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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

N.P. Badgujar, Y.E. Bhoge, T.D. Deshpande, B.A. Bhanvase, P.R. Gogate, S.H. Sonawane and R.D. Kulkarni

– The present work aims to deal with ultrasound-assisted organic pigment (phthalocyanine blue and green) dispersion and its comparison with the conventional approach.

Abstract

Purpose

The present work aims to deal with ultrasound-assisted organic pigment (phthalocyanine blue and green) dispersion and its comparison with the conventional approach.

Design/methodology/approach

Ultrasound is expected to give beneficial results based on the strong shear forces generated by cavitational effects. The dispersion quality for preparation using an ultrasound-based method has been compared with dispersion obtained using high-speed dispersion mill. Effects of different operating parameters such as probe diameter and use of surfactants on the physical properties of dispersion and the colour strength have been investigated. Calculations for the energy requirement for two approaches have also been presented.

Findings

The use of sodium dodecyl sulphate and Tween 80 surfactants shows better performance in terms of the colour properties of dispersion prepared in water and organic solvent, respectively. Ultrasound gives better dispersion quality as compared to the conventional approach.

Originality/value

The present work presents a new approach of ultrasound-assisted dispersion of phthalocyanine blue and green pigments. Understanding into the effect of surfactants and type of solvent also presents new important design-related information.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 44 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2020

Benjamin Chukudi Oji and Sunday Ayoola Oke

There is growing evidence of a knowledge gap in the association of maintenance with production activities in bottling plants. Indeed, insights into how to jointly optimise…

Abstract

Purpose

There is growing evidence of a knowledge gap in the association of maintenance with production activities in bottling plants. Indeed, insights into how to jointly optimise these activities are not clear. In this paper, two optimisation models, Taguchi schemes and response surface methodology are proposed.

Design/methodology/approach

Borrowing from the “hard” total quality management elements in optimisation and prioritisation literature, two new models were developed based on factor, level and orthogonal array selection, signal-to-noise ratio, analysis of variance and optimal parametric settings as Taguchi–ABC and Taguchi–Pareto. An additional model of response surface methodology was created with analysis on regression, main effects, residual plots and surface plots.

Findings

The Taguchi S/N ratio table ranked planned maintenance as the highest. The Taguchi–Pareto shows the optimal parametric setting as A4B4C1 (28 h of production, 30.56 shifts and 37 h of planned maintenance). Taguchi ABC reveals that the planned maintenance and number of shifts will influence the outcome of production greatly. The surface regression table reveals that the production hours worked decrease at a value of planned maintenance with a decrease in the number of shifts.

Originality/value

This is the first time that joint optimisation for bottling plant will be approached using Taguchi–ABC and Taguchi–Pareto. It is also the first time that response surface will be applied to optimise a unique platform of the bottling process plant.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2021

Gemeda Gebino, Gezu Ketema, Adina Fenta, Gideon Kipchirchir Rotich and Ayalew Debebe

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extract of Moringa stenopetala seed oil, by organic solvents (methanol and hexane), for its efficacy against microbial…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extract of Moringa stenopetala seed oil, by organic solvents (methanol and hexane), for its efficacy against microbial activity on cotton fabrics. The selected microbes for the study were two types of bacteria which are Gram-positive (S. aureus) and Gram-negative (E. coli).

Design/methodology/approach

Two types of bacteria, Gram-positive (S. aureus) and Gram-negative (E. coli) were used. The extract was applied on fabrics at a concentration of 5, 10 and 15 g/L using the pad-dry-cure method and antibacterial activities verified by the bacterial-growth reduction method. The treated fabrics were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against the bacteria before and after 15 washing cycles. The extract was examined for molecular structural change using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and physical properties of the fabric; tensile strength, elongation, air permeability, stiffness and wettability were evaluated.

Findings

Results showed treated fabrics reduces the growth of Gram-positive (S. aureus) and Gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria from 77.6%–100% before wash and 45.8%–85.2% after wash for both extract concentrations. Comparing extracts, hexane extract reduces all bacteria growth than methanol extract for both extract concentrations while S. aureus was more susceptible to antimicrobial agents than E. coli at a lower concentration. As result, the tensile strength and air permeability were relatively lower than untreated ones without affecting the comfort properties of the fabric.

Originality/value

This study indicates that the Moringa stenopetala seed oil extract has a strong antimicrobial activity.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Wunwisa Krasaekoopt and Ampapan Jongyin

The purpose of this paper is to encapsulate vanilla extract by using inclusion complex of ß-cyclodextrin and also to investigate the qualities of the encapsulated powder…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to encapsulate vanilla extract by using inclusion complex of ß-cyclodextrin and also to investigate the qualities of the encapsulated powder in terms of vanillin content, moisture content, and stability under accelerated condition.

