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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1974

P.R. BIRD

Most documentation systems allocate a variable number of descriptors to their documents. From a consideration of indexing as a stochastic process it is suggested that the…

Abstract

Most documentation systems allocate a variable number of descriptors to their documents. From a consideration of indexing as a stochastic process it is suggested that the distribution of indexing depth in such a system might represent samples of a (truncated) mixed Poisson process. Examination of five different systems showed that indexing depth does appear to be distributed in this manner, since a reasonable fit to negative binomial distributions can be made statistically. Factors in the art of indexing which influence the distribution are discussed. As a first approximation the distribution of indexing depth, i, of a system, or of any subset of descriptors in it, is simple Poisson, p(i) = e−m(mi/i!), where m is the average depth of indexing. The results contradict previous reports that a log‐normal distribution of indexing depth is to be expected.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1976

P.R. Bird

Feature card systems are particularly suited to dealing with information pertaining to drugs, diseases, anatomical terms and biological species, for which elements of…

Abstract

Feature card systems are particularly suited to dealing with information pertaining to drugs, diseases, anatomical terms and biological species, for which elements of vocabulary control and hierarchy are useful for information retrieval. In the biomedical field some feature card systems in the UK have been described in some detail; the McClelland system for anaesthesia literature used a deck of about 500 feature cards of 5,000‐hole capacity, and the Project FAIR index to biomedical engineering literature now has sis decks of 1,280 hole capacity feature cards each containing around 300 cards.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

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Article
Publication date: 24 December 2020

Peng Huang and Yue Lu

We examine the effect of institutional blockholders on the variability of firm performance.

Abstract

Purpose

We examine the effect of institutional blockholders on the variability of firm performance.

Design/methodology/approach

We use OLS regression models to estimate the effect of institutional blockholders on within-firm, over-time variability of firm performance.

Findings

We find that firms with more institutional blockholders experience less variable firm performance. In particular, more institutional blockholders are associated with less variability of annual stock returns, ROA and the market-to-book ratio. We further explore several underlying mechanisms through with institutional blockholders reduce firm performance variability. We find that more institutional blockholders are associated with less variable capital expenditures and R&D investments, and less frequent acquisition activities.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation of this paper is that our sample period only covers 1996–2006. Future studies can extend our research to a more recent period (e.g. 2009–2019) to test whether our findings remain valid in other periods.

Practical implications

We document a significant relation between institutional blockholders and firm performance variability in this paper. However, we do not make any judgment as to whether firms should increase their institutional blockholders as it is unclear whether the caused reduction in risk-taking is socially efficient. We argue that the value implication of institutional blockholders depends on the existing blockholder structure and the different levels of risk appetite between the CEO and shareholders. Thus, the decision on the increase or decrease of institutional blockholders should be carefully made based on a firm’s specific characteristics.

Originality/value

This paper is a first study which examines the impact of the presence of institutional blockholders on the variability of firm performance, while most prior studies focus on the stock ownership of institutional blockholders and examine its impact on the level of firm performance.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 10 August 2017

Jennie Jacobs Kronenfeld

This chapter provides both an introduction to the volume and a brief review of literature on women, gender, and health and health-care services as well as racial/ethnic…

Abstract

This chapter provides both an introduction to the volume and a brief review of literature on women, gender, and health and health-care services as well as racial/ethnic minorities in the same areas.

The chapter argues for the importance of greater examination of women, issues of gender, and racial and ethnic minorities in health and health-care services.

The chapter reviews the issues of women and racial and ethnic minorities and previews this book.

Details

Health and Health Care Concerns Among Women and Racial and Ethnic Minorities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-150-8

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Book part
Publication date: 18 September 2018

Jennie Jacobs Kronenfeld

This chapter provides an introduction to the volume along with a brief review of literature on gender, women’s health concerns, and other social factors in health and…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter provides an introduction to the volume along with a brief review of literature on gender, women’s health concerns, and other social factors in health and health care services.

Methodology/approach

Literature review.

Findings

The chapter argues for the importance of greater examination of gender, women’s health concerns, and social factors in health and health care services.

Originality/value

Reviews the issues of gender, women, and social factors and previews this book.

Details

Gender, Women’s Health Care Concerns and Other Social Factors in Health and Health Care
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-175-5

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Orhan Akisik and Graham Gal

The purpose of this study is to empirically examine whether two major stakeholder groups – customers and employees – consider third party-reviewed corporate social…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to empirically examine whether two major stakeholder groups – customers and employees – consider third party-reviewed corporate social responsibility (CSR) reports and assurance on the quality of internal controls as value determinant in their decisions, and how their decisions influence financial performance through the halo effect of these reports.

