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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1987

H. Akahoshi, K. Kogawa, Y. Suzuki and M. Wajima

A new treatment method for the copper innerlayers of polyimide multilayer printed wiring boards has been developed. Conventional oxide coatings experience acid penetration…

Abstract

A new treatment method for the copper innerlayers of polyimide multilayer printed wiring boards has been developed. Conventional oxide coatings experience acid penetration through the bonding interface during through‐hole plating pretreatment. This problem was eliminated by substitution of metallic copper for the surface oxide. Promotion of the copper innerlayer adhesion to the prepreg by the oxide coating was based upon a mechanical interlocking effect caused by the minute roughness of the oxide crystals. Reduction treatment of the surface oxide layer was found to give a metallic copper surface with no changes in its morphology. Adhesion strength of polyimide prepregs to copper foils after the reduction treatment was equivalent to that of the original brown oxide coating. Acid resistance was enhanced by elimination of the oxide layer from the bonding interface. The reduction treatment, combined with the conventional oxide coating technique, can realise high density multilayer printed wiring boards with greater reliability and performance.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Somrerk Chandra-ambhorn, Sermsak Srihirun and Thamrongsin Siripongsakul

The purpose of this study is to investigate the aesthetic blackening coating formed by a hydrothermal process, focusing on the formation of magnetite and the oxide adhesion

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the aesthetic blackening coating formed by a hydrothermal process, focusing on the formation of magnetite and the oxide adhesion for improving the corrosion resistance of the steel.

Design/methodology/approach

The aesthetic black coating was applied on AISI 4140 steel using a hydrothermal process with a non-toxic solution consisted of ferrous sulphate hydrate (FeSO4·7H2O), sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and hydrazine hydrate (N2H4·H2O). Upon process parameters temperature and time, the morphology of the coatings and oxidation kinetics were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Furthermore, the samples with coatings were subjected to the adhesion test using a tensile testing machine equipped with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera.

Findings

From the formation parameters due to temperature and time for the conversion coatings, it was found that the oxidation kinetics had special characteristics which were in accordance with a linear rate law and Arrhenius relation. For the samples blackened, the XRD analysis results revealed that the magnetite was successfully formed on the surface of the steel. On the other hand, increasing the blackening temperature worsened the scale adhesion as observed by the lower strain provoking the first spallation and the higher sensitivity of the oxide to spall out with the imposed strain.

Originality/value

The effects of parameters of the formation of conversion coatings were investigated to understand the kinetics of the coatings. Furthermore, a tensile adhesion test using a CCD camera was applied to evaluate the adhesion between the native oxide formed by conversion coating.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 65 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 August 2019

Jiaxing Cai, Xuequn Cheng, Baijie Zhao, Linheng Chen, Yi Fan, Qinqin Dai, Hongchi Ma and Xiaogang Li

The purpose of this paper is to understand the process of failure of scale and the corrosion resistance of scale to the substrate in an atmospheric environment.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the process of failure of scale and the corrosion resistance of scale to the substrate in an atmospheric environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The corrosion behaviour of X65 pipeline steel with different types of oxide scale was analysed using the natural environment exposure corrosion test, scanning electron microscopy analysis, electrochemical corrosion polarization curve test and other methods in a warehouse environment.

Findings

The results of this research show that one type of oxide scale, which is rough, has an uneven microstructure, and exhibits weak adhesion to the matrix, does not protect the substrate from corrosion. Conversely, the uniform, dense oxide scale, which exhibits strong adhesion to the matrix, provides effective protection to the steel. However, as the corrosion develops, the corrosion rate of the substrate tends to accelerate, especially when the structure of the oxide scale is damaged to a certain extent.

Originality/value

The corrosion mechanism of the oxide scale on hot rolled steel in an atmospheric environment has been proposed.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 66 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 February 2008

Sven Lamprecht, Günter Heinz, Neil Patton, Stephen Kenny and Patrick Brooks

The purpose of this paper is to show production process developments and innovations that resolve many of the issues faced with certain process steps for printed circuit…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show production process developments and innovations that resolve many of the issues faced with certain process steps for printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing following “green” practices.

Design/methodology/approach

Several key PCB manufacturing processes have been developed or studied with respect to new environmental legislations and practises.

Findings

The introduction of new legislations designed to protect the environment require changes to laminate materials, solders, and PCB manufacturing techniques. The effect of new laminate materials on the desmearing and metallising processes have been assessed and recommendations given. The effect of increased thermal stress on plated copper has been assessed. Developments in adhesion enhancement for black oxide alternatives have been made and are presented with their suitability for the newer green laminate materials. The development of a new laminate manufacturing technique to reduce environmental impact is introduced. The capabilities of different surface finishes in relation to new lead‐free soldering techniques is investigated and presented.

Research limitations/implications

This is a short paper covering several major PCB processing steps and covers experiences and development results.

Originality/value

The paper details how “green” PCB manufacturing affects some key processes, developments to improve results and environmentally friendlier innovations in laminate manufacturing techniques.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1995

S.K. Chiang, D.F. DiFranco and D.G. Pucci

A new high strength, low profile copper foil (AM) has been developed by the authors' company. This foil is designated AM foil, which refers to its advanced metallurgy. The…

Abstract

A new high strength, low profile copper foil (AM) has been developed by the authors' company. This foil is designated AM foil, which refers to its advanced metallurgy. The unique attributes of this foil arise from its unconventional processing approach and the resulting microstructure. An extremely small and uniform grain structure enhances the metallurgy and decreases the foil profile. Random crystal orientation and high nucleation density eliminate porosity for all foils of various thickness. Other benefits related to this high strength and low profile foil include good handleability, outstanding etching performance, better control of dielectric thickness, very high elongation to reduce innerlayer cracks, improved oxide adhesion, as well as other advantages.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 1 October 1971

