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Book part

Paul A. Pautler

The Bureau of Economics in the Federal Trade Commission has a three-part role in the Agency and the strength of its functions changed over time depending on the…

Abstract

The Bureau of Economics in the Federal Trade Commission has a three-part role in the Agency and the strength of its functions changed over time depending on the preferences and ideology of the FTC’s leaders, developments in the field of economics, and the tenor of the times. The over-riding current role is to provide well considered, unbiased economic advice regarding antitrust and consumer protection law enforcement cases to the legal staff and the Commission. The second role, which long ago was primary, is to provide reports on investigations of various industries to the public and public officials. This role was more recently called research or “policy R&D”. A third role is to advocate for competition and markets both domestically and internationally. As a practical matter, the provision of economic advice to the FTC and to the legal staff has required that the economists wear “two hats,” helping the legal staff investigate cases and provide evidence to support law enforcement cases while also providing advice to the legal bureaus and to the Commission on which cases to pursue (thus providing “a second set of eyes” to evaluate cases). There is sometimes a tension in those functions because building a case is not the same as evaluating a case. Economists and the Bureau of Economics have provided such services to the FTC for over 100 years proving that a sub-organization can survive while playing roles that sometimes conflict. Such a life is not, however, always easy or fun.

Details

Healthcare Antitrust, Settlements, and the Federal Trade Commission
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-599-9

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Article

Robert Gulbro and Paul Herbig

In this age of the global economy, cross‐cultural negotiation is becoming an increasingly important part of the management and marketing process for nearly every firm…

Abstract

In this age of the global economy, cross‐cultural negotiation is becoming an increasingly important part of the management and marketing process for nearly every firm. Compares the cross‐cultural negotiation behaviour and differences in the perceived processes between those firms which consider themselves North American‐focused and those firms which report a worldwide or international outlook. Proposes several hypotheses, reports significant differences between the two groups and provides analysis.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article

Alexandra V. Orlova

The purpose of this paper is to cut through the rhetoric that shrouds Russia's anti‐money laundering regime to uncover the reality that lies beneath.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to cut through the rhetoric that shrouds Russia's anti‐money laundering regime to uncover the reality that lies beneath.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper relies on both primary and secondary sources in Russian and English that deal with the problems of money laundering in the Russian context. Relevant sections of the Russian Criminal Code as well as Russia's anti‐money laundering regulations have been consulted.

Findings

Overall, the Russian anti‐money laundering regime has thus far proved ineffective in terms of meeting its stated purposes of combating organized crime and terrorism. Its limited success stems largely from structural weaknesses in the Russian banking system as well as that industry's lack of a culture of regulatory compliance. Moreover, Russian authorities have opportunistically seized on the current anti‐money laundering regime as a useful tool in the pursuit of ends unconnected to the fight against organized crime and terrorism. The Russian authorities have used the regime to attempt to reform the banking system and to extend their strategic control in the domestic political and business realms. The ineffectiveness of the anti‐money laundering regulations and their usage to achieve ulterior aims undermine the legitimacy of the regime as a whole.

Originality/value

The paper looks beyond the technical difficulties in applying the anti‐money laundering regulations and examines the misuses of the anti‐money laundering regime in the Russian context. However, the problems raised in the paper are not unique to Russia and have relevance to other jurisdictions, especially countries that are members of the Financial Action Task Force.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

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Article

Antonis C. Simintiras and Andrew H. Thomas

States that the involvement of a sales organisation in international business requires sales interactions that transcend national boundaries. Understanding the…

Abstract

States that the involvement of a sales organisation in international business requires sales interactions that transcend national boundaries. Understanding the complexities of cross‐cultural sales negotiations is most important and is a difficult task for sales managers. States that despite the importance and complex nature of cross‐cultural negotiations, the literature is normative and largely disjointed. By using the negotiation process as an analytical framework, this study examines the relevant literature, offers research propositions and indicates additional areas necessitating further research.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article

Phillip W. Balsmeier and Anita K. Heck

Discusses cross‐cultural communication as a process of becoming aware of another culture's habits, actions and reasons behind behaviours; and explores low‐context…

Abstract

Discusses cross‐cultural communication as a process of becoming aware of another culture's habits, actions and reasons behind behaviours; and explores low‐context, high‐context, frontstage and backstage cultures, along with the differences between them. Basic principles (conversational, presentation and written) are used to illustrate how cultures vary in communication style. Examples of attitude, priorities and behaviours which are influenced by culture are explained using factors of age, family, money and material possessions, space, time, priorities and gifts.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Book part

Johnna Capitano, Kristie L. McAlpine and Jeffrey H. Greenhaus

A core concept of work–home interface research is boundary permeability – the frequency with which elements from one domain cross, or permeate, the boundary of another…

Abstract

A core concept of work–home interface research is boundary permeability – the frequency with which elements from one domain cross, or permeate, the boundary of another domain. Yet, there remains ambiguity as to what these elements are and how these permeations impact important outcomes such as role satisfaction and role performance. The authors introduce a multidimensional perspective of work–home boundary permeability, identifying five forms of boundary permeation: task, psychological, role referencing, object, and people. Furthermore, based on the notion that employee control over boundary permeability behavior is the key to achieving role satisfaction and role performance, the authors examine how organizations’ HR practices, leadership, and norms impact employee control over boundary permeability in the work and home domains. The authors conclude with an agenda for future research.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-852-0

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Article

Andrew Milner

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the practical policy arguments that support the exclusion of pre‐contractual negotiations in the interpretation of written…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the practical policy arguments that support the exclusion of pre‐contractual negotiations in the interpretation of written contracts, and the more principled arguments for allowing such evidence to be admitted. This paper proposes that the exclusionary rule be relaxed in certain limited circumstances.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper adopts a black‐letter law approach focusing heavily upon the principles of law itself. It analyses the arguments for and against admitting pre‐contractual negotiations in the interpretation of written contracts through examining key court judgments, key journal articles and leading text under English law and other common law jurisdictions.