Design/methodology/approach

Using Compustat North America and Global Reporting Initiative data, the authors used first-order autoregressive models over the period from 2006 to 2012.

Findings

The results indicate that the impacts of customers and employees on financial performance are influenced by third party-reviewed CSR reports and effective internal control. Moreover, it is found that the third party-reviewed CSR reports and effective internal control enable the persistence of financial performance.

Social implications

The findings have implications for stakeholders in terms of third party-reviewed CSR reports and effective internal control. The findings are important due to the influence that these stakeholders (customers and employees) have on the financial performance of firms and the impact that CSR actions can have on society as a whole.

Originality/value

To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study that contributes to the literature by demonstrating that information about third party-reviewed CSR reports and internal control reviews may influence the perceptions of firms by two primary stakeholders – customers and employees.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Handbook of Microsimulation Modelling
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-570-8

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2019

Elaine Lim and Yew Mun Hung

By solving a long-wave evolution model numerically for power-law fluids, the authors aim to investigate the hydrodynamic and thermal characteristics of thermocapillary…

Abstract

Purpose

By solving a long-wave evolution model numerically for power-law fluids, the authors aim to investigate the hydrodynamic and thermal characteristics of thermocapillary flow in an evaporating thin liquid film of pseudoplastic fluid.

Design/methodology/approach

The flow reversal attributed to the thermocapillary action is manifestly discernible through the streamline plots.

Findings

The thermocapillary strength is closely related to the viscosity of the fluid, besides its surface tension. The thermocapillary flow prevails in both Newtonian and pseudoplastic fluids at a large Marangoni number and the thermocapillary effect is more significant in the former. The overestimate in the Newtonian fluid is larger than that in the pseudoplastic fluid, owing to the shear-thinning characteristics of the latter.

Originality/value

This study provides insights into the essential attributes of the underlying flow characteristics in affecting the thermal behavior of thermocapillary convection in an evaporating thin liquid film of the shear-thinning fluids.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2007

Ron Bird and Lorenzo Casavecchia

The purpose of this research is to study the extent to which various price and earnings momentum measures can be used to enhance portfolio performance by better timing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to study the extent to which various price and earnings momentum measures can be used to enhance portfolio performance by better timing entry into value stocks (and isolating those growth stocks that still have some period to run).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses the traditional methodology of ranking stocks on the basis of certain value and momentum measures (e.g. book‐to‐market, market return over some prior period), forming portfolios based on these rankings which are held for a specific period of time. The portfolios are formed on the basis of a single measure of multiple measures and the returns and associated p‐values are calculated with the objective of determining how these portfolios perform relative to a benchmark portfolio composed of all the companies in the universe. The analysis is conducted on a database consisting of approximately 8,000 companies drawn from 15 European countries over the period from January 1989 to May 2004.

Findings

It was found that a number of individual, and combinations of, price and earnings momentum factors are able to enhance value portfolios by identifying stocks that will not perform well in the immediate future. The best measure that was found for timing entry into value and growth stocks is a combination of price momentum and price acceleration where the difference in monthly performance between the “best” and “worst” value (growth) portfolios is 2.6 percent (2.4 percent) for holding periods of 12 months. It was found not only that this momentum measure can be used to enhance value and growth in portfolios consisting of all European stocks but also that it can be successfully deployed in the major individual markets and regions.

Originality/value

Most studies that evaluate the performance of value and growth portfolios do not consider the characteristics of the stocks held in these portfolios. However, it is these characteristics that determine the success of the portfolios formed on the basis of what can only be described as very crude valuation multiples. This paper demonstrates the potential of a closer evaluation of the stocks chosen to be included in a particular portfolio by being able to identify those stocks most likely to perform (and under‐perform). The findings in the paper have obvious implications for the investment processes of investment managers but they also provide useful insights into the efficiency of the European markets and the typical means of price formation within those markets.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1977

A.B. BUXTON and A.J. MEADOWS

The relative information content of titles of research papers in different subject areas has been examined by counting the number of their ‘substantive’ words in eleven…

Abstract

The relative information content of titles of research papers in different subject areas has been examined by counting the number of their ‘substantive’ words in eleven English periodicals, two French and two German. Chemistry and botany (in which KWIC indexes are already produced) are found to have the highest values, followed by physics, medicine, history, and the social sciences, with philosophy lowest. The information content of the foreign titles when translated into English was almost equal to that of English titles in the same subjects. Most subjects showed a significant increase in the number of substantive words between 1947 and 1973. Some difficulties of searching by title due to the vocabularies of non‐scientific subjects are discussed.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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