Search results

1 – 10 of 90
Article
Publication date: 1 January 1989

Melba Jesudason

At the 1983 winter meeting of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), Proposition 48 (P48) was enacted as an initial step in reforming the state of collegiate…

Abstract

At the 1983 winter meeting of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), Proposition 48 (P48) was enacted as an initial step in reforming the state of collegiate athletics. Proposition 48 has two components: P48 and P48B. The first component states that 1) incoming first‐year students must have attained at least a 2.0 grade point average in eleven “core” college preparatory courses, which must include three English courses, two math courses, two social science courses, and two natural or physical sciences courses (including one lab section); and 2) incoming first‐year students must score at least seven hundred on the SAT or fifteen on the ACT. P48B states that 1) first‐year students who do not meet the minimum grade requirements of P48 may still enroll in the university of their choice if accepted; 2) first‐year students who do not meet the minimum requirements of P48 are ineligible for athletics their first year; 3) they will have three years of eligibility remaining provided their academic progress is satisfactory during their ineligible year. The rulings, which stipulate that the nation's 277 Division I college and universities meet the requirements, became effective in August 1986. P48 has thus taken a small step in communicating to high school and college athletes that they must do well academically if they wish to receive athletic scholarships.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

Content available
Article
Publication date: 3 December 2019

Masoud Kavoosi, Maxim A. Dulebenets, Olumide Abioye, Junayed Pasha, Oluwatosin Theophilus, Hui Wang, Raphael Kampmann and Marko Mikijeljević

Marine transportation has been faced with an increasing demand for containerized cargo during the past decade. Marine container terminals (MCTs), as the facilities for…

Abstract

Purpose

Marine transportation has been faced with an increasing demand for containerized cargo during the past decade. Marine container terminals (MCTs), as the facilities for connecting seaborne and inland transportation, are expected to handle the increasing amount of containers, delivered by vessels. Berth scheduling plays an important role for the total throughput of MCTs as well as the overall effectiveness of the MCT operations. This study aims to propose a novel island-based metaheuristic algorithm to solve the berth scheduling problem and minimize the total cost of serving the arriving vessels at the MCT.

Design/methodology/approach

A universal island-based metaheuristic algorithm (UIMA) was proposed in this study, aiming to solve the spatially constrained berth scheduling problem. The UIMA population was divided into four sub-populations (i.e. islands). Unlike the canonical island-based algorithms that execute the same metaheuristic on each island, four different population-based metaheuristics are adopted within the developed algorithm to search the islands, including the following: evolutionary algorithm (EA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), estimation of distribution algorithm (EDA) and differential evolution (DE). The adopted population-based metaheuristic algorithms rely on different operators, which facilitate the search process for superior solutions on the UIMA islands.

Findings

The conducted numerical experiments demonstrated that the developed UIMA algorithm returned near-optimal solutions for the small-size problem instances. As for the large-size problem instances, UIMA was found to be superior to the EA, PSO, EDA and DE algorithms, which were executed in isolation, in terms of the obtained objective function values at termination. Furthermore, the developed UIMA algorithm outperformed various single-solution-based metaheuristic algorithms (including variable neighborhood search, tabu search and simulated annealing) in terms of the solution quality. The maximum UIMA computational time did not exceed 306 s.

Research limitations/implications

Some of the previous berth scheduling studies modeled uncertain vessel arrival times and/or handling times, while this study assumed the vessel arrival and handling times to be deterministic.

Practical implications

The developed UIMA algorithm can be used by the MCT operators as an efficient decision support tool and assist with a cost-effective design of berth schedules within an acceptable computational time.

Originality/value

A novel island-based metaheuristic algorithm is designed to solve the spatially constrained berth scheduling problem. The proposed island-based algorithm adopts several types of metaheuristic algorithms to cover different areas of the search space. The considered metaheuristic algorithms rely on different operators. Such feature is expected to facilitate the search process for superior solutions.

