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Book part
Publication date: 27 March 2007

Feirong Yuan and Richard W. Woodman

Much of the literature in organizational change has taken a single approach to explain employee expectation formation regarding the outcomes of a change event. A…

Abstract

Much of the literature in organizational change has taken a single approach to explain employee expectation formation regarding the outcomes of a change event. A conceptual model is developed to integrate two existing streams of research (the information effects approach and the social effects approach) and to develop a comprehensive picture of outcome expectation formation. We propose that information and social effects function simultaneously to shape an employee's outcome expectations. The strength and content consistency of information and social effects jointly determine what people expect regarding change outcomes and how confident they feel about those expectations. Implications are discussed in terms of setting the boundaries for information and social effects as well as future research directions.

Details

Research in Organizational Change and Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-425-6

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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2019

Susana C. Santos and Eric W. Liguori

Building on social career cognitive theory, the purpose of this paper is to investigate outcome expectations as a mediator and subjective norms as a moderator in the…

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1048

Abstract

Purpose

Building on social career cognitive theory, the purpose of this paper is to investigate outcome expectations as a mediator and subjective norms as a moderator in the relationship between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of 1,026 students from US public and private universities retrieved from the Entrepreneurship Education Project, this study tests a first-stage moderated mediation model in a two-step process.

Findings

Results show that entrepreneurial self-efficacy is positively related to entrepreneurial intentions through the partial mediating effect of entrepreneurial outcome expectations, and that this relationship is consistently significant and positive for individuals with lower, average and higher subjective norms towards entrepreneurship.

Research limitations/implications

These findings contribute to the literature on entrepreneurial intentions by providing a comprehensive overlook on the mechanisms and boundary conditions relevant for intentions.

Practical implications

These results reinforce the need for educators and policy makers to ensure programs manage outcome expectations and recognize the role of peer, parent and mentor role models on the construction of these expectations and, consequently, on entrepreneurial intentions.

Originality/value

Exploring the combined effect of entrepreneurial outcome expectations as a mechanism and subjective norms as boundary conditions on the relationship between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intentions is an unexplored issue to date, and helps to understand how and why entrepreneurial intentions emerge.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2014

I-Cheng Chang, Chuang-Chun Liu and Kuanchin Chen

The focus in this study is a model that predicts continuance intention of online multi-player games. In this integrated model, the social cognitive theory (SCT) lays out…

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4524

Abstract

Purpose

The focus in this study is a model that predicts continuance intention of online multi-player games. In this integrated model, the social cognitive theory (SCT) lays out the foundation of two types of pre-use (pre-play) expectations, the flow theory captures the affective feeling with the game as a moderator for the effect from the two pre-use expectations, and subjective norm together with its associated antecedents cover a wide spectrum of social influences.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire was designed and pre-tested before distributing to target respondents. The reliability and validity of the instrument both met the commonly accepted guidelines. The integrated model was assessed first by examining its measurement model and then the structural model.

Findings

The integration of cognitive, affective and social influence in this model explains a larger amount of variance compared to the competing models and existing studies.

Originality/value

Unlike a popular trend that studies predictors of online games from either cognitive or affect angle, the work looks at both together to study how their joint effect is related to continuance intention. This marks an important improvement as cognitive expectations derived from SCT captures the pre-use experience that may be influenced or swayed by sources including those that are inflated or incorrect. By studying flow as a moderator in conjunction with other sources of influence, the authors are able to further the understanding of how the pre-use expectations may be shaped by one's own experience.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 20 February 2009

Hsi‐Peng Lu and Kuo‐Lun Hsiao

This paper aims to improve understanding of what motivates individual blog owners to post information frequently on weblogs, and whether gender affects those motivations.

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2110

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to improve understanding of what motivates individual blog owners to post information frequently on weblogs, and whether gender affects those motivations.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors propose a model incorporating three key determinants of the intention to update weblogs: self‐expression; subjective norms; and personal outcome expectations. These were based on Social Cognitive Theory. An empirical study involving 525 subjects was conducted to test this model.

