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Article

Neda Lotfi Yagin, Reza Mahdavi and Zeinab Nikniaz

Although black tea is commonly consumed in Iran, within the last years the popularity of green tea, especially green tea bags, has dramatically increased due to all…

Abstract

Purpose

Although black tea is commonly consumed in Iran, within the last years the popularity of green tea, especially green tea bags, has dramatically increased due to all scientific papers reporting that green tea has benefit impacts on human health. Considering the postulated role of increased dietary oxalate intake on calcium oxalate stone formation, this paper aimed to study the oxalate content of most popular green and black tea bags consumed in Iran.

Design/methodology/approach

Five green tea samples and ten black tea samples were purchased from various markets in Tabriz, Iran. The oxalate content of each sample after infusion for five minutes was measured in triplicate using an enzymatic assay. Statistical analysis used: the ANOVA with Tukey's post‐hoc test, and also an independent t‐test were used for statistical analysis.

Findings

The oxalate concentration in different brands of green tea bags ranged from 0.73 to 1.75 and from 3.69 to 6.31 mg/240 ml for black tea bags. There were significant differences in oxalate content of different brands, both in green and black tea bags (P<0.001). The mean oxalate content of green and black tea samples also differed significantly from each other (P<0.001).

Originality/value

From the oxalate point of view, consumption of green and black tea bags infusions several times per day may not pose significant health risks in kidney stone patients and susceptible individuals.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 43 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

A. Jagannath, Manoranjan Kumar and P S Raju

Green leafy vegetables (GLVs) are important components of a balanced diet especially in developing countries where the major requirements of micronutrients are met…

Abstract

Purpose

Green leafy vegetables (GLVs) are important components of a balanced diet especially in developing countries where the major requirements of micronutrients are met. However, GLVs also contain significant amounts of oxalate, nitrate and nitrites, whose role in the human diet is constantly changing. The current study explored the behavior of nitrate, nitrites and oxalate in lactic-fermented GLVs with an intention to develop functional foods based on them.

Design/methodology/approach

Selected strains of beneficial lactic acid bacteria were used for the controlled fermentation of GLV, while an identical portion was subjected to spontaneous fermentation. The nitrate and nitrites were monitored spectrophotometrically, while oxalate contents were quantified by both titrimetric and by high-performance liquid chromatography throughout the duration of fermentation.

Findings

More than 90 per cent of individual constituents studied remained intact in the GLVs paste after the six-day controlled fermentation period. However, there was significant difference between the controlled and spontaneously fermented samples in terms of oxalate, nitrate and nitrite contents.

Originality/value

Controlled lactic fermentation although superior in all other aspects may not be able to lower the anti-nutrients present. The advantages of spontaneous fermentation vis-à-vis controlled fermentation are discussed. The work will bring out the importance of the beneficial effects of GLVs and the effect of lactic fermentation.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 45 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

P. Satyabama, Susai Rajendran and Tuan Anh Nguyen

This paper aims to evaluate the inhibition efficiency (IE) of oxalate ions in controlling corrosion of aluminum at pH 10.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the inhibition efficiency (IE) of oxalate ions in controlling corrosion of aluminum at pH 10.

Design/methodology/approach

The IE has been determined by the classical weight loss method. The corrosion behavior of aluminum was investigated by using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance measurements. Ultra violet (UV)-visible and Fluorescence spectra have been used to analyze the film formed on the aluminum surface after immersion.

Findings

The maximum IE was 88 per cent, which was offered by a mixture of 250 ppm oxalate ions and 50 ppm [Zn2+]. Potentiodynamic polarization data revealed that the protective film was formed on the metal surface. UV-visible and Fluorescence spectra indicated the presence of Al3+oxalate complex in the protective film formed on aluminum substrate after immersion in [OX]/[Zn2+] solution.

Originality/value

The findings of this work shed more light on the corrosion inhibition of aluminum by oxalate self-assembling monolayers.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 66 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article

F.F. Abdel‐Mohsen and H.S. Emira

To prepare of fine particle size magnesium ferrite pigments by sol‐gel method.

Abstract

Purpose

To prepare of fine particle size magnesium ferrite pigments by sol‐gel method.

Design/methodology/approach

Different magnesium ferrite pigments with stoichiometric ratios were prepared by sol‐gel and dispersion methods. The characterisation of magnesium ferrite pigments were based on X‐ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, particle size distribution, thermal and magnetometric analyses.

Findings

The type of polymer and the starting inorganic materials (oxides or salts) have a significant effect on the properties of the magnesium ferrite pigments prepared.

Research limitations/implications

The magnesium ferrite pigments, prepared and used in the work reported here were synthesised from magnesium and iron oxides, oxalates and chlorides. Urea formaldehyde resin and acrylic polymer were used as the dispersing media. Various other materials, e.g. carboxymethyl cellulose, ethoxy methyl cellulose, polyvinylalcohol and 2‐hydroxyethyl methacrylate and polyacrylamide can also be used to achieve similar effect.