Abstract

Details

Prioritization of Failure Modes in Manufacturing Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-142-4

Book part
Publication date: 28 April 2016

Andrew T. Young

Why did the United States experience a housing and mortgage market boom and bust in the 2000s, while analogous Canadian markets were relatively stable? Both US and…

Abstract

Why did the United States experience a housing and mortgage market boom and bust in the 2000s, while analogous Canadian markets were relatively stable? Both US and Canadian markets are replete with government interventions. In this paper, I account for the US and Canada’s different experiences by arguing that government interventions are not created equal. Some government interventions prevent market participants from pursuing actions that ex ante are reckoned beneficial. Alternatively, other interventions lead to the pursuit of actions that turn out to be costly ex post. It is the latter type that we expect to manifest in crises. The US case is one where government interventions in the mortgage markets led to actions that appeared ex ante beneficial but were revealed to be costly ex post. Alternatively, Canada’s mortgage market was and remains essentially a regulated oligopoly. Regulatory capture makes for a sclerotic market that likely imposes costs on Canadian borrowers in the forms of limited financing options and higher interest rates. However, this sclerosis also lends itself to stability. This market structure made the Canadian mortgage market relatively insusceptible to a bubble.

Book part
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Peter T. Leeson and Paola A. Suarez

This paper investigates the relationship between superstition and self-governance. We argue that at least some superstitions, and perhaps many, support self-governing…

Abstract

This paper investigates the relationship between superstition and self-governance. We argue that at least some superstitions, and perhaps many, support self-governing arrangements. The relationship between such scientifically false beliefs and private institutions is symbiotic and socially productive. This simple but overlooked observation may help explain the emergence and otherwise puzzling persistence of both superstitions and “spontaneous” orders that seem perverse or dysfunctional, as well as why these two phenomena are often found together.

Details

New Thinking in Austrian Political Economy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-137-8

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 August 2021

Zakaria Lacheheb, Normaz Wana Ismail, N.A.M. Naseem and Ly Slesman

This study aims to examine the linear and nonlinear remittance–institutional quality link in developing countries.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the linear and nonlinear remittance–institutional quality link in developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

This study investigates the nonlinear relationship between remittance and political institutional quality in a panel of 97 developing countries using annual data of over nine years from 2009 to 2017. The estimated model uses system generalized method of moments for three political institutions indicators, namely, democracy, political stability and civil liberties.

Findings

The results revealed that remittance has a significant inverted U-shape impact on political institution’s indicators. Therefore, before the turning point, remittance is associated with high level of democracy, more stable political system and more civil freedom. While moving after the turning point indicates low level of political institution in the country.

Originality/value

The authors certify that this is the original paper. It has not been previously published and is not currently under submission or in press elsewhere.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2021

Asia Kausar, Faiza Siddiqui, Abdul Khalique Gadhi, Saif Ullah and Omer Ali

This study aims to find out the dynamic and causal long-run and the short-run relationship between energy consumption (electricity usage) and energy production…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to find out the dynamic and causal long-run and the short-run relationship between energy consumption (electricity usage) and energy production (electricity creation) and also find out the relationship of these two variables based on past values for the SAARC nations (Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal).

Design/methodology/approach

Vector auto-regressive (VAR), auto-regressive distributive Lag (ARDL) and Granger causality test have been used in this study to estimate the dynamic and causal relationship between variables.

Findings

The unit-root tests were found insignificant at a magnitude but significant at the initial difference. VAR test results were found insignificant, which means co-integration among variables exists, which was tested by ARDL approach. Results suggested that energy consumption has a short-run relationship with energy production, but it was found insignificant in the other way round. The results of this study also suggest that both variables cause each other in the long run.

Research limitations/implications

This study was conducted in a limited environment as we do not have access to energy policies of SAARC countries, and also data access was limited; only five countries’ data was available. This study can help government bodies and policymakers to exchange the electricity across borders to diminish the electricity shortage in the SAARC region, as countries with abandoned resources can produce electricity at a little cost.

Originality/value

Penal data for this study was collected from World Development Indicators from the year 1971 to 2015.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 March 2021

James Temitope Dada and Folorunsho M. Ajide

This study examines the moderating role institutional quality plays in shadow economy–environmental pollution nexus in Nigeria between 1984 and 2018. Further, the study…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the moderating role institutional quality plays in shadow economy–environmental pollution nexus in Nigeria between 1984 and 2018. Further, the study also determines the threshold level of institutional quality that lessens shadow economy and abates environmental pollution.

Design/methodology/approach

Shadow economy is measured as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) using the currency demand approach while environmental pollution is proxy by carbon dioxide (CO2) per capita. Autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) is used as the estimation technique.

