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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1992

P.V. Natarajan, D.G. Vaiude and B.M. Rao

This paper concerns an all‐solid‐state, high‐contrast electroluminescent (EL) flat panel display which is becoming the potential for multifunctional avionic displays. In…

Abstract

This paper concerns an all‐solid‐state, high‐contrast electroluminescent (EL) flat panel display which is becoming the potential for multifunctional avionic displays. In this ACTFEL (a.c. thin film electroluminescent flat panel) device, an active layer, doped with manganese (ZnS:Mn) is sandwiched between the two dielectric layers followed by conductive layers. All the layers are transparent except the back conductive layer. In the basic mode of operation, an alternating voltage is applied across any two crossing electrodes. When this voltage exceeds the ‘threshold voltage’, light is emitted from the active layer. EL mechanism (the generation of electrons, acceleration of these electrons to optical energies, and collision excitation of the Mn ions yielding light emission) occurs within the film or at the surface of the ZnS:Mn layer. A bright yellow light, in the visible region and with a relatively broad spectrum, is emitted. The TFEL display's thinness, compactness, low weight, moderately low power requirements and durability are its prime advantages. The characteristics of various thin films utilised in TFEL have been studied, and the data in this paper show the optimum requirements for luminance, efficiency and reliability of the light emission in ACTFEL.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1994

Miloš Somora, A.P. Hilley, H. Binner, Gábor Hársanyi, M.S. Vijayaraghavan, Tao Sung Oh, T. Laine‐ Ylijoki, P. Collander, Boguslaw Herod, Peter Barnwell and David Lowrie

‘Soldering and Cleaning in Electronics’ international conference, including an exposition, took place in Brno on 12–13 October 1993. The conference was organised by…

419

Abstract

‘Soldering and Cleaning in Electronics’ international conference, including an exposition, took place in Brno on 12–13 October 1993. The conference was organised by SMT‐Info, together with the ISHM‐Czech and Slovak Chapter. The purpose of this common action was to bring together the professionals in surface mount technology and thick film technology. In the framework of the conference, in which 130 home and foreign delegates participated, the annual meeting of the ISHM‐Czech and Slovak Chapter took place.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2022

Can Ban, Na Na Pu, Yi Fei Zhang and Ma Wentao

This article aims to develop an accurate and efficient meshfree Galerkin method based on the strain smoothing technique for linear elastic continuous and fracture problems.

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to develop an accurate and efficient meshfree Galerkin method based on the strain smoothing technique for linear elastic continuous and fracture problems.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper proposed a generalized linear smoothed meshfree method (LSMM), in which the compatible strain is reconstructed by the linear smoothed strains. Based on the idea of the weighted residual method and employing three linearly independent weight functions, the linear smoothed strains can be created easily in a smoothing domain. Using various types of basic functions, LSMM can solve the linear elastic continuous and fracture problems in a unified way.

Findings

On the one hand, the LSMM inherits the properties of high efficiency and stability from the stabilized conforming nodal integration (SCNI). On the other hand, the LSMM is more accurate than the SCNI, because it can produce continuous strains instead of the piece-wise strains obtained by SCNI. Those excellent performances ensure that the LSMM has the capability to precisely track the crack propagation problems. Several numerical examples are investigated to verify the accurate, convergence rate and robustness of the present LSMM.

Originality/value

This study provides an accurate and efficient meshfree method for simulating crack growth.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 39 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 July 2021

Sudarsana Jena and Ankur Gupta

Considering its vast utility in industries, this paper aims to present a detailed review on fundamentals, classification and progresses in pressure sensors, along with its…

Abstract

Purpose

Considering its vast utility in industries, this paper aims to present a detailed review on fundamentals, classification and progresses in pressure sensors, along with its wide area of applications, its design aspects and challenges, to provide state-of-the-art gist to the researchers of the similar domain at one place.

Design/methodology/approach

Swiftly emerging research prospects in the micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) enable to build complex and sophisticated micro-structures on a substrate containing moving masses, cantilevers, flexures, levers, linkages, dampers, gears, detectors, actuators and many more on a single chip. One of the MEMS initial products that emerged into the micro-system technology is MEMS pressure sensor. Because of their high performance, low cost and compact in size, these sensors are extensively being adopted in numerous applications, namely, aerospace, automobile and bio-medical domain, etc. These application requirements drive and impose tremendous conditions on sensor design to overcome the tedious design and fabrication procedure before its reality. MEMS-based pressure sensors enable a wide range of pressure measurement as per the application requirements.

Findings

The paper provides a detailed review on fundamentals, classification and progresses in pressure sensors, along with its wide area of applications, its design aspects and challenges, to provide state of the art gist to the researchers of the similar domain at one place.