Design/methodology/approach

A randomized block and factorial 3×3 experimental designs with three replications were used for the studies of solvent extraction, microencapsulation of natural vanilla extract and stability of microencapsulated vanilla powder.

Findings

Ethanol concentration and ratio of vanilla to ethanol had positive effects on vanillin content. The extraction with 55 percent ethanol and the ratio of vanilla pods to ethanol as 1:4 provided the highest vanillin content of 341.23 mg/100 mL of the extract. The amount of vanilla extract and kneading time gave significant (p<0.05) effect on the microencapsulation efficiency (ME). The greatest ME found was 94.50 percent when 9 percent vanilla extract and 10 min of kneading time were used. The interaction of temperature and water activity gave significant effect on the second-order kinetic reaction of encapsulated vanilla powder (p<0.05).The most suitable condition of storage was 35°C with aw of 0.64, providing the kinetic constant (k) of 0.0024, and correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.92 with thalf-life of 4.54 weeks.

Originality/value

This study provides the most suitable condition for natural vanilla extraction and microencapsulation as well as storage stability for natural vanilla powder production using the third grade vanilla pods grown at Royal Project, Khun Wang Center, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2020

Tantan Shao, Xiaolong Chen and Lijun Chen

Silane cross-linkers have been used to strengthen the mechanical stabilities and friction resistance of plastic products. Therefore, the effect of silane cross-linkers on…

Abstract

Purpose

Silane cross-linkers have been used to strengthen the mechanical stabilities and friction resistance of plastic products. Therefore, the effect of silane cross-linkers on latex has been studied through preparing modified self-cross-linking long fluorocarbon polyacrylate latex. In this paper, nonionic surfactant alcohol ether glycoside (AEG1000) and anionic polymerizable surfactant 1-allyloxy-3-(4-nonylphenol)-2-propanol polyoxyethylene (10) ether ammonium sulfate (DNS-86) acted as mixed emulsifier and 3-(methacryloyloxy) propyltrimethoxysilane (KH-570) and bis (2-ethylhexyl) maleate (DOM) were used as functional monomers.

Design/methodology/approach

The modified acrylate polymer latex was synthesized through the semi-continuous seeded emulsion polymerization with methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA), dodecafluoroheptyl methacrylate (DFMA) and hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA) as main monomers. Potassium persulfate (KPS) was applied to initiate polymerization reaction, nonionic surfactant AEG1000 and DNS-86 acted as emulsifier, KH-570 and DOM were used as functional monomers, respectively.

Findings

The optimum conditions of synthesizing the modified latex were the following. The mass ratio of monomers containing MMA, BA, DFMA, HPMA, KH-570 and DOM was 13.58:13.58:0.90:1.20:0.15:0.60, the usage of initiator KPS was 0.5% of the total weight of monomers and the amount of emulsifier was 7% of all monomers with AEG1000:DNS-86 = 1:1. The results indicated that the conversion of monomer was 99% and the coagulation was about 2.0%.

Originality/value

The resultant latex was modified silane cross-linker KH-570 and DOM, which positively affected the comprehensive properties of latex and its film. Apart from this, the novel mixed emulsifier was used to improve the size and distribution of latex particles and reduce environmental problems caused by the use of emulsifiers.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2021

Xu Han, Xiaoyan Li, Peng Yao and Dalong Chen

This study aims to investigate the interfacial microstructures of ultrasonic-assisted solder joints at different soldering times.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the interfacial microstructures of ultrasonic-assisted solder joints at different soldering times.

Design/methodology/approach

Solder joints with different microstructures are obtained by ultrasonic-assisted soldering. To analyze the effect of ultrasounds on Cu6Sn5 growth during the solid–liquid reaction stage, the interconnection heights of solder joints are increased from 30 to 50 μm.

Findings

Scallop-like Cu6Sn5 nucleate and grow along the Cu6Sn5/Cu3Sn interface under the traditional soldering process. By comparison, some Cu6Sn5 are formed at Cu6Sn5/Cu3Sn interface and some Cu6Sn5 are randomly distributed in Sn when ultrasonic-assisted soldering process is used. The reason for the formation of non-interfacial Cu6Sn5 has to do with the shock waves and micro-jets produced by ultrasonic treatment, which leads to separation of some Cu6Sn5 from the interfacial Cu6Sn5 to form non-interfacial Cu6Sn5. The local high pressure generated by the ultrasounds promotes the heterogeneous nucleation and growth of Cu6Sn5. Also, some branch-like Cu3Sn formed at Cu6Sn5/Cu3Sn interface render the interfacial Cu3Sn in ultrasonic-assisted solder joints present a different morphology from the wave-like or planar-like Cu3Sn in conventional soldering joints. Meanwhile, some non-interfacial Cu3Sn are present in non-interfacial Cu6Sn5 due to reaction of Cu atoms in liquid Sn with non-interfacial Cu6Sn5 to form non-interfacial Cu3Sn. Overall, full Cu3Sn solder joints are obtained at ultrasonic times of 60 s.

