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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 30 March 2020

Sadali Rasban, Adam Abdullah and Aznan Hasan

This paper aims to examine the current practice in Singapore regarding an inheritance issue: disposal of the residual net estate to the bayt al-māl, which is identified as…

1374

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the current practice in Singapore regarding an inheritance issue: disposal of the residual net estate to the bayt al-māl, which is identified as the Islamic Religious Council of Singapore (Majlis Ugama Islam Singapura, MUIS). The issue arises when the deceased leaves farḍ (fixed-share) heir(s) and/or dhawū al-arḥām (outer family members) but there is no ʿaṣabah (agnatic residuary heir by blood). Farḍ legal heirs are those beneficiaries for whom the Qurʾān prescribes inheritance of a pre-determined share. Disposal of the residual net estate to the bayt al-māl results in a reduction in the share due to the farḍ legal heir or worse, a total loss to the dhawū al-arḥām legal heirs.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative approach based on library and case study research has been adopted to elaborate practices that fall under the purview of the Administration of Muslim Law Acts (AMLA), Chapter 3.

Findings

The current practice seems biased against, especially, women and spouses. It creates high dissatisfaction in the community, especially those affected by such practices. This paper elaborates on the practice of residual net estate distribution in Singapore and the contemporary practices of the four Sunni madh-habs – the Ḥanafī, Mālikī, Shāfiʿī and Ḥanbalī jurisprudential schools – in other countries.

Research limitations/implications

In Singapore, Muslim law is defined and implemented by the civil court, not the Syariah Court or MUIS. The recommendation to change from the current classical practice by the Syariah Court and MUIS to the contemporary practice that is relevant to today’s context lies with the civil court and Government of Singapore. The choice for the Syariah Court and MUIS to adopt the contemporary practice as per Ḥanafī School by rule of the court or the government is beyond this research. Zayd ibn Thābit, Caliph Abū Bakr and a small number of companions held the view that the residue net estate asset must go to the bayt al-māl, the current classical practice. The contemporary practice adopted by Sayyidina ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān, Jābir ibn Zayd and majority of the companions’ view, is not in favour of the residue net estate asset to go to the bayt al-māl; rather they view that it must be returned to the legal heirs.

Practical implications

Awareness in the community in the current controversial practice in Singapore when the residue net estate through the farāʾiḍ law was giving to bayt al-māl instead of returning to farḍ or dhawū al-arḥām in the absence of the ʿaṣabah legal heir as stated in the Inheritance Certificate issued by Syariah Court.

Social implications

To understand the contemporary Muslim law and the practical and just application in today’s Singapore context as supported by the AMLA, Chapter 3.

Originality/value

This is the first study that challenges the current practice by the Syariah Court and MUIS in Singapore, thereby endeavouring to restore justice to the community.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 May 2018

Suganeshwari G., Syed Ibrahim S.P. and Gang Li

The purpose of this paper is to address the scalability issue and produce high-quality recommendation that best matches the user’s current preference in the dynamically…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the scalability issue and produce high-quality recommendation that best matches the user’s current preference in the dynamically growing datasets in the context of memory-based collaborative filtering methods using temporal information.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed method is formalized as time-dependent collaborative filtering method. For each item, a set of influential neighbors is identified by using the truncated version of similarity computation based on the timestamp. Then, recent n transactions are used to generate the recommendation that reflect the recent preference of the active user. The proposed method, lazy collaborative filtering with dynamic neighborhoods (LCFDN), is further scaled up by implementing in spark using parallel processing paradigm MapReduce. The experiments conducted on MovieLens dataset reveal that LCFDN implemented on MapReduce is more efficient and achieves good performance than the existing methods.

Findings

The results of the experimental study clearly show that not all ratings provide valuable information. Recommendation system based on LCFDN increases the efficiency of predictions by selecting the most influential neighbors based on the temporal information. The pruning of the recent transactions of the user also addresses the user’s preference drifts and is more scalable when compared to state-of-art methods.

Research limitations/implications

In the proposed method, LCFDN, the neighborhood space is dynamically adjusted based on the temporal information. In addition, the LCFDN also determines the user’s current interest based on the recent preference or purchase details. This method is designed to continuously track the user’s preference with the growing dataset which makes it suitable to be implemented in the e-commerce industry. Compared with the state-of-art methods, this method provides high-quality recommendation with good efficiency.

Originality/value

The LCFDN is an extension of collaborative filtering with temporal information used as context. The dynamic nature of data and user’s preference drifts are addressed in the proposed method by dynamically adapting the neighbors. To improve the scalability, the proposed method is implemented in big data environment using MapReduce. The proposed recommendation system provides greater prediction accuracy than the traditional recommender systems.

