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Article
Publication date: 30 January 2007

Wally R. Smith

The purpose of this paper is to define, describe, and understand how to combat pseudoevidence‐based medicine (PBM).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to define, describe, and understand how to combat pseudoevidence‐based medicine (PBM).

Design/methodology/approach

Descriptive essay and review.

Findings

PBM can be defined as the practice of medicine based on falsehoods that are disseminated as true evidence, then adopted by unwitting and well‐intentioned practitioners of evidence‐based medicine (EBM). PBM borders on being not only unethical, but also criminal. It may well result not only in inappropriate quality standards and processes of care, but also in harms to patients. Is there a motive to commit the crime of PBM? Is there an opportunity to commit the crime? And is there evidence of the crime beyond reasonable doubt? This article answers those questions.

Originality/value

PBM should be opposed. This article recommends individual and corporate ways to oppose it, including heightened individual skepticism when evaluating evidence, and improved professionalism in relationships with patients and scientific endeavor.

Details

Clinical Governance: An International Journal, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7274

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1965

P. Orlowski

In the protection against corrosion of lock gates and other harbour structures, the life expectation of the protection given is of major importance because of the high…

Abstract

In the protection against corrosion of lock gates and other harbour structures, the life expectation of the protection given is of major importance because of the high cost of drying off structures and repainting them. This paper discusses the factors involved and describes some case histories of marine protection.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Abstract

Details

Sport Business in Leading Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-564-3

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Book part
Publication date: 25 November 2019

Christina L. Scott, Siri Wilder and Justine Bennett

Purpose – Despite the rising number of unmarried and/or divorced parents, negative stereotypes of single parents are still prevalent. The current study aims to explore…

Abstract

Purpose – Despite the rising number of unmarried and/or divorced parents, negative stereotypes of single parents are still prevalent. The current study aims to explore attitudes toward single mothers (choice vs circumstance) and personal willingness to become single parents in the future.

Design/Methodology/Approach – The current study used a 10-item Likert scale inventory to assess 230 female respondents’ attitudes toward fictitious single mothers; five open-ended questions explored advantages/challenges faced by each mother, and a single-item Likert scale assessed willingness to become a single mother by choice.

Findings – Although young adults (18–25 years) reported more positivity toward single mothers compared to adults (26–79 years), both groups were unwilling to become single mothers by choice. Qualitative findings suggested participants identified more advantages associated with being a single mother by choice (as compared to by circumstance).

Research Limitations/Implications – The majority of the sample consisted of “young adults” (undergraduates) ages 18–25, while the “adult” sample combined multiple generations ages 26–79, resulting in an unbalanced age distribution between groups.

Originality/Value – Few studies have acknowledged the existence of single mothers by choice; the current research provided supporting evidence that attitudes toward single mothers are increasingly more positive among Millennials despite unwillingness to become a single mother by choice in the future.

Details

Childbearing and the Changing Nature of Parenthood: The Contexts, Actors, and Experiences of Having Children
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-067-2

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 11 November 2019

John Xeller and David J. Atkin

President Obama embraced social media and remains one of the most followed persons on Twitter. The focus of this study is twofold: to assess how the President’s use of…

Abstract

President Obama embraced social media and remains one of the most followed persons on Twitter. The focus of this study is twofold: to assess how the President’s use of Twitter affected (a) Millennials’ perception of Obama and (b) Millennials’ interest and likelihood to participate in the political process. Study findings provide support for a model derived from information processing theory. Results also suggest that message orientation (or perceived favorability) predicted source credibility, which stems from message content as well as the Twitter medium by which the message was delivered. Implications for study findings – including optimal strategies for cultivating a social media presence – are discussed.

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2020

Krystian Zawadzki

In the study, an attempt was made to estimate the social benefits resulting from three non-mega sporting events organized in Ergo Arena located on the border of two cities…

Abstract

Purpose

In the study, an attempt was made to estimate the social benefits resulting from three non-mega sporting events organized in Ergo Arena located on the border of two cities in Poland. By attributing a value to intangible social benefits, the intangible effect was determined and compared to the expenditure incurred in the construction of Ergo Arena Hall.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to value social intangible effects of three non-mega sporting events the Contingent Valuation Method was applied. Each time, the Contingent Valuation Method study covered the area of the two cities: Gdańsk and Sopot and was conducted on a sample of 500 people – 250 per city. The mean values of Willingness-to-Pay were used in order to obtain aggregate values of intangible benefits. Finally, the aggregate results were compared to expenditure incurred in connection with the construction of Ergo Arena Hall.

Findings

It appeared that intangible effects were eagerly valued by the residents of Gdańsk and Sopot. The aggregated value of all three sporting events was estimated at PLN 8.8 million. The obtained results question the equal share of both cities in financing but confirm that under certain circumstances, hosting non-mega sporting events may justify the use of public funds. In the case of the two cities, the reasonable reason for the employment of public means is the size of Gdańsk compared to Sopot.

