced with an increasing demand for containerized cargo during the past decade. Marine container terminals (MCTs), as the facilities for…

Abstract

Purpose

Marine transportation has been faced with an increasing demand for containerized cargo during the past decade. Marine container terminals (MCTs), as the facilities for connecting seaborne and inland transportation, are expected to handle the increasing amount of containers, delivered by vessels. Berth scheduling plays an important role for the total throughput of MCTs as well as the overall effectiveness of the MCT operations. This study aims to propose a novel island-based metaheuristic algorithm to solve the berth scheduling problem and minimize the total cost of serving the arriving vessels at the MCT.

Design/methodology/approach

A universal island-based metaheuristic algorithm (UIMA) was proposed in this study, aiming to solve the spatially constrained berth scheduling problem. The UIMA population was divided into four sub-populations (i.e. islands). Unlike the canonical island-based algorithms that execute the same metaheuristic on each island, four different population-based metaheuristics are adopted within the developed algorithm to search the islands, including the following: evolutionary algorithm (EA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), estimation of distribution algorithm (EDA) and differential evolution (DE). The adopted population-based metaheuristic algorithms rely on different operators, which facilitate the search process for superior solutions on the UIMA islands.

Findings

The conducted numerical experiments demonstrated that the developed UIMA algorithm returned near-optimal solutions for the small-size problem instances. As for the large-size problem instances, UIMA was found to be superior to the EA, PSO, EDA and DE algorithms, which were executed in isolation, in terms of the obtained objective function values at termination. Furthermore, the developed UIMA algorithm outperformed various single-solution-based metaheuristic algorithms (including variable neighborhood search, tabu search and simulated annealing) in terms of the solution quality. The maximum UIMA computational time did not exceed 306 s.

Research limitations/implications

Some of the previous berth scheduling studies modeled uncertain vessel arrival times and/or handling times, while this study assumed the vessel arrival and handling times to be deterministic.

Practical implications

The developed UIMA algorithm can be used by the MCT operators as an efficient decision support tool and assist with a cost-effective design of berth schedules within an acceptable computational time.

Originality/value

A novel island-based metaheuristic algorithm is designed to solve the spatially constrained berth scheduling problem. The proposed island-based algorithm adopts several types of metaheuristic algorithms to cover different areas of the search space. The considered metaheuristic algorithms rely on different operators. Such feature is expected to facilitate the search process for superior solutions.

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Prioritization of Failure Modes in Manufacturing Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-142-4

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Book part
Publication date: 28 April 2016

Andrew T. Young

Why did the United States experience a housing and mortgage market boom and bust in the 2000s, while analogous Canadian markets were relatively stable? Both US and…

Abstract

Why did the United States experience a housing and mortgage market boom and bust in the 2000s, while analogous Canadian markets were relatively stable? Both US and Canadian markets are replete with government interventions. In this paper, I account for the US and Canada’s different experiences by arguing that government interventions are not created equal. Some government interventions prevent market participants from pursuing actions that ex ante are reckoned beneficial. Alternatively, other interventions lead to the pursuit of actions that turn out to be costly ex post. It is the latter type that we expect to manifest in crises. The US case is one where government interventions in the mortgage markets led to actions that appeared ex ante beneficial but were revealed to be costly ex post. Alternatively, Canada’s mortgage market was and remains essentially a regulated oligopoly. Regulatory capture makes for a sclerotic market that likely imposes costs on Canadian borrowers in the forms of limited financing options and higher interest rates. However, this sclerosis also lends itself to stability. This market structure made the Canadian mortgage market relatively insusceptible to a bubble.

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Book part
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Peter T. Leeson and Paola A. Suarez

This paper investigates the relationship between superstition and self-governance. We argue that at least some superstitions, and perhaps many, support self-governing…

Abstract

This paper investigates the relationship between superstition and self-governance. We argue that at least some superstitions, and perhaps many, support self-governing arrangements. The relationship between such scientifically false beliefs and private institutions is symbiotic and socially productive. This simple but overlooked observation may help explain the emergence and otherwise puzzling persistence of both superstitions and “spontaneous” orders that seem perverse or dysfunctional, as well as why these two phenomena are often found together.