Details

Information Discovery and Delivery, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-6247

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 November 2020

Belal Fayez Omar and Hani Alkayed

This study aims to examine the extent and quality of corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure in Jordan for the time periods of 2005–2006 and 2014–2015, ultimately…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the extent and quality of corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure in Jordan for the time periods of 2005–2006 and 2014–2015, ultimately establishing whether there was a change in the extent and quality of disclosure practices before and after the new regulations for CSR. Furthermore, this study additionally seeks to determine if the regulations are a major factor in changing CSR disclosure practices, or whether there are other factors for such a change.

Design/methodology/approach

The annual reports of 55 manufacturing companies (11 sub-sectors) on the Amman Stock Exchange for the years 2005–2006 and 2014–2015 were selected, and a CSR checklist was measured via the construction an index covering 36 items in 4 themes: environmental; human resources; community; and products and others. The study measures the quantity of CSR via the number of sentences and the quality of CSR by the weighting approach (on a scale of 0–3); furthermore, the paired sample t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to establish whether there was a change in the extent and quality of CSR disclosure practices.

Findings

The results of the study revealed that there being a significant increase in the extent and quality of CSR for the period 2014–2015 compared to that of 2005–2006, the most optimal performance being in 2015, bragging an average of 61,41 total sentences per annual report and an average quality score of 1.423. Moreover, detailed analysis of CSR extent and quality by theme reveals that the highest percentage of CSR extent and quality was within the environmental theme, with an average score 28.6% of total sentences in 2014 (extent) and 1.743 in 2015 of total sentences (quality).

Research limitations/implications

The current study has some limitations, which have implications for future studies. First, this study examined the extent and quality of CSR for only two time frames: before and after regulation. However, a longitudinal study would have provided a wider scope of study. Second, the study focussed only on the industrial sector, thus limiting the results to only this area. Indeed, the exploration of the CSR extent and quality for other sectors (e.g. financial and services) would generalise the results further, allowing for the making of comparisons compare among different sectors. Moreover, the study at hand has focussed solely on annual reports, which could lead to subjectivity, thus reducing the reliability of results. Future studies should thus focus on other means of disclosure (e.g. websites; environmental reports).

Practical implications

The current mandatory requirements would suggest Jordanian regulators have begun specifying CSR disclosure requirements in an easier, more user-friendly and traceable format. Indeed, the increase in CSR extent and quality for the post-regulations period would increase the need to organise mandatory requirements in CSR. For managers, on the other hand, the study provides the CSR as a strategic tool for reflecting the actual environmental activities, comparing it with the society’s expectations. Moreover, when budgets are limited, managers prioritise CSR activities that yield a positive impact on financial performance by allocating the limited resources in a broad manner.

Social implications

The results additionally highlights the ways in which the Jordanian industrial companies increase their levels within the environmental theme in CSR for the post-regulations. It could be argued that a great number of companies in the past decade have started adopting environmentally friendly practices and strategies to protect the natural environment, such as greenhouses, extracting non-renewable resources and reducing amount of industrial waste.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, there is currently no existing study within Jordan exploring the change of CSR over time – specifically in terms of before and after the regulations. In addition, exploring the quality of CSR using a weighted approach (scale out of 3) is not conducted in Jordanian studies before.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 17 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 19 May 2009

Jayant Anand

This chapter evaluates the proliferation of supermarkets in developing countries using data collected between May 2005 and June 2006 in Citlalicalli, Mexico. Contrary to…

Abstract

This chapter evaluates the proliferation of supermarkets in developing countries using data collected between May 2005 and June 2006 in Citlalicalli, Mexico. Contrary to the experience of most developed countries, this study revealed that supermarkets and small retailers can coexist by catering to different income groups and product categories. Consumer choices are driven by the desire to reduce transaction costs in terms of time and money. In striking a balance between the two, consumers look for retail outlets that offer them the best value for their money with the least amount of time spent in shopping trips. Location of the store plays a critical role in buying choices that consumers make. In developing countries, generally, only high-income consumers can afford to own cars and choose to buy most products in supermarkets. Consumers without cars buy frequently purchased goods (foods) in small stores and infrequently purchased goods (consumer durables) in supermarkets.

Details

Economic Development, Integration, and Morality in Asia and the Americas
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-542-6

Article
Publication date: 29 September 2022

Mohammad A. Hassanain, Mohammed Al-Harogi and Muizz O. Sanni-Anibire

This research aims to examine the practice of design for safety (DfS) in the construction industry of Saudi Arabia.

