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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1990

C.B. Besant, M. Ristic, P. Champ, E.P. Jansen, R.A. Hancke and L. Hatziconstantis

Presents a distributed manufacturing system concept designed toaddress the problem of flexibility in providing a variety of parts insmall to medium batches. Discusses…

Abstract

Presents a distributed manufacturing system concept designed to address the problem of flexibility in providing a variety of parts in small to medium batches. Discusses links with CADCAM hardware structure levels, software structure, and the human‐centred approach adopted. Surmises that the key to the distributed systems effectiveness lies in co‐ordination and co‐operation between the area and cell levels rather than information.

Details

Integrated Manufacturing Systems, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6061

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Book part
Publication date: 29 July 2009

Lynn Johnson Langer

This research explored the literature regarding successful leadership practices and how these practices form the organizational context that leads to success in the…

Abstract

This research explored the literature regarding successful leadership practices and how these practices form the organizational context that leads to success in the biotechnology industry. Dominate themes emerged in general leadership strategies, leading research and development scientists, moving ideas from research to the consumer and the culture of research versus practice. Themes include leaders must be adaptable and able to lead effectively in a dynamic environment. Leaders need to consistently articulate the vision throughout the organization. Leaders need to be strategic decision-makers and flexible enough to allow the vision to adjust to the culture and the environment. Leaders need to communicate effectively and create an organization where communication flows efficiently at all levels. Leaders need to recognize clear cultural differences between functional groups, and they need to empower employees at all levels to make strategic decisions. Leaders need to know which decisions must be retained as his or her sole responsibility.

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Biennial Review of Health Care Management: Meso Perspective
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-673-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2001

Robert F. Kleysen and Christopher T. Street

Individual level innovation studies often assess only one dimension of innovative behavior. As such, they do not sufficiently capture the richness of the construct of…

Abstract

Individual level innovation studies often assess only one dimension of innovative behavior. As such, they do not sufficiently capture the richness of the construct of individual innovation. Develops and tests a multi‐dimensional measure of individual innovative behavior. Identifies descriptions of 289 innovation related behaviors and codes these into a hypothesized factor structure consisting of the following five dimensions: opportunity exploration, generativity, formative investigation, championing, and application. Structural equation modeling used on a sample of 225 employees from nine different organizations delivered a relatively poor fit between the hypothesized factor structure and respondents’ job behaviors. However, a single factor measure based on items representing all five factors resulted in an alpha reliability of 0.95 thus supporting a multi‐dimensional conceptualization of innovative behavior in general. Discusses implications for future research.

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Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

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Book part
Publication date: 31 December 2010

Indra Abeysekera

This chapter describes the research methods used in this study. Section 4.2 introduces the content analysis of company-sponsored websites. Section 4.3 outlines the…

Abstract

This chapter describes the research methods used in this study. Section 4.2 introduces the content analysis of company-sponsored websites. Section 4.3 outlines the intellectual capital disclosure signals – narrative, visual and numerical – and their measurement. Section 4.4 introduces the recording of quantified intellectual capital disclosure signals within the coding framework. Section 4.5 describes issues relating to the validity and reliability of content analysis in measuring intellectual capital disclosure signals as well as overcoming any problems. Section 4.6 outlines the sample size and reasons some firms were excluded from the study. Section 4.7 explains the survey questionnaire administered in this study. Section 4.8 describes focused interviews conducted in this study. Section 4.9 provides a summary of the chapter.

Details

Reputation Building, Website Disclosure and the Case of Intellectual Capital
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-506-9

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Book part
Publication date: 17 July 2007

Richard Reeves-Ellington

Organizational studies of time tend to be done by academic researchers rather than practitioners. This chapter builds on academic research to provide a practitioner…

Abstract

Organizational studies of time tend to be done by academic researchers rather than practitioners. This chapter builds on academic research to provide a practitioner perspective by reviewing time situated in theory and constructing two phenotypes: timescapes of business and social time. These timescapes are defined by six dimensions, each with a social and business time parameter. Organizational business and social timescapes have different functions and applications. Timescapes, with their concomitant dimensions and sets of parameters, are used differently by senior managers, middle managers, and entry-level managers. Three multi-level approaches (self, dyadic, and social relationships), composition theory, and compilation theory confirm these three managerial timescape usages. After a review of the theoretical bases of the timescape constructs and a brief discussion of the grounded, anthropological, research methodology used in the study, this chapter applies timescape theory and models to an extended time case study of the Procter & Gamble Company that frames the company's timescape understanding and use from a practitioner's view.

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Multi-Level Issues in Organizations and Time
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1434-8

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Jia Wang and Jiaoju Ge

The purpose of this paper is to theoretically using two new models to analyze the effect of respondents’ uncertainty about their stated willingness to pay (WTP) on welfare…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to theoretically using two new models to analyze the effect of respondents’ uncertainty about their stated willingness to pay (WTP) on welfare estimates in the contingent valuation method (CVM) theoretically using two new models, and empirically to reveal consumers’ WTP to improve drinking water supply safety (WSS) in China.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, two alternative preference uncertainty treatment approaches are proposed to estimate consumers’ WTP theoretically and they are applied to China’s WSS improvement program from a payment card method, which depends on how consumers’ certainty level about their valuation is. Furthermore, four regression models are presented to investigate the determinants of consumers’ WTP.

Findings

Theoretically, the alternative approaches that proposed in this research can remove overestimation bias from traditional CVM method but with lower estimation efficiency. In addition, the empirical results of the uncertainty adjusted models show that the expected WTP to improve drinking WSS is from 0.55 to 0.56 Renminbi yuan/ton, which are lower than the estimates from the conventional standard CVM models. Consumers’ preferences for their concerns about WSS, attitudes toward WSS improvement programs, trusts in implement authorities and their knowledge of WSS have significant effects on the WTP for improving drinking WSS and on respondents’ uncertainty too.