Findings

Results from the study show that shadow economy has a positive and significant effect on environmental pollution both in the short and long run, while institutional quality has a negative effect on environmental pollution. This reveals that shadow economy worsens environmental quality while institutional quality abates environmental pollution. The interactive term of shadow economy with institutional quality has a negative but insignificant effect on environmental pollution in the long run. It implies that institutional quality is weak to bring about significant reduction in shadow economy and environmental pollution. Further, the threshold level of institutional quality required to lessen the effect of shadow economy and abate environmental pollution is found to be 5.69 on an ordinal scale of 0–10.

Practical implications

Institutional quality in Nigeria is weak and needs to be strengthened up to the threshold level in order to effectively moderate the impact of shadow economy on environmental pollution.

Originality/value

The study addresses the perceived gap in the empirical literature on the emerging role of strong institution in abating environmental pollution in Nigeria. It also develops a threshold level of institutional quality capable of mediating the negative impact of shadow economy on environmental pollution. This empirical contribution is largely missing in the context of Nigeria.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 June 2014

Simplice A. Asongu

This paper aims to assess dynamics of the knowledge economy (KE)–finance nexus using the four variables identified under the World Bank’s (WB’s) Knowledge Economy Index…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess dynamics of the knowledge economy (KE)–finance nexus using the four variables identified under the World Bank’s (WB’s) Knowledge Economy Index (KEI) and seven financial intermediary dynamics of depth, efficiency, activity and size.

Design/methodology/approach

Principal component analysis is used to reduce the dimensions of KE components before dynamic panel generalized method of moments (GMM) estimation techniques are employed to examine the nexus.

Findings

Four main findings are established. First, education improves financial depth and financial efficiency but mitigates financial size. Second, apart from a thin exception (trade’s incidence on money supply), economic incentives (credit facilities and trade) are not consistently favorable to financial development. Third, information and communications technology improves only financial size and has a negative effect on other financial dynamics. Finally, proxies for innovation (journals and foreign direct investment [FDI]) have a positive effect on financial activity; journals (FDI) have (has) a negative (positive) effect on liquid liabilities, and journals and FDI both have negative incidences on money supply and banking system efficiency, respectively.

Practical implications

As a policy implication, the KE–finance nexus is a complex and multidimensional relationship. Hence, blind and blanket policy formulation to achieve positive linkages may not be successful unless policy-making strategy is contingent on the prevailing “KE-specific component” trends and dynamics of financial development. Policy makers should improve the economic incentive dimension of KE that, overwhelmingly and consistently, deters financial development, owing to surplus liquidity issues.

Originality/value

As far as we have reviewed, this is the first paper to examine the KE–finance nexus with the plethora of KE dimensions defined by the WB’s KEI and all the dynamics identified by the Financial Development and Structure Database.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 May 2017

Md. Mahmudul Alam, Chamhuri Siwar, Basri Abdul Talib and Abu N.M. Wahid

Sustainable food security at the household level is one of the emerging issues for all nations. Several factors such as social, economic, political, demographic, natural…

Abstract

Purpose

Sustainable food security at the household level is one of the emerging issues for all nations. Several factors such as social, economic, political, demographic, natural and livelihood strategies cause vulnerability in the status of household food security. This study aims to examine the vulnerability of the factors of household food accessibility and its linkage with the climatic changes in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on primary data collected in the months of July-October, 2012, through a questionnaire survey on 460 low-income households from the East Coast Economic Region (ECER) in Malaysia. The samples were selected from E-Kasih poor household database, based on the cluster random sampling technique. The questionnaire uses a five-point Likert scale, and the data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA F statistics for chi-square two-sample test.

Findings

The study finds that the vulnerability of the factors of household food accessibility has increased statistically and significantly over the past five years in Malaysia, whereas the contributions of climatic factors are low on these changes. This study suggests that the food security programs in Malaysia need to be integrated with the climatic change adaptation programs to ensure more effective and sustainable household food security in the future.

Originality/value

This study is an original work based on primary data that empirically measures the vulnerability of the factors of household food accessibility, one of the important dimensions of household food security, and its linkage with climatic changes.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 9 no. 03
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

1 – 10 of 90