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to examine the practice of design for safety (DfS) in the construction industry of Saudi Arabia.

Design/methodology/approach

The study has adopted a mixed-method approach through the use of questionnaire surveys administered to professionals in architecture and engineering firms, as well as follow-up interviews with selected participants. The participants consisted of architects, structural engineers and electromechanical engineers. The study investigated dimensions related to knowledge and awareness, attitude toward DfS implementation and critical success factors for DfS implementation. These various dimensions have been assessed accordingly through the mean ratings in the relevant section of this paper. The thematic responses obtained from the follow-up interviews have been summarized and presented.

Findings

The findings from this study reveal a high level of awareness of DfS in Saudi Arabia. It also revealed that the most influential critical success factors are legislation and awareness of stakeholders, whereas the major barrier is the fear of cost overruns by the clients and their representatives.

Originality/value

The design stage of construction projects is crucial to enhancing the safety performance of projects through effective control of hazardous situations. The concept of DfS is, however, immature in many countries, such as Saudi Arabia, due to lack of awareness, enabling policies and other barriers. The value of this study is that it shows the current level of knowledge and practice of DfS in architecture and engineering firms in Saudi Arabia and consequently triggers the interest of stakeholders in its adoption and implementation.

Details

Facilities , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 February 2021

Sudhi Sharma, Vaibhav Aggarwal and Miklesh Prasad Yadav

Several empirical studies have proven that emerging countries are attractive destinations for Foreign Institutional Investors (FIIs) because of high expected returns, weak…

Abstract

Purpose

Several empirical studies have proven that emerging countries are attractive destinations for Foreign Institutional Investors (FIIs) because of high expected returns, weak market efficiency and high growth that make them attractive destination for diversification of funds. But higher expected returns come coupled with high risk arising from political and economic instability. This study aims to compare the linear (symmetric) and non-linear (asymmetric) Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) models in forecasting the volatility of top five major emerging countries among E7, that is, China, India, Indonesia, Brazil and Mexico.

Design/methodology/approach

The volatility of financial markets of five major emerging countries has been empirically investigated for a period of two decades from January 2000 to December 2019 using univariate volatility models including GARCH 1, 1, Exponential Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (E-GARCH 1, 1) and Threshold Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (T-GARCH-1, 1) models. Further, to examine time-varying volatility, the distinctions of structural break have been captured in view of the global financial crisis of 2008. Thus, the period under the study has been segregated into pre- and post-crisis, that is, January 2001–December 2008 and January 2009–December 2019, respectively.

Findings

The findings indicate that GARCH (1, 1) model is superior to non-linear GARCH models for forecasting volatility because the effect of leverage is insignificant. China has been considered as most volatile, whereas India is volatile but positively skewed and Indonesia is the least volatile country. The results can help investors in better international diversification of their portfolio and identifying best suitable hedging opportunities.

Practical implications

This study can help investors to construct a more risk-adjusted returns international portfolio. Further, it adds to the scant literature available on the inconclusive debate on the choice of linear versus non-linear models to forecast market volatility.

Originality/value

Earlier studies related to univariate volatility models are mostly applications of the models. Only few studies have considered the robustness while applying the models. However, none of the studies to the best of the authors’ searches have considered these models for identifying the diversification opportunity among the emerging countries. Hence, this study is able to derive diversification and hedging opportunities by applying wide ranges of the statistical applications and models, that is, descriptive, correlations and univariate volatility models. It makes the study more rigorous and unique compared to the previous literature.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 April 2008

Toseef Azid, Mehmet Asutay and Muhammad Junaid Khawaja

To find out the behaviour of firms with objectives of Islamic Shariah when a number of techniques are working simultaneously with the different productive efficiencies.

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Abstract

Purpose

To find out the behaviour of firms with objectives of Islamic Shariah when a number of techniques are working simultaneously with the different productive efficiencies.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a theoretical paper based on the modified model of layers of techniques which was initially developed by Professors W. Leontief and P. N. Mathur and tries to evaluate the impact of entrance of new techniques on obsolescence in the ethical‐moral cum economic framework of Islamic political economy system.

Findings

This study suggests wastage of the resources because of their economic obsolescence and on the cost of future generation is not allowed in the system of Islam and ultimately decrease the social welfare level.

Research limitations/implications

A dynamic cum marginal input‐output table can be constructed on the basis of this framework and formulate the socio‐economic policy.