Practical implications

The sol‐gel method provided a fine particle size and different particle shapes. Therefore, the method of preparation could be used to produce fibres, films and monoliths.

Originality/value

The magnesium ferrite pigments prepared could be use in numerous paints for steel protection.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 34 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article

Judith Uchenna Chima and Temitope Omolayo Fasuan

Black turtle bean has nutritional potentials in the human diet and could provide a significant amount of food in developing countries. Low consumption of black beans has…

Abstract

Purpose

Black turtle bean has nutritional potentials in the human diet and could provide a significant amount of food in developing countries. Low consumption of black beans has been attributed partly to the hard-to-cook phenomenon which requires a long time of cooking. Germination improves nutritional, functional, bioactive compounds, reduces anti-nutrients and cooking time. Germinated black turtle bean can contribute to efforts geared towards the production of functional foods and the fight against protein malnutrition. This study aims to investigate the changes in the nutritional, antioxidants and functional properties of black turtle bean due to different epigeal germination times to increase its utilization in food systems.

Design/methodology/approach

Black turtle bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris) were cleaned, winnowed, washed, soaked for 16 h, drained and subjected to epigeal germinated at ambient temperature for 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively. The germinated seeds were dried, dehulled, milled and sieved. Proximate, antioxidant properties and activity, anti-nutrients, mineral (calcium, phosphorus, iron, sodium, manganese, copper, potassium, zinc and magnesium) and functional properties (water absorption capacity, oil absorption, bulk density, swelling index, water solubility index and gelling concentration) of the germinated black turtle bean (GTB) flour (0GTB, 24GTB, 48GTB, 72GTB and 96GTB) were determined using standard procedures.

Findings

The ash, protein, fat and fibre contents of the black turtle bean were significantly increased through germination. Germination resulted in changes in the antioxidant activity of the black turtle bean samples. The mineral content of the black bean samples was improved significantly by germination and as well altered the functional properties (p < 0.01). Oxalate and phytate were significantly reduced with increased germination time (p < 0.01). In total, 96 h germination (96GTB) had better antioxidant activity, mineral and proximate composition with lower anti-nutrients.

Originality/value

Germination for 96 h proved to be the optimum time for improved mineral content, increased protein, ash, fibre, antioxidant activity and property with reduced antinutrients. Germination represents an attractive, inexpensive means of improving the nutritional profile and enhancing the bio-functionality of the black turtle bean. The epigeal germinated turtle bean could find applied as a functional ingredient in food formulation.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Lu Wang, Xiaolan Liu, Xiqun Zheng and Yinghua Tian

Building the relationship between retting termination and pectin content remained in the fiber is crucial for ensuring the identity quality of retted flax. In order to…

Abstract

Purpose

Building the relationship between retting termination and pectin content remained in the fiber is crucial for ensuring the identity quality of retted flax. In order to measure the pectin content, pectin must be removed thoroughly from the fiber. The purpose of this paper is to find the most suitable method to extract pectin from flax phloem fiber.

Design/methodology/approach

Methods of extracting pectin from fruits were employed to ensure the complete removal of pectin from flax for the first time, including extraction with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid, hydrochloric acid and ion exchange resin. Traditional ammonium oxalate-KOH method was adopted as control. Each procedure was optimized according to the yield of pectin. A characteristic chromogenic technique for determining the exact pectin amount was used, which ensured the precise measurement of pectin extracted.

Findings

Results showed that comparing with the traditional ammonium oxalate-KOH method, methods of hydrochloric acid and ion exchange resin extract >95 percent (w/w) pectin and the extract conditions are much milder.

Originality/value

Bulk of literatures have covered the problem of how to define the quality of retted flax. But the flax industry in China still uses sensory method to check the retting termination. Connect the fiber quality with pectin content is a brand new idea. Also, the exaction method employed from fruit pectin extract is applied in flax pectin for the first time. These methods are essential for building the relationship between the pectin content and retting termination and also significant for discovering the suitable enzyme for enzyme retting.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article

Beenu Tanwar, Rajni Modgil and Ankit Goyal

The health-promoting phytochemicals such as phenolic compounds and flavonoids present in nonfatty portion of pecan nut remain overlooked. The present study aimed to…

Abstract

Purpose

The health-promoting phytochemicals such as phenolic compounds and flavonoids present in nonfatty portion of pecan nut remain overlooked. The present study aimed to evaluate the nutritional and antinutritional/phytochemical constituents of pecan nut and its effect (as a whole nut flour) on the blood lipid profile in the rat model.

Design/methodology/approach

The nutritional composition as well as phytochemicals were evaluated by using standard chemical methods. A controlled randomized study was conducted to assess the hypocholesterolemic effect of nut supplementation in male Wistar albino rats.