Findings

The results indicate that subjective norms have a stronger effect on the intention than personal outcome expectations or self‐expression. Additionally, women's intention was strongly influenced by self‐expression while men's intention was strongly influenced by personal outcome expectations of using weblogs.

Research limitations/implications

The authors verified the effects of subjective norms, personal outcome expectations and self‐expression on the intentions of weblog owners. The research found that these factors are important determinants of the intention to update weblogs. Moreover, it was found that gender moderates the relationships between factors and the intention in the research model.

Practical implications

For weblog service providers, the results can be used to develop tools to enhance people's intentions to publish according to gender.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to a deeper understanding of the factors that promote the use of weblogs.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 27 August 2019

Zheshi Bao and Zhiyong Han

The purpose of this paper is to examine some drivers of users’ participation in online social question-and-answer (Q&A) communities based on social cognitive theory and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine some drivers of users’ participation in online social question-and-answer (Q&A) communities based on social cognitive theory and then identify the underlying mechanism of this process.

Design/methodology/approach

This study developed a research model to test the proposed hypotheses, and an online survey was employed to collected data. Totally, 313 valid responses were collected, and partial least squares structural equation modeling was adopted to analyze these data.

Findings

This study empirically finds that the outcome expectations (personal outcome expectations and knowledge self-management outcome expectations) are positively related to participation in online social Q&A communities. At the same time, users’ self-efficacy positively influences their participation behaviors. It can not only directly motivate users’ participation, but also indirectly promote participation behaviors through the two dimensions of outcome expectations. Besides, perceived expertise and perceived similarity are two positive and significant environmental elements affecting users’ participation.

Originality/value

This study extends the understanding about how participation behaviors will be motivated in the context of online social Q&A communities. Drawing on the social cognitive theory, constructs were established based on the features of these communities. Meanwhile, some mediating effects in the motivating process were also discussed.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 71 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2020

Hussain Alshahrani and Diane Pennington

This study aims to investigate the outcomes that researchers expect from using social media for knowledge sharing and to explore how these outcomes impact their use.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the outcomes that researchers expect from using social media for knowledge sharing and to explore how these outcomes impact their use.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted 30 semi-structured interviews with researchers at a major Scottish university. They analysed the interview transcripts using directed content analysis.

Findings

Researchers expect social and personal outcomes from the use of social media to share knowledge. Each type has positive and negative forms. The positive outcomes motivate researchers to use it, whereas negative outcomes prevent them from using it.

Research limitations/implications

This study extends the integrative theoretical framework of outcome expectations within the social cognitive theory by exploring these outcomes and their relative amount of influence on sharing ideas, experiences, questions and research outputs on social media. While the participants included academic staff and postdoctoral researchers, the majority were PhD students.

Practical implications

The findings will help individual researchers and universities to use social media effectively in sharing ideas and promoting research through identifying the positive outcomes. Identifying the negative outcomes will help in using solutions to overcome them.

Originality/value

This is the first known study to investigate the outcome expectations that impact researchers’ use of social media for knowledge sharing.

Details

Global Knowledge, Memory and Communication, vol. 70 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9342

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Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2002

Gerry Segal, Dan Borgia and Jerry Schoenfeld

Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, and Hackett 1994, 1996) proposes that career interests, goals, and choices are related to self-efficacy beliefs and…

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3301

Abstract

Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, and Hackett 1994, 1996) proposes that career interests, goals, and choices are related to self-efficacy beliefs and outcome expectations. It suggests that peopleʼs self-efficacy beliefs and outcome expectations with regard to self-employment would predict their goals to become selfemployed. This study explores the ability of SCCT to predict goals for self-employment in a sample of 115 undergraduate business students. Results indicated that students with higher entrepreneurial self-efficacy and higher self-employment outcome expectations had higher intentions to become self-employed. These findings imply that educators and policy-makers may boost student entrepreneurial intentions by (1) enhancing studentsʼ confidence to succeed in an entrepreneurial career and (2) enhancing studentsʼ expectations of strong positive outcomes resulting from an entrepreneurial career

Details

New England Journal of Entrepreneurship, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2574-8904

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2021

Adeola Samuel Adebusuyi, Samson Olowo Kolawole, Hassan Salawu Abu, Olubusayo Foluso Adebusuyi and Adesina Adewale Ajulo

This study aims to investigate how new graduates in Nigeria can simultaneously pursue entrepreneurial and professional careers. Specifically, this study tested the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate how new graduates in Nigeria can simultaneously pursue entrepreneurial and professional careers. Specifically, this study tested the contextual (socioeconomic status [SES]), person-based (an open personality) and cognitive-person (self-efficacy and outcome expectations) predictors of entrepreneurship, professionalism and leadership.

