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Book part
Publication date: 25 May 2021

Alessandra Girlando, Simon Grima, Engin Boztepe, Sharon Seychell, Ramona Rupeika-Apoga and Inna Romanova

Purpose: Risk is a multifaceted concept, and its identification requires complex approaches that are often misunderstood. The consequence is that decisions are based on…

Abstract

Purpose: Risk is a multifaceted concept, and its identification requires complex approaches that are often misunderstood. The consequence is that decisions are based on limited perception rather than the full value and meaning of what risk is, as a result, the way it is being tackled is incorrect. The individuals are often limited in their perceptions and ideas and do not embrace the full multifaceted nature of risk. Regulators and individuals want to follow norms and checklists or overuse models, simulations, and templates, thereby reducing responsibility for decision-making. At the same time, the wider use of technology and rules reduces the critical thinking of individuals. We advance the automation process by building robots that follow protocols and forget about the part of risk assessment that cannot be programed. Therefore, with this study, the objective of this study was to discover how people define risk, the influencing factors of risk perception and how they behave toward this perception. The authors also determine how the perception differed with age, gender, marital status, education level and region. The novelty of the research is related to individual risk perception during COVID-19, as this is a new and unknown phenomenon. Methodology: The research is based on the analysis of the self-administered purposely designed questionnaires we distributed across different social media platforms between February and June 2020 in Europe and in some cases was carried out as a interview over communication platforms such as “Skype,” “Zoom” and “Microsoft Teams.” The questionnaire was divided into four parts: Section 1 was designed to collect demographic information from the participants; Section 2 included risk definition statements obtained from literature and a preliminary discussion with peers; Section 3 included risk behavior statements; and Section 4 included statements on risk perception experiences. A five-point Likert Scale was provided, and participants were required to answer along a scale of “1” for “Strongly Agree” to “5” for “Strongly Disagree.” Participants also had the option to elaborate further and provide additional comments in an open-ended box provided at the end of the section. 466 valid responses were received. Thematic analysis was carried out to analyze the interviews and the open-ended questions, while the questionnaire responses were analyzed using various quantitative methods on IBM SPSS (version 23). Findings: The results of the analysis indicate that individuals evaluate the risk before making a decision and view risk as both a loss and opportunity. The study identifies nine factors influencing risk perception. Nevertheless, it must be emphasized that we can continue to develop models and rules, but as long as the risk is not understood, we will never achieve anything.

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Contemporary Issues in Social Science
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-931-3

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Book part
Publication date: 13 July 2016

Susan R. Fisk

The goal of this chapter is to both provide a sociological explanation for gender differences in risk-taking behavior and to explain how such gender differences in…

Abstract

Purpose

The goal of this chapter is to both provide a sociological explanation for gender differences in risk-taking behavior and to explain how such gender differences in behavior may contribute to women’s underrepresentation at the top of hierarchies.

Methodology/approach

I synthesize relevant research findings from the fields of social psychology, economics, psychology, decisions science, and sociology.

Originality/value

I argue that risk-taking is a gendered action due to both prescriptive and descriptive gender stereotypes. The fact that risk-taking is a gendered action offers sociological insights as to why women take fewer risks than men. First, women may rationally choose to take fewer risks, given that risk-taking is less rewarding for them. Second, the aforementioned gender stereotypes may cause institutional gatekeepers to give women fewer opportunities to take risks.

Sociologists should care about this phenomenon because large rewards are attached to successful risk-taking behavior. Thus, if men as a group take more successful risks than women as a group – simply because they take more risks, and thus by chance experience more successful risks – then more men than women will experience upward mobility caused by risk-taking.

Social implications

Gender differences in risk-taking behavior likely depress the upward mobility of women and are a contributing factor to the dearth of women in top positions. In this era of falling formal barriers and women’s educational gains, gender differences in risk-taking behavior are likely of increasing importance for understanding the inequalities in hierarchies in U.S. society.

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Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-041-1

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2018

Farhad Panahifar, P.J. Byrne, Mohammad Asif Salam and Cathal Heavey

The purpose of this paper is to identify and assess the interrelationships between various characteristics of information sharing and trust and their criticality for…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify and assess the interrelationships between various characteristics of information sharing and trust and their criticality for effective information-centred supply chain collaboration initiatives and, in turn, its criticality to overall firm’s performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of 189 executives from different firms was conducted and the resulting data were analysed to investigate how collaboration enablers affect effective collaboration and to determine its impacts on organisational performance. Structural equation modelling through partial least squares is used to study the relationships between four enablers (trust, information readiness, information accuracy and information security), perceived collaboration success, and two outcomes (sales growth and overall operational performance).

Findings

The empirical results indicate that three collaboration enablers including trust, information readiness and secure sharing of information improve supply chain collaboration. The present study finds that “secure sharing of information” was the most important factor in fostering information sharing-centred collaboration. The present study also demonstrates that effective collaboration positively and significantly influences on firm’s performance.

Practical implications

This study provides researchers and practitioners with a more comprehensive understanding about the information sharing-centred collaboration, its enablers and effects on firms’ performance in a supply chain context. Future research should focus on developing additional constructs that may capture other drivers of effective collaboration.

Originality/value

The present study makes an empirical contribution to the body of knowledge by investigating an integrated framework focussing on the enablers of collaboration through information sharing and its impact on firms’ performance.