Findings

Phytochemicals/antinutrients analysis exhibited remarkable amount of phenolic compounds (47.05 ± 9.85–302.67 ± 7.72 mg GAE/100 g) and flavonoids (44.95 ± 0.23 mg/100 g) with low trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) (1.18 ± 0.03 TIU/mg), saponins (0.49 ± 0.04 g/100 g), alkaloids (0.26 ± 0.03 mg/100 g), phytic acid (854.75 ± 15.47) and oxalates (8.15 ± 0.58 mg/100 g) content. Kernel oil showed 2.87 ± 0.75 meq O2/kg oil peroxide value (PV), well below the maximum permissible limit, demonstrating good oxidative stability of pecan oil. Pecan nut-supplemented diet exhibited a favorable alteration in the blood lipid profile by decreasing total cholesterol (TC) (from 85.42 ± 1.62–229.23 ± 3.43 to 72.24 ± 1.39–106.10 ± 1.69 mg/dl) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (from 64.02 ± 1.96–199.07 ± 4.40 to 38.73 ± 0.79–55.48 ± 1.69 mg/dl) and increasing high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (from 8.70 ± 0.85–9.64 ± 1.10 to 20.25 ± 0.65–24.96 ± 0.56 mg/dl) when compared with control (CC).

Research limitations/implications

This information would be further useful for assessing the biological quality of pecan nut as well as developing value-added food products by exploiting deoiled pecan protein concentrates.

Originality/value

Pecan nut is a rich source of traditional nutrients and phytochemicals and can be recommended to patients with hypercholesterolemia and related cardiovascular diseases.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article

Saheed Adewale Omoniyi, Adamu Musa Muhammad and Ruth Ayuba

Calyx of okra pods is usually cut off and discarded as a waste during processing, whereas the pulp and seeds are being used. This study aims to investigate the nutrient…

Abstract

Purpose

Calyx of okra pods is usually cut off and discarded as a waste during processing, whereas the pulp and seeds are being used. This study aims to investigate the nutrient composition and anti-nutritional properties of okra calyx flour.

Design/methodology/approach

Calyces from four varieties (Ex-kwadon, Solar, Chalawa and Syria) of okra pods were processed into flour. The proximate composition, mineral content, vitamin content and anti-nutritional composition of the flour samples were analysed by using standard methods.

Findings

There were significant differences in moisture content (p = 0.012), crude fat (p = 0.001), crude fibre (p = 0.002), carbohydrate (p = 0.002), sodium (p < 0.001), magnesium (p < 0.001), iron (p < 0.001), zinc (p = 0.006), vitamin A (p < 0.001) and vitamin C (p = 0.001) contents of okra calyx flour. The values of proximate composition ranged 8.1-8.9%, 8.4-9.0%, 14.3-15.3%, 1.4-2.1%, 16.9-18.2% and 47.1-49.4% for moisture content, ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre and carbohydrate, respectively, whereas the values of mineral contents ranged 7.6-8.7 mg/100g, 35.7-41.2 mg/100g, 26.5-28.1 mg/100g, 93.2-95.8 mg/100g, 1.6-1.8 mg/100g and 5.2-5.7 mg/100g for sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, iron and zinc, respectively. The values of vitamin contents of okra calyx flour ranged 0.2-0.3 µg/100g, 7.1-8.9 mg/100g and 0.1-0.2 mg/100g for vitamin A, vitamin C and thiamine contents respectively. Also, there were significant differences in the values of phytate (p = 0.023), oxalate (p = 0.011) and saponin (p < 0.001) contents with the values of anti-nutritional properties ranging 1.3-1.5 mg/100g, 2.5-3.3 mg/100g, 7.4-9.7 mg/100g and 2.3-3.6 mg/100g for tannin, phytate, oxalate and saponin contents, respectively.

Research limitations/implications

There are scanty published works/information on proximate composition, mineral content, vitamin content and anti-nutritional composition of okra calyx flour.

Practical implications

The study showed that okra calyx flour could be useful in fortification/supplement of carbohydrate-based foods in food system.

Originality/value

Okra calyx flour comprises high crude fibre, crude protein, ash and vitamin C contents. Also, calcium is the major mineral content of okra calyx flour followed by magnesium and potassium. However, the tannin content reported higher in okra leaf flour, and okra flour is low in okra calyx flour.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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Article

Oxalate coating process. The Pyrene Co. Ltd. announce the availability of their new oxalate coating process, Bonderite SS4, for assisting the cold drawing of stainless…

Abstract

Oxalate coating process. The Pyrene Co. Ltd. announce the availability of their new oxalate coating process, Bonderite SS4, for assisting the cold drawing of stainless steel and heat‐resisting alloys.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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