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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2008

S. Ebrahimi and P. Eberhard

This paper extends the linear complementarity problem formulation of [7] and [8] for normal impact of planar deformable bodies in multibody systems. In the kinematics of…

Abstract

This paper extends the linear complementarity problem formulation of [7] and [8] for normal impact of planar deformable bodies in multibody systems. In the kinematics of impact we consider the normal gaps between the impacting bodies in terms of the generalized coordinates. Then, the generalized coordinate’s vector is formulated in terms of the impact forces using the 5th order implicit Runge‐Kutta approach RADAU5. Substituting the generalized coordinates in the relation of normal gaps together with the complementarity relations of unilateral contact constraints leads to a linear complementarity problem where its solution results in the solution of the impact problem including impact forces and normal gaps. Then, alternatively another formulation on velocity level based on the 4th order explicit Runge‐Kutta is presented. In the presented approach no coefficient of restitution is used for treatment of energy loss during impact and, instead, the material damping is responsible for energy loss. A good agreement between the results of our approach with the results of FEM for soft planar deformable bodies was shown in [7]. Here, we improve the results for stiff planar deformable bodies and show that with a proper selection of eigenmodes, the results on both position and velocity level approach the precise results of FEM provided that an optimal time step of the integration is chosen. We also investigate the effect of considering material damping and some higher eigenfrequencies on the amount of energy which is dissipated during impact based on our approach.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Book part
Publication date: 30 June 2004

Carol A.B Warren

The medical suppression of female sexuality in Victorian society has long been the subject of historical and cultural scholarship, with documentation not only of textual…

Abstract

The medical suppression of female sexuality in Victorian society has long been the subject of historical and cultural scholarship, with documentation not only of textual threats by religious and medical “experts,” but also of surgical assaults on female reproductive systems (Longo, 1979, 1986; Scull & Favreau, 1986; Sheehan, 1997). Less well known is the apparent obverse: the use of medical techniques to stimulate the female genitalia as a means of treating hysteria and other mental disorders (Maines, 1999; Schleiner, 1995). In this paper, I trace the cultural history (mainly Anglo-American) of the psychiatric enhancement, as well as repression, of female sexual pleasure, through various genital treatments, including the surgical and the electrical.1 I then make the case that these “opposite” treatments are, in the context of Victorian society, two sides of the same coin of the patriarchal, medical control of female sexuality.2

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Gendered Perspectives on Reproduction and Sexuality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-088-3

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Book part
Publication date: 18 November 2015

Verena Eberhard, Stephanie Matthes and Joachim Gerd Ulrich

Human beings are dependent upon social approval to strengthen their identities. Therefore, they practice impression management: They anticipate which behaviour provokes…

Abstract

Human beings are dependent upon social approval to strengthen their identities. Therefore, they practice impression management: They anticipate which behaviour provokes which reactions in their social environment, and they tend to exhibit the kind of behaviour that promises positive feedback. Based on the assumption that human beings also show this behaviour in their choice of vocation, we hypothesise that young people are more likely to expect negative reactions from their social environment when choosing a gender-atypical occupation. Furthermore, we assume that the expected reaction of the social environment influences vocational orientation: The anticipation of negative reactions to gender-atypical vocational choice might contribute to explain why young people ignore this occupation. We tested both hypotheses with the help of data retrieved from a survey of young people in Germany who are interested in vocational education and training (VET). The results support our hypotheses; however, they also show that the relevance of a gender-typed vocational choice is weaker if adolescents have a higher educational background. In this case, the choice of an occupation that expresses a high educational status becomes more important. It may lead to an exclusive kind of social approval that is denied to people with a lower educational background.

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Gender Segregation in Vocational Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-347-1

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Book part
Publication date: 17 June 2020

Naomi Fillmore

The history of Nepal gives some insight into its current status as a diverse and multilingual nation with more than 123 languages. Multilingualism is part of the founding…

Abstract

The history of Nepal gives some insight into its current status as a diverse and multilingual nation with more than 123 languages. Multilingualism is part of the founding philosophy of the country but since it was unified in 1768, government attitudes to language and language education have fluctuated. Though historically education in Nepal has been delivered exclusively in the Nepali language and, more recently, in English, the Government of Nepal is now committed to introducing mother tongue-based, multilingual education (MLE).