Originality/value

The present paper discusses the basics of MEMS pressure sensors, their working principles, different design aspects, classification, type of sensing diaphragm used and illustration of various transduction mechanisms. Moreover, this paper presents a comprehensive review on present trend of research on MEMS-based pressure sensors, its applications and the research gap observed till date along with the scope for future work, which has not been discussed in earlier reviews.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 41 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1997

G. Gunasekaran, R. Natarajan, V.S. Muralidharan, N. Palaniswamy and B.V. Appa Rao

Phosphonic acids are good complexing agents. However, they are not good as inhibitors except for a very few. Synergistic inhibition is offered in the presence of metal…

1128

Abstract

Phosphonic acids are good complexing agents. However, they are not good as inhibitors except for a very few. Synergistic inhibition is offered in the presence of metal cations like Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+ and others in neutral media. The zinc ion is an ideal choice. The part of zinc ions are now replaced by polymers, azoles to prepare eco‐friendly inhibitor formulations. They are also used as corrosion inhibitors in concrete, coatings, rubber blends, acid cleaners, anti‐freeze coolants, etc. Discusses the various applications of phosphonic acids and their action mechanisms.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 44 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 September 2019

Jiwoon Lee, Jesse Walker, Sanjay Natarajan and Sung Yi

Extrusion-based additive manufacturing (AM) has been considered as a promising technique to fabricate scaffolds for tissue engineering due to affordability, versatility…

Abstract

Purpose

Extrusion-based additive manufacturing (AM) has been considered as a promising technique to fabricate scaffolds for tissue engineering due to affordability, versatility and ability to print porous structures. The reliability and controllability of the printing process are necessary to produce 3D-printed scaffolds with desired properties and depend on the geometric characteristics such as porosity and pore diameter. The purpose of this study is to develop an analytical model and explore its effectiveness in the prediction of geometric characteristics of 3D-printed scaffolds.

Design/methodology/approach

An analytical model was developed to simulate the geometric characteristics of scaffolds produced by extrusion-based AM using fluid mechanics. Polycaprolactone (PCL) was chosen as a scaffold material and was assumed to be a non-Newtonian fluid for the model. The effectiveness of the model was verified through comparison with the experimental results.

Findings

A comparison study between simulation and experimental results shows that strut diameter, pore size and porosity of scaffolds can be predicted by using extrusion pressure, temperature, nozzle diameter, nozzle length and printing speed. Simulation results demonstrate that geometric characteristics have a strong relationship with processing parameters, and the model developed in this study can be used for predicting the scaffold properties for the extrusion-based 3D bioprinting process.

Originality/value

The present study provides a prediction model that can simulate the printing process by a simple input of processing parameters. The geometric characteristics can be predicted prior to the experimental verification, and such prediction will reduce the process time and effort when a new material or method is applied.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 September 2019

S. Velliangiri

The service denial threats are regularly regarded as tools for effortlessly triggering online-based services offline. Moreover, the present occurrences reveal that these…

Abstract

Purpose

The service denial threats are regularly regarded as tools for effortlessly triggering online-based services offline. Moreover, the present occurrences reveal that these threats are being constantly employed for masking other vulnerable threats like disseminating malware, information losses, wire scams and mining bitcoins (Sujithra et al., 2018; Boujnouni and Jedra, 2018). In some cases, service denials have been employed to cyberheist financial firms which sums around $100,000. Documentation from Neustar accounts that is about 70 percent of the financial sector are aware of the threat, and therefore, incidents result in few losses, more than 35 percent of service denial attempts are identified as malware soon after the threat is sent out (Divyavani and Dileep Kumar Reddy, 2018). Intensive packet analysis (IPA) explores the packet headers from Layers 2 to 4 along with the application information layer from Layers 5 to 7 for locating and evading vulnerable network-related threats. The networked systems could be simply contained by low potent service denial operations in case the supplies of the systems are minimized by the safety modules. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The initial feature will be resolved using the IPDME by locating the standard precise header delimiters such as carriage return line feed equally locating the header names. For the designed IPDME, the time difficulties in locating the initial position of the header field within a packet with static time expenses of four cycles. For buffering packets, the framework functions at the speed of cables. Soon after locating the header position, the value of the field is mined linearly from the position. Mining all the field values consequentially resolves the forthcoming restrictions which could be increased by estimating various information bytes per cycle and omitting non-required information packets. In this way, the exploration space is minimized from the packet length to the length of the header. Because of the minimized mining time, the buffered packets could be operated at an increasing time.