P.L. HURRICKS

WEAR is one of the major ways by which a material part ceases to be useful, others are corrosion, obsolescence and breakage. It is the consequence of relative motion and…

Abstract

WEAR is one of the major ways by which a material part ceases to be useful, others are corrosion, obsolescence and breakage. It is the consequence of relative motion and in industrial plant and equipment it has always been accepted as inevitable that it should lead to heavy expenditure for maintenance and replacement. Historically, wear is a well established fact, yet our knowledge of the technology is extremely limited. It has become a way of life that we compensate for wear when it no longer can be tolerated, yet need this be so? This article examines the problem, and primarily from the unlubricated point of view, describes the various types of wear and the way material selection or modification can be used to limit wear.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 23 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Article
Publication date: 11 January 2019

Somrerk Chandra-ambhorn, Jennarong Tungtrongpairoj, Anuwat Jutilarptavorn, Thanasak Nilsonthi and Tanongsak Somphakdee

The purpose of this study is to investigate the formation, pickling ability and adhesion of thermal oxide scales on the hot-rolled recycled steels produced from the medium…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the formation, pickling ability and adhesion of thermal oxide scales on the hot-rolled recycled steels produced from the medium and thin slabs. Because the scale on the steel produced from the medium slab was relatively thick of about 11 µm, it contained cracks after hot-rolling. Thus during pickling, the scale was uniformly attacked with the simultaneous dissolution of the inner scale because of the penetration of acid through cracks. However, the scale on the steel produced from the thin slab was thinner of about 6 µm and thus, nearly crack-free. The pickling solution thus attacked the scale surface uniformly. At longer pickling periods, pits were also nucleated and propagated. Concurrently, the tensile testing machine with a CCD camera has been applied to observe scale adhesion.

Design/methodology/approach

The formation, pickling ability and adhesion of thermal oxide scales on the hot-rolled recycled steels produced from the recycled slab, e.g. medium slab and thin slab, were investigated. The morphology and phase identification were examined by using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Furthermore, the adhesion behaviour of oxide scale was investigated by immersion test and tensile test with a CCD camera.

Findings

For the scale formation, it was found that the hematite and magnetite were formed on the hot-rolled recycled steels produced from the medium and thin slabs. For the immersion test, it was found that the scale on hot-rolled recycled steels produced from the medium slab was more difficult to be pickled as represented by the longer time for the complete pickling. This was consistent with the result of tensile test; the steel produced from the medium slab had better scale adhesion as represented by the higher strain initiating the first spallation of scale.

Originality/value

The effects of slab types and its alloying element were investigated to understand the scale adhesion behaviour. The empirical pickling mechanisms and the mechanical adhesion energy were proposed. It led to the understanding in the control of alloying element in the hot-rolled steel.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 66 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1999

P. Puomi, H.M. Fagerholm, J.B. Rosenholm and R. Sipilä

The performance of different pretreatment‐primer systems for hot‐dip galvanized (HDG) and Galfan coated steel has been studied. The materials were pretreated with three…

Abstract

The performance of different pretreatment‐primer systems for hot‐dip galvanized (HDG) and Galfan coated steel has been studied. The materials were pretreated with three pretreatment processes; an alkaline oxide pretreatment with either a chromate or a zirconium based post‐rinse, and a zinc phosphating pretreatment. After the pretreatment, the panels were coated with four commercially available primers. The chemically treated substrates were characterized by using ESCA and GD‐OES, and the cured paint films by using FTIR. Paint adhesion of primed panels was determined with a combined cross‐cut and impact test and also with the NMP test. Formability of the panels was tested by T‐bend test and corrosion resistance with a cyclic prohesion test. According to the prohesion test results, primed Galfan coated panels have better edge corrosion resistance than primed HDG panels. Test results also show that the effect of pre‐treatment is not as significant for the corrosion resistance as the effect of primer. However, in the case of zinc phosphated samples, excellent synergistics between the pretreatment and two of the primers was detected.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 46 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1986

M. Budweit

In various publications noble steel is mentioned as a possibility for use as a substrate in thick film technology processing. The possibility to cut, stencil and drill…

Abstract

In various publications noble steel is mentioned as a possibility for use as a substrate in thick film technology processing. The possibility to cut, stencil and drill steel sheets to desired shapes and the attractive price difference compared with alumina as well as PC board materials justified an investigation. A variety of steel sheets in various formulations from various vendors is offered on the market as well as ceramic pastes for thick film applications. This investigation aims to find out the most suitable ceramic paste for coating steel substrates in a common thick film process.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1986

W. Leibfried

This paper outlines methods and results of wetting, leaching and adhesion analyses on copper thick film conductors over alumina and multilayer glasses after different…

Abstract

This paper outlines methods and results of wetting, leaching and adhesion analyses on copper thick film conductors over alumina and multilayer glasses after different processing conditions. The intention is to provide a better background for evaluating and optimising materials and processing conditions in copper thick films and working out quick, reliable and quantitative methods for better characterisation of copper conductors in production. For these reasons the following methods were used: (a) wetting and leaching analyses with a scanning wetting balance, working in nitrogen, (b) pull tests with solder contacts on copper thick film conductors after soldering, ageing and thermal cycling, and (c) some additional surface analyses (REM, EDX, Auger) for a better understanding of copper pastes and their material interactions, when processed under different conditions. The results are summarised under three general aspects: surface structure and wetting of copper thick films, wetting and leaching of various copper thick films after different processing conditions, and finally the influence of different wetting properties of such surfaces on the solder adhesion strength after soldering, ageing and thermal cycling. The results give good insight into the various interactions of copper thick films with their substrate materials and confirm the ability of the described wetting and leaching analyses for these purposes.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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