Nepal has among the lowest literacy rates in the world (UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015) and the government seeks to turn this trend around, particularly for students who do not speak Nepali as a mother tongue. The commitment to strengthening mother tongue-based MLE features prominently in the Constitution of Nepal (2015), the Act Relating to Compulsory and Free Education (2018) and the School Sector Development Plan (MOEST, 2018). This new constitution declares that “all the mother tongues spoken in Nepal shall be the national language” (2015 article 6).

Implementing these policy commitments in over 120 languages across seven provinces and 753 municipalities is the next challenge for the fledgling democracy. As a “wicked hard” policy area, doing so will require a solid understanding of local attitudes, beliefs, resources, and capacities. This chapter gives a unified review of the history, languages, ideologies, beliefs, and trends that currently influence MLE in Nepal and are likely to play a role into the future.

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Annual Review of Comparative and International Education 2019
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-724-4

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Book part
Publication date: 19 September 2015

Simon Robinson and Jonathan Smith

This chapter will explore the contribution of a major figure in peacebuilding – John Paul Lederach – and examine its relevance to leadership theory and practice. The first…

Abstract

This chapter will explore the contribution of a major figure in peacebuilding – John Paul Lederach – and examine its relevance to leadership theory and practice. The first part of the chapter introduces Lederach and charts some of his key arguments with respect to peacebuilding. Lederach’s approach has not been applied previously to leadership. The second part will examine how it links to the co-charismatic leadership theory developed by Robinson and Smith (2014). This co-charismatic leadership theory is encompassed in seven Cs, that is, around shared responsibility for critical challenge, the development of consciousness, community, connectivity, creativity, commitment, the development of character (organisational and individual) and the nature of dialogue that will enable all these. The third part of the chapter will explore ideas and practices of peacebuilding in organisations through the lens of co-charismatic leadership theory (Robinson & Smith, 2014), with reference to Lederach’s (2005) ‘moral imagination’ and peacebuilding.

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Business, Ethics and Peace
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-878-6

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Guangming Chen, Dingena L. Schott and Gabriel Lodewijks

The tensile test is one of the fundamental experiments used to evaluate material properties. Simulating a tensile test can be a replacement of experiments to determine…

Abstract

Purpose

The tensile test is one of the fundamental experiments used to evaluate material properties. Simulating a tensile test can be a replacement of experiments to determine mechanical parameters of a continuous material. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses a new approach to model a tensile test of a high-carbon steel on the basis of discrete element method (DEM). In this research, the tensile test specimen was created by using a DEM packing theory. The particle-particle bond model was used to establish the internal forces of the tensile test specimen. The particle-particle bond model was first tested by performing two-particle tensile test, then was adopted to simulate tensile tests of the high-carbon steel by using 3,678 particles.

Findings

This research has successfully revealed the relationships between the DEM parameters and mechanical parameters by modelling a tensile test. The parametric study demonstrates that the particle physical radius, particle contact radius and bond disc radius can significantly influence ultimate stress and Young’s modulus of the specimen, whereas they slightly impact elongation at fracture. Increasing the normal and shear stiffness, the critical normal and shear stiffness can enable the increase of ultimate stress, however, up to maximum values.

Research limitations/implications

To improve the particle-particle bond model to simulate a tensile test for high-carbon steel, the damping factors for compensating energy loss from transition of particle motions and failure of bonds are required.

Practical implications

This work reinforces the knowledge of applying DEM to model continuous materials.