Findings

The findings show that the arguments advanced in support of the exclusionary rule, whilst of great significance, are not that convincing. The arguments for relaxing the exclusionary rule in certain limited circumstances are very strong.

Research limitations/implications

Empirical study may show that the arguments in support of the exclusionary rule are not in practice as significant as postulated. The paper is focused on the law of England and Wales.

Practical implications

This paper will be instructive to commentators, lawyers, academics and students in the field of commercial contract law and parties to contracts.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to pushing back the boundaries of the developing law in the interpretation of written contracts.

Details

International Journal of Law in the Built Environment, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-1450

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Case study

Urs Müller

Business ethics corruption governance and compliance integrity management international management intercultural and cross-cultural management internationalization…

Abstract

Subject area

Business ethics corruption governance and compliance integrity management international management intercultural and cross-cultural management internationalization corporate social responsibility (CSR).

Study level/applicability

The case has successfully been used with a wide range of audiences from masters/MBAs to Executives. It will also work with undergraduates.

Case overview

This four-part case series can be used to discuss business ethics, compliance/governance, integrity management, reacting to and preparing against corruption in the context of internationalization and allows to also briefly touching upon the issue of CSR. Case (A) describes a challenge IKEA was facing, while trying to enter Russia in 2000. The company was preparing to open its first flagship store on the outskirts of Moscow, only the first of several planned projects. After substantial investments in infrastructure and logistics, IKEA focused on marketing, but quickly faced a sudden complication. Its major ad campaign in the Moscow Metro with the slogan “[e]very 10th European was made in one of our beds” was labeled “tasteless”. IKEA had to stop the campaign because it “couldn’t prove” the claim. Soon Lennart Dahlgren, the first general manager of IKEA in Russia must have realized that the unsuccessful ad campaign was going to be the least of his problems: A few weeks before the planned opening, the local utility company decided not to provide their services for the store if IKEA did not pay a bribe. What should IKEA and Lennart Dahlgren do? Was there any alternative to playing the game the Russian way, and paying? The subsequent cases (B), (C) and (D) describe IKEA’s creative response to the challenges described in case (A), and then report about new challenges with alleged corruption within IKEA and in the legal environment, and finally raise the question whether IKEA can be considered to have a (corporate social) responsibility to fight corruption on a societal level to build the platform for its own operation in Russia.

Expected learning outcomes

Responding to a threatening corruption demand (here: responding to an outside demand for a bribe), avoiding corruption from the outside, cross-cultural differences in drawing the line for corruption, preventing corruption within the organization, (corporate social) responsibility of firms to improve the political/legal/social/moral environment in which they operate are the expected learning outcomes.

Supplementary materials

Teaching Notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes.

Subject code

CSS 5: International Business

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

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Book part

Patricia Ann Kramer

Burden transport is a ubiquitous primate behavior. Modern humans, however, take this primate tendency and extend it to a behavioral repertoire that influences many of our…

Abstract

Burden transport is a ubiquitous primate behavior. Modern humans, however, take this primate tendency and extend it to a behavioral repertoire that influences many of our daily activities and almost certainly helped shape our physical and behavioral form. I examine the transportation of food in the context of central place foraging, from the perspective of maximizing energy acquisition. A detailed model of the energetic cost of burden transport is presented and its sensitivity to the variables of body mass, burden mass, terrain, incline and velocity discussed.

Details

Socioeconomic Aspects of Human Behavioral Ecology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-255-9

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Article

J. Glazer, P.A. Kramer and J.W. Morris

The effect of gold (Au) on the reliability of 0.65 mm pitch surface mount solder joints between plastic quad flat packs and Cu‐Ni‐Au FR‐4 printed circuit boards was…

Abstract

The effect of gold (Au) on the reliability of 0.65 mm pitch surface mount solder joints between plastic quad flat packs and Cu‐Ni‐Au FR‐4 printed circuit boards was investigated. Cu‐Ni‐Au is a desirable printed circuit board finish for multi‐chip modules or printed circuit boards that would otherwise require a selective Au finish, for example for edge connectors or wire bondable parts. However, Au is known to embrittle solder when it is present in sufficiently high concentrations, creating a concern that solder joint fatigue life in service will also be adversely affected. This paper reports the results of mechanical shock, mechanical vibration and thermal cycling testing of fine pitch solder joints containing varying amounts of Au. Tests were performed on as‐soldered joints and on joints that had been heat‐treated to evolve the microstructure towards equilibrium. The tests were designed to accelerate in‐service conditions in a typical industrial environment. Under these conditions, the Au concentrations tested did not promote solder joint failures. Microstructural characterisation of the distribution and morphology of the Au‐, Ni‐ and Cu‐Sn intermetallics in the joint before and after accelerated testing was also performed. On the basis of these observations it is recommended that the Au concentration in solder joints between plastic quad flat packs and Cu‐Ni‐Au FR‐4 printed circuit boards not exceed 3.0 wt.%.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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