Findings

Based on the assessments of IPDME against broadly employed SIP application layer function tools it discloses hardware offloading of IPDME it could minimize the loads on the essential system supplies of about 25 percent. The IPDME reveals that the acceleration of 22X– 75X as evaluated against PJSIP parser and SNORT SIP pre-processor. One IPDME portrays an acceleration of 4X–6X during 12 occurrences of SNORT parsers executing on 12 processors. The IPDME accomplishes 3X superior to 200 parallel occurrences of GPU speeded up processors. Additionally, the IPDME has very minimal latencies with 12X–1,010X minimal than GPUs. IPDME accomplishes minimal energy trails of nearly 0.75 W using two engines and for 15 engines it is 3.6 W, which is 22.5X–100X less as evaluated to the graphic-based GPU speeding up.

Originality/value

IPDME assures that the system pools are not fatigued on Layer 7 mining by transmitting straightforwardly based on network intrusions without branching into the operating systems. IPDME averts the latencies because of the memory accesses by sidestepping the operating system which essentially permits the scheme to function at wired speed. Based on the safety perception, IPDME ultimately enhances the performance of the safety systems employing them. The increased bandwidth of the IPDME assures that the IPA’s could function at their utmost bandwidth. The service time for the threat independent traffic is enhanced because of minimization over the comprehensive latencies over the path among the network intrusions and the related applications.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Unmanned Systems, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-6427

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

J.H. de Wet and J.H. Hall

It is generally believed that in order to maximise value for shareholders, companies should strive towards maximising MVA (and not necessarily their total market value)…

1274

Abstract

It is generally believed that in order to maximise value for shareholders, companies should strive towards maximising MVA (and not necessarily their total market value). The best way to do so is to maximise the EVA, which reflects an organisation’s ability to earn returns above the cost of capital. The leverage available to companies that incur fixed costs and use borrowed capital with a fixed interest charge has been known and quantified by financial managers for some time. The popularisation of EVA and MVA has opened up new possibilities for investigating the leverage effect of fixed costs (operational leverage) and interest (financial leverage) in conjunction with EVA and MVA, and for determining what effect changes in sales would have through leverage, not only on profits, but also on EVA and MVA. Combining a variable costing approach with leverage analysis and value analysis opens up new opportunities to investigate the effect of certain decisions on the MVA and the share price of a company. A spreadsheet model is used to illustrate how financial managers can use the leverage effects of fixed costs and the (fixed) cost of capital to maximise profits and also to determine what impact changes in any variable like sales or costs will have on the wealth of shareholders.

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1992

JAROSLAV MACKERLE

This bibliography is offered as a practical guide to published papers, conference proceedings papers and theses/dissertations on the finite element (FE) and boundary…

Abstract

This bibliography is offered as a practical guide to published papers, conference proceedings papers and theses/dissertations on the finite element (FE) and boundary element (BE) applications in different fields of biomechanics between 1976 and 1991. The aim of this paper is to help the users of FE and BE techniques to get better value from a large collection of papers on the subjects. Categories in biomechanics included in this survey are: orthopaedic mechanics, dental mechanics, cardiovascular mechanics, soft tissue mechanics, biological flow, impact injury, and other fields of applications. More than 900 references are listed.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 July 2022

Meltem Altin Karataş

Inconel 718 (IN718) is a high-performance nickel-based superalloy with high oxidation-corrosion-temperature resistance, high strength (tensile, fatigue, creep and…

64

Abstract

Purpose

Inconel 718 (IN718) is a high-performance nickel-based superalloy with high oxidation-corrosion-temperature resistance, high strength (tensile, fatigue, creep and rupture), durability, toughness, hardness and dimensional stability, which is difficult to machine with traditional fabrication methods. To overcome these difficulties, wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM), one of the modern manufacturing methods, is used.

Design/methodology/approach

Main performance criteria in WEDM; material removal rate (MRR), cutting speed, surface roughness, cutting width (kerf) and wire wear rate. In this study, the effect of processing parameters on kerf and MRR because of processing IN718 in WEDM was investigated. Machining parameters, voltage, wire feed rate and dielectric fluid pressure were determined. Deionized water was used as a dielectric fluid and 0.3 mm brass wire was used as wire in the experiments. Gray Relational Analysis (GRA), which is one of the multi-criteria decision-making methods, has been applied for the optimization of the machining parameters in the cutting process with the WEDM. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the effect percentages of the cut-off parameters.

Findings

The parameter with the highest effect was determined as tension with a rate of 76.95% for kerf and 91.21% for MRR.

Originality/value

The novel approach uses Taguchi-based GRA optimization as a result of cutting IN718 with WEDM, reducing cost and time consumption.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

1 – 10 of 809