Originality/value

The paper fulfils the research gap which arises regarding Willingness-to-Pay in estimating the intangible social effects of non-mega sporting events and considering these effects in the net effect valuation. The findings have implications for policy makers since they show to what extent it may be justified to use public means in order to host non-mega sporting events.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2021

Alireza Ahmadian Fard Fini, Mojtaba Maghrebi, Perry John Forsythe and Travis Steven Waller

Measuring onsite productivity has been a substance of debate in the construction industry, mainly due to concerns about accuracy, repeatability and unbiasedness. Such…

Abstract

Purpose

Measuring onsite productivity has been a substance of debate in the construction industry, mainly due to concerns about accuracy, repeatability and unbiasedness. Such characteristics are central to demonstrate construction speed that can be achieved through adopting new prefabricated systems. Existing productivity measurement methods, however, cannot cost-effectively provide solid and replicable evidence of prefabrication benefits. This research proposes a low-cost automated method for measuring onsite installation productivity of prefabricated systems.

Design/methodology/approach

Firstly, the captured ultra-wide footages are undistorted by extracting the curvature contours and performing a developed meta-heuristic algorithm to straighten these contours. Then a preprocessing algorithm is developed that could automatically detect and remove the noises caused by vibrations and movements. Because this study aims to accurately measure the productivity the noise free images are double checked in a specific time window to make sure that even a tiny error, which have not been detected in the previous steps, will not been amplified through the process. In the next step, the existing side view provided by the camera is converted to a top view by using a spatial transformation method. Finally, the processed images are compared with the site drawings in order to detect the construction process over time and report the measured productivity.

Findings

The developed algorithms perform nearly real-time productivity computations through exact matching of actual installation process and digital design layout. The accuracy and noninterpretive use of the proposed method is demonstrated in construction of a multistorey cross-laminated timber building.

Originality/value

This study uses footages of an already installed surveillance camera where the camera's features are unknown and then image processing algorithms are deployed to retrieve accurate installation quantities and cycle times. The algorithms are almost generalized and versatile to be adjusted to measure installation productivity of other prefabricated building systems.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 May 2020

Tingting Zhang, Can Lu, Edwin Torres and Cihan Cobanoglu

This study aims to identify different approaches to conceptualize value co-creation and analysing firms’ co-creation strategies aided by various advancing technologies…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify different approaches to conceptualize value co-creation and analysing firms’ co-creation strategies aided by various advancing technologies. This study further discusses the strengths and weaknesses of these strategies and suggests solutions to overcome the limitations.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a critical literature review, the authors propose a conceptual framework to denote the relations between evolving technologies and co-creation activities.

Findings

On one hand, technology influences the co-creation processes by empowering consumers, offering greater ability to connect, providing greater access to information and furnishing a platform that facilitates co-creation; on the other hand, technological advancements may add complexity, variability and lead to loss of control for service organizations. A role of customers and value definitions are identified and elaborated in the value co-creation process.

Originality/value

Advanced information and communication technologies transcend the traditionally defined service encounters by enabling co-creating actors to exchange resources through virtual interfaces, thus redefining the strategies of value co-creation. Though many studies have discussed value co-creation in diversified standpoints, a perspective from its relationship with technological progression over time remains nascent. The study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of technology-enabled value co-creation in service ecosystems.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1964

C.L. Wilson

In this, the second in a series of articles on the important topic of management attitudes to corrosion and anti‐corrosion, the author analyses the complexities involved…

Abstract

In this, the second in a series of articles on the important topic of management attitudes to corrosion and anti‐corrosion, the author analyses the complexities involved in identifying, choosing and educating a corrosion engineer. Referring to the illustration to this article which represents a simplification of the human categories involved, one might say that the successful formula for most medium‐sized firms is C + E = B where C is a chosen apprentice or student, E is education and B is the result, an improved type of maintenance manager having the capacity ot identify a wide variety of corrosion problems and equipped to present these, if necessary, to the specialist for particular solutions. The corrosion consultancy D is recommended particularly for small firms.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 11 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 4 May 2020

Rambod Dargahi, Aidin Namin and Seth Ketron

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how consumers choose among three different options offered by a firm in a monopolistic setting, namely, to buy a standard…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how consumers choose among three different options offered by a firm in a monopolistic setting, namely, to buy a standard product with a non-customizable design, to ask the firm to customize a product using the consumer’s ideal design or to do the entire design task by themselves. The authors also investigate how social preference intensity and the possibility of reselling a product influence a consumer’s decision.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors develop an analytical (game theoretical) consumer choice framework and incorporate a psychological factor into the model. The authors also empirically validate the analytical findings using simulations.

Findings

The authors find that as social preference intensity increases, the number of co-producers can either decrease or increase. The authors offer a closed-form solution and interval graphs showing that when the setup price is large (small), the proportion of the market that chooses to do-it-yourself (DIY) is large (small) and an increase in social preference intensity leads to a decrease (increase) in co-production.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to incorporate a social factor into an economic model in a consumer behavior setting. It is also the first paper to explain how customers’ preferences among possible options, such as DIY (without the firm’s help), co-production (with the firm’s help) and a standard product might change while considering other people’s preferences, as well as given associated costs.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

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