Originality/value

Theoretically to the authors’ knowledge, it is the first attempt to compare alternative approaches to treat respondent uncertainty using numerical certainty scale combined with payment card format valuation questions in CVM. Empirically it is the first study at this large scale that investigates consumers’ WTP for improving drinking WSS incorporating with respondent uncertainty in China. In addition, to assess consumer preferences for improved drinking water safety and the sources of uncertainty, information on consumers’ attitudes toward WSS are considered at the first time.

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Article
Publication date: 22 May 2009

M.A.A. Cox

The majority of quality control charts are employed for normally distributed data. In reality this assumption is not always valid. This paper aims to consider an…

Abstract

Purpose

The majority of quality control charts are employed for normally distributed data. In reality this assumption is not always valid. This paper aims to consider an alternative the truncated normal.

Design/methodology/approach

Having derived integral equations for the average run length (ARL), a key measure of the performance of a control chart, approximate solutions are derived using Gaussian quadrature.

Findings

Polynomials closely approximating the ARL for the three most popular control charts, using their usual parameterization, are obtained.

Research limitations/implications

An obvious extension is to other distributions and hopefully this work will encourage real world applications.

Practical implications

These charts are widely applicable within engineering, finance, medicine, environmental statistics, and many other fields. These problems are typically said to fall in the domain of risk management. It is hoped that this paper will add to the body of practitioners already employing this technique.

Originality/value

Control charts are widely employed, however applications are usually restricted to the normal distribution. This is the first time it has been applied to the truncated normal distribution and original polynomials derived for the ARL.

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2021

Victor Balassiano and Steve Bullough

This study quantifies academy productivity within English football clubs that have competed in the second tier (Championship) between 2017 and 2020. Previous research has…

Abstract

Purpose

This study quantifies academy productivity within English football clubs that have competed in the second tier (Championship) between 2017 and 2020. Previous research has outlined that clubs situated underneath the top leagues have an important role in the development of elite professional players. This study aims to examine that level of the pathway further in England.

Design/methodology/approach

The utilisation of academy players was conducted with data from 33 eligible clubs, from 2017/2018 to 2019/2020. Two measures of productivity are defined for comparison: “Utilisation” (the total minutes played by academy graduates) and “Starts” (the number of times an academy player started for the first team). To quantify these measures, players and clubs’ indices were also defined through two perspectives: “global” (proportion of all games played from 2017/2018 to 2019/2020) and “local” (proportion of games the player featured only). Nationality and position were also included.

Findings

Headline findings demonstrate large differences between clubs for the type and proportion of playing opportunities created. The data outlines that academy graduates have greater utilisation and starts in cup competitions, particularly the English Football League cup. Clubs in the sample being relegated from the Premier League into the Championship recorded weaker “utilisation” and “starts” compared to those that competed in the lower divisions. Academies are producing and using a greater proportion of defensive players (goalkeepers, defenders, defensive midfielders) compared to more attacking sectors of the pitch.

Originality/value

This offers useful insight for academy managers, allowing comparisons between clubs. It has implications for future strategies around the role of the academy and approaches to generating player opportunity.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2001

Alison Sheridan and Lou Conway

The rapid expansion in part‐time employment in Australia over the past two decades has largely been driven by organisations’ desire to achieve numerical and functional…

Abstract

The rapid expansion in part‐time employment in Australia over the past two decades has largely been driven by organisations’ desire to achieve numerical and functional flexibility (the business case for flexibility) rather than a desire to assist employees balance work and family responsibilities (the equal opportunities case for flexibility). Argues that the differences between the business and equal opportunities discourses surrounding flexibility result in significant problems for both employees and organisations – problems that limit the growth of the individual and the organisation. For part‐time employment to be an effective organisational strategy, it is critical that the human resource management (HRM) role actively negotiate between the different needs of employers and employees. This will entail making both parties’ needs explicit, acknowledging the differences between their needs and directing efforts towards constructing outcomes that are mutually satisfying.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Book part
Publication date: 27 August 2014

Derek S. Brown, Christine Poulos, F. Reed Johnson, Linda Chamiec-Case and Mark L. Messonnier

To measure adolescent girls’ preferences over features of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in order to provide quantitative estimates of the perceived benefits of…

Abstract

Purpose

To measure adolescent girls’ preferences over features of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in order to provide quantitative estimates of the perceived benefits of vaccination and potential vaccine uptake.

Design/methodology/approach

A discrete choice experiment (DCE) survey was developed to measure adolescent girls’ preferences over features of HPV vaccines. The survey was fielded to a U.S. sample of 307 girls aged 13–17 years who had not yet received an HPV vaccine in June 2008.

Findings

In a latent class logit model, two distinct groups were identified – one with strong preferences against vaccination which largely did not differentiate between vaccine features, and another that was receptive to vaccination and had well-defined preferences over vaccine features. Based on the mean estimates over the entire sample, we estimate that girls’ valuation of bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines ranged between $400 and $460 in 2008, measured as willingness-to-pay (WTP). The additional value of genital warts protection was $145, although cervical cancer efficacy was the most preferred feature. We estimate maximum uptake of 54–65%, close to the 53% reported for one dose in 2011 surveillance data, but higher than the 35% for three doses in surveillance data.

Research limitations/implications

We conclude that adolescent girls do form clear opinions and some place significant value on HPV vaccination, making research on their preferences vital to understanding the determinants of HPV vaccine demand.

Originality/value

DCE studies may be used to design more effective vaccine-promotion programs and for reassessing public health recommendations and guidelines as new vaccines are made available.

Details

Preference Measurement in Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-029-2

Keywords

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