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New Thinking in Austrian Political Economy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-137-8

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Article
Publication date: 19 February 2020

Mohammad Abdullah

This paper aims to analyse the Sharī'ah premises of classical waqf doctrines followed by critically analysing the framework of waqf jurisprudence (fiqh al-awqāf) from a…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyse the Sharī'ah premises of classical waqf doctrines followed by critically analysing the framework of waqf jurisprudence (fiqh al-awqāf) from a Maqāṣid al-Sharī'ah (the higher objectives of Islamic law) perspective. The objective of examining the jurisprudential framework of waqf from a maqāṣid perspective is to contextualise the scope of dynamism and innovation in the modern waqf structure.

Design/methodology/approach

For examining the jurisprudential aspects of classical fiqh al-awqāf with a special reference to Maqāṣid al-Sharī'ah, the paper analyses the classical waqf books and treatises from the four Sunni schools of jurisprudence by employing a textual analysis method.

Findings

The paper finds that the key constituents of maqāṣid are interwoven in the classical discourse of waqf rulings. It finds that in deriving the principles of waqf, the jurists ensured that the essentialities of Maqāṣid al-Sharī'ah are subtly intermingled with the necessary components of fiqhī principles. Deconstructing the applied analogical reasoning of the classical jurists in deriving the waqf rulings, this paper provides recommendations for maqāṣid-oriented application of waqf in the modern context.

Research limitations/implications

This study does not cover either the historical contribution of waqf among the Muslim societies nor does it touch on the empirical aspects of modern waqf. Rather, the focus of the study is limited to analysing the classical jurisprudential rulings of waqf and their distillation process from a Maqāṣid al-Sharī'ah perspective. The study has good implication for modern awqāf, which need to be created, managed and directed in the spirit of Maqāṣid al-Sharī'ah.

Practical implications

The key objective of adopting the maqāṣid framework for the analysis of fiqh al-awqāf in its classical permutations is to learn how to utilise the maqāṣid approach as a baseline for the deduction of new waqf rulings in a contextualised term.

Originality/value

The novelty of the paper lies in its examination of the classical waqf rulings distillation process, and the cogent intersection of Maqāṣid al-Sharī'ah with the principles of fiqh. By delving into the Sharī'ah premises of classical waqf jurisprudence through the lens of maqāṣid, the paper adds an original value and fills an existing gap in the available literature.

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Islamic Economic Studies, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1319-1616

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Article
Publication date: 26 February 2020

Saeed Moshiri and Arian Daneshmand

The objective of this paper is twofold as follows: first, it explores the relationship between economic growth and the environment in the context of the environmental…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this paper is twofold as follows: first, it explores the relationship between economic growth and the environment in the context of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) in Iran, as a semi-industrialized and largest developing economy in the Middle East. Second, it investigates the effectiveness of government spending on environmental protection.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses the ecological footprint data and an ARDL model to gauge the income and government spending effects on environmental improvement. This method avoids the problems associated with using the regression including a squared income.

Findings

The results find no evidence for a turning point in the income–pollution relationship and no significant impact of government spending on reducing footprint. We conjecture that the structure of the economy and the weak institutional quality may explain the results.

Research limitations/implications

This includes limited time series data on institutional quality indices and their small variations over time.

Practical implications

Creating an environmental fund using the oil windfall and applying environmental tax/subsidies policies will help address increasing environmental challenges in energy-rich developing countries. Education and public awareness about environmental problems and their impacts on the standard of living are also nonexpensive but effective ways to increase citizen's engagement towards improving environment.

Social implications

The EKC may take different forms in various countries depending on their economic structure and institution qualities.