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Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2016

Anne Marie Ivers, James Byrne and PJ Byrne

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the data profile of manufacturing small and medium enterprises (SMEs) with specific emphasis on understanding the data…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the data profile of manufacturing small and medium enterprises (SMEs) with specific emphasis on understanding the data readiness of SMEs for discrete event simulation (DES) modelling.

Design/methodology/approach

Research was conducted through a review of literature and a survey research strategy of manufacturing SMEs.

Findings

This paper illustrates the data profile of manufacturing SMEs. Insight is provided on the types of data collected by SMEs, the collection methods used and how these data are stored by the SMEs. Additionally size and age effects are considered. Based on this data profile, conclusions are made regarding an indication of data readiness of manufacturing SMEs for DES modelling.

Research limitations/implications

This research is focused specifically on manufacturing SMEs in Ireland, other countries and sectors are not investigated.

Practical implications

This paper provides owner-managers and senior management insight into the data profile of manufacturing SMEs and their potential for utilisation of DES for performance improvement and decision support.

Originality/value

This paper addresses the gaps that exist in the knowledge of the data profile of manufacturing SMEs and consequently the status of this profile with regard to the readiness of SMEs for DES modelling.

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Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Asif Salam, Farhad Panahifar and P.J. Byrne

In today’s competitive retail industry the most critical success factor is customer service which is indicated by product availability. It is argued that in the retail…

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4123

Abstract

Purpose

In today’s competitive retail industry the most critical success factor is customer service which is indicated by product availability. It is argued that in the retail industry, product availability is an important measure of quality. The single most vital decision that every retailer needs to make is, how to maximize service level while keeping minimum inventory level. The purpose of this paper is to explain and demonstrate the relationship between inventory level and customer service level.

Design/methodology/approach

This study examines an inventory system utilizing a simulation model based on company data obtained from a retail fast-moving-consumer goods chain operating in Thailand.

Findings

The results suggest that the achievement of a responsive service level is dependent on managing an efficient supply chain in addition to logistics cost reductions. The findings also reveal the effect the inventory level has on the service level. From the findings of this study, demand variability and service level have been found to have the most significant influence on the inventory level. From the findings, it can also be shown that real and accurate information is very important for service supply chains.

Practical implications

The paper promotes the importance of having an appropriate inventory management policy for a retail chain which should be driven by retail companies in order to better balance inventory and service levels.

Originality/value

The relationship between the inventory level and customer service level lead to different outcomes at different combinations of inventory and service levels. Significant relationships were found between inventory and service levels.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

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Book part
Publication date: 19 November 2020

Abstract

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The Impact of Global Drug Policy on Women: Shifting the Needle
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-885-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2001

Dawna L. Rhoades and Paula L. Rechner

Shareholders are demanding that firms change their ownership and corporate governance structures to improve accountability and corporate performance. This study examined…

Abstract

Shareholders are demanding that firms change their ownership and corporate governance structures to improve accountability and corporate performance. This study examined the influence of ownership and governance on entry mode selection, considered a key decision for international firms and one with important financial implications. Results indicate that owner control is related to the selection of higher risk and higher control forms of entry. Partial support was found for the effects of other governance mechanisms.

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The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1055-3185

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Book part
Publication date: 17 September 2014

Stacy Creel

This study investigated the design of three online public library catalogs in light of the cognitive ability and success of children ages five to eight.

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigated the design of three online public library catalogs in light of the cognitive ability and success of children ages five to eight.

Methodology/approach

A quasi-experimental approach was employed to examine the influence of system design on children’s searching strategies and search success. Interviews were used to explore children’s rationale for using icons and taxonomies in the catalogs. Fifty one children from one public library participated in this study. Inferential statistics were utilized to whether significant differences existed between use of the catalogs and the children’s success in finding information.

Results

Use of images and text were helpful in searching the catalogs. Results of the ANOVA test indicated no significant difference among children’s searching success rates and the three catalogs. Additionally, the participants misidentified representations used in icons in all three catalogs and created valid search paths that did not produce results. There was a disconnect between the children’s cognitive abilities and the design representations of the three catalogs.

Limitations

The study took place in one location, thus one should not overgeneralize the findings. Use of assigned tasks may have affected children’s success rates. Children’s searching using printed cards of display screens from the three catalogs instead of real-time interaction with them is also a limitation.

Practical implications

Because of the children’s reliance on images, the choice of visual representations is crucial to successful searching. Interface designers should involve young users in the design of today’s online catalogs. They should also consider new forms of representations such as auditory icons, verbal mouse overs, and zooms.

Originality/value

In addition to addressing the need for research on young children’s information seeking and use of online catalogs in public libraries, this research focuses on the need for an additional layer of visual representation and highlights flaws in currently used catalog designs.

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New Directions in Children’s and Adolescents’ Information Behavior Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-814-3

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1989

Marshall Hsia and Peter Byrne

Examines some of the improvements in personal computer software inrecent years and the uptake of this technology in the surveyingindustry. Discusses the extent to which…

Abstract

Examines some of the improvements in personal computer software in recent years and the uptake of this technology in the surveying industry. Discusses the extent to which bespoke software systems have found acceptance in the industry and points to the greatly increased professional familiarity with generic software systems and its effect on valuation activities. Stresses the importance of user involvement in the system development process. Suggests that many problems with computing stem from an unwillingness to be involved in the developmental process.

Details

Journal of Valuation, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7480

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Abstract

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Sociological Theory and Criminological Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-054-5

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