Originality/value

The obtained microstructure evolutions of ultrasonic-assisted solder joints in this paper are different from those reported in previous studies. Based on these differences, the effects of ultrasounds on the formation of non-interfacial IMCs and growth of interfacial IMCs are systematically analyzed by comparing with the traditional soldering process.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Progress in Psychobiology and Physiological Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-12-542118-8

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Article
Publication date: 6 August 2018

Lizhu Liu, Guangkai Hu, Xiaorui Zhang, Weng Ling and Jiawen Zhang

The effects of ultrasonication on the epoxy resin and its emulsion were investigated to find out the changes in the Mη and molecular structure of epoxy, as well as its…

Abstract

Purpose

The effects of ultrasonication on the epoxy resin and its emulsion were investigated to find out the changes in the Mη and molecular structure of epoxy, as well as its room temperature storage stability, centrifugal stability, particle size and its distribution and particle morphology more importantly with the influence of different ultrasonic irradiation time, power and temperature.

Design/methodology/approach

The emulsion was prepared using an emulsifier with epoxy resin and by using phase inversion after subjecting to ultrasound irradiation with a power of 200 W at 50°C for 60 min. The changes in the epoxy resin and its emulsion induced by ultrasound were characterized by Ubbelohde viscometer, FT-IR, 13C-NMR, high-speed desktop centrifuge, laser particle size analyzer and transmission electron microscope.

Findings

The molecular weight of the epoxy resin was initially decreased and then stabilized by the increasing of ultrasonic irradiation time. The mole rate of the epoxy groups in epoxy molecular were decreased by about 14 per cent, resulting from ultrasonic irradiation. The particle size of the emulsion was decreased, while the particle size distribution became uniform in a certain time. The narrow distribution, stable and uniform of waterborne epoxy resin emulsion with more than 60 days room temperature storage period, 80 per cent of the supernatant volume, about 220 nm average particle size was gained with a power of 200 W at 50°C for 60 min.

Research limitations/implications

To overcome the problems commonly encountered with an epoxy emulsion, for example, short storage period and wider particle size, which limit its practical application, the effects of ultrasonic irradiation on the epoxy resin and its emulsion, were investigated. As the stability of emulsion was improved with the introduction of ultrasonic irradiation, the application of epoxy emulsion was improved.

Originality/value

The room temperature storage stability and centrifugal stability of the emulsion were decreased by the mechanical method, and thus, the benefit of an in-depth understanding of the influence of ultrasonic treatment on epoxy resin and its emulsion could further promote the development of water-based coatings.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 47 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2021

Xu Han, Xiaoyan Li and Peng Yao

This study aims to investigate the effect of ultrasound on interfacial microstructures and growth kinetics of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at different temperatures.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the effect of ultrasound on interfacial microstructures and growth kinetics of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at different temperatures.

Design/methodology/approach

To investigate the effect of ultrasound on IMCs growth quantitatively, the cross-sectional area of IMCs layers over a confirmed length was obtained for calculating the thickness of the IMCs layer.

Findings

The generation of dimensional difference in normal direction between Cu6Sn5 and its adjacent Cu6Sn5, formation of bossed Cu6Sn5 and non-interfacial Cu6Sn5 in ultrasonic solder joints made the interfacial Cu6Sn5 layer present a non-scallop-like morphology different from that of traditional solder joints. At 260°C and 290°C, the Cu3Sn layer presented a wave-like shape. In contrast, at 320°C, the Cu3Sn in ultrasonic solder joints consisted of non-interfacial Cu3Sn and interfacial Cu3Sn with a branch-like shape. The Cu6Sn5/Cu3Sn boundary and Cu3Sn/Cu interface presented a sawtooth-like shape under the effect of ultrasound. The predominant mechanism of ultrasonic-assisted growth of Cu6Sn5 growth at 260°C, 290°C and 320°C involved the grain boundary diffusion accompanied by grain coarsening. The Cu3Sn growth was controlled by volume diffusion during the ultrasonic soldering process at 260°C and 290°C. The diffusion mechanism of Cu3Sn growth transformed to grain boundary diffusion accompanied by grain coarsening when the ultrasonic soldering temperature was increased to 320°C.

Originality/value

The microstructural evolution and growth kinetics of IMCs in ultrasonically prepared ultrasonic solder joints at different temperatures have rarely been reported in previous studies. In this study, the effect of ultrasound on microstructural evolution and growth kinetics of IMCs was systematically investigated.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 28 January 2003

Abstract

Details

Progress in Psychobiology and Physiological Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-12-542118-8

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