Originality/value

The paper uses the ARDL method rather than a commonly used regression with a squared income to estimate the EKC. It also uses ecological footprint as a measure of environmental damage. Exploring government effectiveness in managing public good is also novel in the empirical literature.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 47 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 28 August 2019

Brendan Markey-Towler

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the notion of blockchain as an institutional technology, defend the idea of National Innovation Systems as institutional systems…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the notion of blockchain as an institutional technology, defend the idea of National Innovation Systems as institutional systems, and then make use of the theory of institutional competition to characterise challenges posed by innovation public policy by blockchain technology.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach is to consider the nature of blockchain technology as an institutional technology, and to consider the nature of National Innovation Systems as institutional systems. The author then applies a theory of institutional competition developed elsewhere to appraise the interaction of the two.

Findings

The author expects for there to emerge sustained competition for National Innovation Systems from innovation systems implemented using blockchains. There will be pressure exerted by the latter upon the former to become more integrated, secure, usable and to greater support profit expectations for entrepreneurs.

Originality/value

The theory of institutional competition upon which this work is based makes use of cutting-edge behavioural and institutional economics. It has hitherto only been applied at a general level and has not been applied to a specific set of institutions such as National Innovation Systems.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2014

Simplice A. Asongu

This paper aims to assess dynamics of the knowledge economy (KE)–finance nexus using the four variables identified under the World Bank’s (WB’s) Knowledge Economy Index…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess dynamics of the knowledge economy (KE)–finance nexus using the four variables identified under the World Bank’s (WB’s) Knowledge Economy Index (KEI) and seven financial intermediary dynamics of depth, efficiency, activity and size.

Design/methodology/approach

Principal component analysis is used to reduce the dimensions of KE components before dynamic panel generalized method of moments (GMM) estimation techniques are employed to examine the nexus.

Findings

Four main findings are established. First, education improves financial depth and financial efficiency but mitigates financial size. Second, apart from a thin exception (trade’s incidence on money supply), economic incentives (credit facilities and trade) are not consistently favorable to financial development. Third, information and communications technology improves only financial size and has a negative effect on other financial dynamics. Finally, proxies for innovation (journals and foreign direct investment [FDI]) have a positive effect on financial activity; journals (FDI) have (has) a negative (positive) effect on liquid liabilities, and journals and FDI both have negative incidences on money supply and banking system efficiency, respectively.

Practical implications

As a policy implication, the KE–finance nexus is a complex and multidimensional relationship. Hence, blind and blanket policy formulation to achieve positive linkages may not be successful unless policy-making strategy is contingent on the prevailing “KE-specific component” trends and dynamics of financial development. Policy makers should improve the economic incentive dimension of KE that, overwhelmingly and consistently, deters financial development, owing to surplus liquidity issues.

Originality/value

As far as we have reviewed, this is the first paper to examine the KE–finance nexus with the plethora of KE dimensions defined by the WB’s KEI and all the dynamics identified by the Financial Development and Structure Database.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2017

Md. Mahmudul Alam, Chamhuri Siwar, Basri Abdul Talib and Abu N.M. Wahid

Sustainable food security at the household level is one of the emerging issues for all nations. Several factors such as social, economic, political, demographic, natural…

Abstract

Purpose

Sustainable food security at the household level is one of the emerging issues for all nations. Several factors such as social, economic, political, demographic, natural and livelihood strategies cause vulnerability in the status of household food security. This study aims to examine the vulnerability of the factors of household food accessibility and its linkage with the climatic changes in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on primary data collected in the months of July-October, 2012, through a questionnaire survey on 460 low-income households from the East Coast Economic Region (ECER) in Malaysia. The samples were selected from E-Kasih poor household database, based on the cluster random sampling technique. The questionnaire uses a five-point Likert scale, and the data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA F statistics for chi-square two-sample test.

Findings

The study finds that the vulnerability of the factors of household food accessibility has increased statistically and significantly over the past five years in Malaysia, whereas the contributions of climatic factors are low on these changes. This study suggests that the food security programs in Malaysia need to be integrated with the climatic change adaptation programs to ensure more effective and sustainable household food security in the future.

Originality/value

This study is an original work based on primary data that empirically measures the vulnerability of the factors of household food accessibility, one of the important dimensions of household food security, and its linkage with climatic changes.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 9 no. 03
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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