Originality/value

This research illustrates a new approach to model a tensile test of a high-carbon steel on the basis of DEM.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Book part
Publication date: 18 November 2015

Petya Ilieva-Trichkova, Rumiana Stoilova and Pepka Boyadjieva☆

This study seeks to ascertain whether there are regional gender differences in vocational education in Bulgaria at the upper secondary level and to shed more light on the…

Abstract

This study seeks to ascertain whether there are regional gender differences in vocational education in Bulgaria at the upper secondary level and to shed more light on the main factors for the (non-)emergence of these differences. The research has drawn on data from the National Statistical Institute and the Centre for Information in Education in Bulgaria as well as a nationally representative school-leavers survey (2014); it has applied descriptive statistics and multilevel modelling for the data analysis. Overall, the present study demonstrates that the regional dimension is indispensable for understanding the development of vocational education and gender differentiation in education. The analysis provides evidence that the mechanism by which the education system contributes to regional gender segregation in vocational education is its opportunity structures at the regional level, which are related to vocational education offers. In addition, we found a positive association between industrial development and the share of women in engineering at the regional level.

Details

Gender Segregation in Vocational Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-347-1

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2012

Osama M. Abuzeid

The purpose of this paper is to construct a continuous time series model to study the thermal creep of rough surfaces in contact.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to construct a continuous time series model to study the thermal creep of rough surfaces in contact.

Design/methodology/approach

For normal loading, the contact between rough surfaces can often be modeled as the contact of an effective surface with a rigid fiat surface. A solution for the deformation of such equivalent surface, generated using fractal geometry, can be modified. However, in this study only the case of a single rough surface in contact with a rigid flat surface is considered. In the interface, the material is assumed to follow the idealized constitutive viscoelastic standard linear solid (SLS) model. Fractal geometry, through Cantor set theory, is utilized to model the roughness of the surface.

Findings

An asymptotic time series power law is obtained, which associates the creep load, the buck temperature and the creep of the fractal surface.

Originality/value

This law is only valid as long as the creep is of the size of the surface roughness. The modified model admits an analytical solution for the case when the behavior is linear viscoelastic. The proposed model shows a good agreement when compared with experimental results available in the literature.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 64 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2012

Hagen Worch, Mundia Kabinga, Anton Eberhard and Bernhard Truffer

The purpose of this paper is to analyze how strategic renewal affects the reconfiguration of capabilities. In the context of organizational change in a large utility firm…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze how strategic renewal affects the reconfiguration of capabilities. In the context of organizational change in a large utility firm, we examine the evolution of the capability structure, and explain the emergence and persistence of capability gaps.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses an inductive multiple case study methodology to compare four processes of capability reconfiguration at Eskom, South Africa's electricity supplier.

Findings

The results show that strategic renewal unfolds through different processes, which vary in their impact. Some processes have an immediate effect in closing capability gaps. The impact of others is with a significant time lag. Most critical, however, are processes that widen capability gaps. As a result, firms may face severe and persistent performance deficiencies.

Research limitations/implications

Prior research has only marginally addressed the relationship between strategic renewal and capability reconfiguration, and has largely neglected emerging capability gaps.

Practical implications

Strategic renewal may cause unintended crowding out effects of specific capabilities. Managers need to consider these potential implications of strategic renewal.

Social implications

Understanding the challenges of how to improve the performance of utility services is crucial for economic development, welfare and social inclusion.

Originality/value

This study importantly highlights that the emergence of capability gaps is a common phenomenon rather than an exception in strategic renewal processes. The findings contribute to the strategic renewal literature and to management research in infrastructure sectors.

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1999

STEPHEN EMMITT

The term architectural management has been in use since the 1960s and forms an essential part of this journal's title. However, the evolution of the architectural…

Abstract

The term architectural management has been in use since the 1960s and forms an essential part of this journal's title. However, the evolution of the architectural management field has not been a smooth affair, coming into, out of, and then back into fashion; and concise definitions continue to be illusive. Architectural management is a powerful tool that can be applied to the benefit of the professional service firm and the total building process, yet it continues to receive scant attention in the professional journals, seen as little more than a specialist interest. This paper charts the development of the architectural management field and takes a critical look at the field in relation to current research and its applicability to those who stand to gain the most from architectural management, the professional service firms. The paper concludes that architectural management is a cultural issue.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

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