Design/methodology/approach

The study design is cross-sectional. Data were collected from 363 new graduates from Nigerian tertiary institutions. Hypotheses were generated from social cognitive career self-management (CSM) variables. Research instruments were also revalidated for the Nigerian context, and regression path analysis was used to analyze the data.

Findings

This study’s key findings showed that SES and an open personality are predictors of entrepreneurship, professionalism and leadership (EPL) self-efficacy and intentions, entrepreneurial and job outcome expectations. Second, EPL self-efficacy predicted both entrepreneurial and job outcome expectations and served as a mediating variable for SES and an open personality. Third, entrepreneurial outcome expectations related to EPL intentions, whereas job outcome expectations did not. These results suggest that SES and openness personality trait are crucial for developing a versatile career mindset.

Research limitations/implications

This study demonstrated that individuals’ characteristics (i.e. cognitive and personality) and economic resources are crucial determinants of CSM. As this study is cross-sectional, future research could use a longitudinal approach to determine the cause-effect relationship.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first research to examine how new graduates can simultaneously explore entrepreneurial and professional careers in a developing country like Nigeria using the CSM theory.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2020

Xiaodong Li, Chen Zhang, Juan Chen and Shengliang Zhang

The domain of monetary donation is evolving with the combination of professional donation platforms and social network sites (SNSs) in the agency process, potentially…

Abstract

Purpose

The domain of monetary donation is evolving with the combination of professional donation platforms and social network sites (SNSs) in the agency process, potentially enhancing information communication and facilitating money transfers between donors and recipients. However, SNS donation avoidance hinders the leveraging of significant economic and social values. To address the limited understanding of the phenomenon of SNS donation avoidance, this study aims to investigate the influencing factors of people's avoidance behavior in the agency process of SNS donation.

Design/methodology/approach

A model was devised containing four process-related factors (requests overload, process ambiguity, channel security concerns and perceived distributive injustice) as antecedents of SNS donation avoidance, with probable mediating paths of negative emotions, altruistic outcome expectation and egoistic outcome expectation. Data were collected through a survey of 398 users of WeChat Moment in China. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the proposed model.

Findings

All four process-related factors have positive associations with SNS donation avoidance. Requests overload, channel security concerns and perceived distributive injustice all positively influence people's expectation of negative emotions and lead, in turn, to their SNS donation avoidance. Perceived distributive injustice also leads to SNS donation avoidance via negatively influencing people's expectations of both altruistic and egoistic outcomes.

Originality/value

Theoretically, this empirical study synthetically associates process-related factors to donation avoidance through the paths of emotional responses and rational outcome expectations. Practically, it emphasizes key factors to consider in the process management of SNS donation.

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Meng H. Hsu, Chao M. Chiu and Teresa L. Ju

This study examines motivational factors influencing one's intention to continue using WWW applications. Social cognitive theory is adapted and integrated with expectancy…

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3957

Abstract

This study examines motivational factors influencing one's intention to continue using WWW applications. Social cognitive theory is adapted and integrated with expectancy disconfirmation theory and empirical findings from prior studies about continued use of information systems. Research hypotheses derived from this model are empirically validated using the responses to a survey on WWW usage, collected from 235 users. Results suggest that users’ continuance intention is determined by their satisfaction with prior use, internet self‐efficacy, and outcome expectations. Outcome expectation, in turn, is influenced by their satisfaction with prior use and prior perceived confirmation. This study draws attention to the substantial differences between acceptance and continuance. Implications for practice and further research are considered.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 104 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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