Originality/value

This research is beneficial to the researchers, policy makers and social scientists for the enhancement of the level of social welfare through this model.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 June 2018

Suvendu Kr. Pratihari and Shigufta Hena Uzma

The purpose of this paper is to report on the prioritisation of different corporate social identities (CSIs) by the banking sectors in India to endorse the corporate…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report on the prioritisation of different corporate social identities (CSIs) by the banking sectors in India to endorse the corporate branding process. To substantiate the effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on banks’ profitability, the paper establishes a causal relationship between CSI scores and banks’ profitability. The study defines the CSI scores as measures of different CSR initiatives available on the websites and annual reports of leading public and private schedule commercial banks in India.

Design/methodology/approach

The study discusses the key role that CSR plays in building the corporate personality of a firm, which is a key ingredient of a corporate brand. Therefore, the main dimensions and sub-dimensions of CSR are analysed by using content analysis method. The data undergo multiple experiments such as “Percentage of Agreement”, “Scott’s π”, “Cohen’s κ”, and “Krippendorff’s α” to check the validity and the inter-coder reliability of the content. Furthermore, the quartile approach of statistical data analysis, weighted average method of prioritisation and simple linear regression methods are used to examine and discuss the study objectives.

Findings

There were three major outcomes from this study. First, Indian banks institutionalise their credibility of corporate personality by maintaining the CSR principles and goals as the core elements of their corporate statements. Second, the CSI scores of different CSR initiatives indicate variations in the stakeholder prioritisation among different banks. The result shows that the public sector banks give the highest priority to the community-related CSR initiatives followed by environment and customer among others, whereas the private sector banks emphasise on customers as their top priority followed by environment and community. The overall score depicts the environment-related initiatives to be the highest priority, which follows customer, employees, community and suppliers. Third, the research indicates that the relationship between CSI disclosures and profitability is significant in India.

Research limitations/implications

The social aspect of building corporate identity will help in the decision-making process for developing a strong social image through their websites. However, the results suggest that the banking sector should adopt a global standard of CSR reporting and strategic positioning of the social identities among the stakeholders in the value chain. The results are limited to only the Indian banking sector and can be validated and applied to other industries and cross-cultural contexts.

Originality/value

This study is one of the pioneering attempts to focus on the role of CSR in the stakeholder-company relationship through the mean-end approach in the development of CSI.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 36 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 December 2017

Shona Robinson-Edwards and Craig Pinkney

The purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of Ibrahim, an ex-offender who has embraced Islam. Ibrahim professes Islam to be the influential element to his…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of Ibrahim, an ex-offender who has embraced Islam. Ibrahim professes Islam to be the influential element to his desistance process. This study explores Ibrahim’s journey, emphasising and reflecting upon youth; criminality and religiosity. Much of the current research relating to Black men and offending is limited to masculinity, father absence, gangs and criminality. The role of religiosity in the lives of offenders and/or ex-offenders is often overlooked. The authors suggest that identity, religiosity and desistance can raise a host of complexities while highlighting the unique challenges and benefits experienced by Ibrahim, following the practice of religion.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper took a qualitative, ethnographic approach, in the form of analysing and exploring Ibrahim’s personal lived experience. The analysis of semi-structured interviews, and reflective diaries, utilising grounded theory allowed the formation of the following three core themes: desistance, religion and identity.

Findings

The findings within this paper identify an interlink between desistance, religion and identity. The role of religiosity is becoming increasingly more important in academic social science research. This paper highlights the complexities of all three above intersections.

Research limitations/implications

This paper explores the complexities of religiosity in the desistance process of Ibrahim. Research in relation to former gang members in the UK and the role of religiosity in their lives is fairly under-researched. This paper seeks to build on existing research surrounding gang, further exploring religiosity from a UK context.

Practical implications

Time spent with Ibrahim had to be tightly scheduled, due to the work commitments of both Ibrahim and the researcher. Therefore, planning had to be done ahead in an efficient manner.

Social implications

Researching the way individuals experience the world is a “growing phenomenon”. This paper aimed to explore the lived experience of religiosity from the perspective of Ibrahim. However, it was important to not stereotype and label all Black males who have embraced Islam and desisted from crime. Therefore, this paper’s intention is not to stereotype Black men, but to raise awareness and encourage further discussion surrounding the role of religiosity in the lives of ex-offenders’.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, studies specifically focusing on the role of Islam in the life of an ex-offender are few and far between. Therefore, findings from this study are important to develop further understanding surrounding religiosity, offending and desistance. This study explores the lived experiences of Ibrahim, an former gang member and ex-offender who professes Islam to be a fundamental source to his desistance process.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 1 December 2012

Hanan Ibrahim

Abstract

Details

Learning and Teaching in Higher Education: Gulf Perspectives, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2077-5504

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