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Book part
Publication date: 28 February 2007

Vishnu Kapur and Anil Gupta

Abstract

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Modelling Our Future: Population Ageing, Health and Aged Care
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-808-7

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2021

Jonathan E. Leightner

Based upon estimates of the change in consumption due to a change in out-of-pocket-health expenses (dC/dOOPHE) for 43 countries, this paper aims to argue for a…

Abstract

Purpose

Based upon estimates of the change in consumption due to a change in out-of-pocket-health expenses (dC/dOOPHE) for 43 countries, this paper aims to argue for a reevaluation of what constitutes OOPHE when determining health insurance especially in the wake of Covid-19.

Design/methodology/approach

Reiterative truncated projected least squares (RTPLS), a statistical technique designed to handle the omitted variables problem of regression analysis.

Findings

If budgets are binding than dC/dOOPHE should be 0; if OOPHE merely adds to current consumption than dC/dOOPHE should be 1. However, merely plotting consumption versus OOPHE for the 43 countries for which organization for economic cooperation and development has the required data clearly shows a dC/dOOPHE much greater than one. This paper’s estimates of dC/dOOPHE for 2000 to 2017 range from 15.6 for Switzerland (in 2016) to 225.2 for Columbia (in 2003).

Research limitations/implications

RTPLS cannot determine what part of the results are due to an increase in income causing both consumption and OOPHE to increase and what part is because of actual OOPHE far exceeding official OOPHE. However, the latter is involved.

Practical implications

As Covid-19 sickens millions while depriving millions of their normal means of generating income, what constitutes OOPHE should be expanded when determining health insurance. This paper’s results imply that even prior to Covid-19 health insurance covered much less than the optimal amount of actual OOPHE.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to use RTPLS to estimate dC/dOOPHE.

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

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Article
Publication date: 18 June 2021

Mehdi Barati and Hadiseh Fariditavana

The purpose of this study is to first assess how the US healthcare financing system is influenced by income variation. Then, it examines whether or not the impact of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to first assess how the US healthcare financing system is influenced by income variation. Then, it examines whether or not the impact of income variation is asymmetric.

Design/methodology/approach

For the analyses of this paper, the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model is implemented to a data set covering the period from 1960 to 2018.

Findings

The results provide evidence that major funding sources of aggregate healthcare expenditure (HCE) respond differently to changes in income. The results also imply that the effect of income is not always symmetric.

Originality/value

Many studies have attempted to identify the relationship between income and HCE. A common feature of past studies is that they have only focused on aggregate HCE, while one might be interested in knowing how major funders of aggregate HCE would be affected by changes in income. Another common feature of past studies is that they have assumed that the relationship between income and HCE is symmetric.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Content available
Article
Publication date: 12 February 2021

Manesh Muraleedharan and Alaka Omprakash Chandak

The substantial increase in non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is considered a major threat to developing countries. According to various international organizations and…

Abstract

Purpose

The substantial increase in non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is considered a major threat to developing countries. According to various international organizations and researchers, Kerala is reputed to have the best health system in India. However, many economists and health-care experts have discussed the risks embedded in the asymmetrical developmental pattern of the state, considering its high health-care and human development index and low economic growth. This study, a scoping review, aims to explore four major health economic issues related to the Kerala health system.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic review of the literature was performed using PRISMA to facilitate selection, sampling and analysis. Qualitative data were collected for thematic content analysis.

Findings

Chronic diseases in a significant proportion of the population, low compliance with emergency medical systems, high health-care costs and poor health insurance coverage were observed in the Kerala community.

Research limitations/implications

The present study was undertaken to determine the scope for future research on Kerala's health system. Based on the study findings, a structured health economic survey is being conducted and is scheduled to be completed by 2021. In addition, the scope for future research on Kerala's health system includes: (1) research on pathways to address root causes of NCDs in the state, (2) determine socio-economic and health system factors that shape health-seeking behavior of the Kerala community, (3) evaluation of regional differences in health system performance within the state, (4) causes of high out-of-pocket expenditure within the state.

Originality/value

Given the internationally recognized standard of Kerala's vital statistics and health system, this review paper highlights some of the challenges encountered to elicit future research that contributes to the continuous development of health systems in Kerala.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0857-4421

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Content available
Article
Publication date: 20 December 2017

Murallitharan Munisamy, Tharini Thanapalan, Pattaraporn Piwong, Alessio Panza and Sathirakorn Pongpanich

Out-of-pocket (OOP) payments continue to be a major method of financing healthcare in many low- and middle-income countries including Malaysia. Although macro-level data…

Abstract

Purpose

Out-of-pocket (OOP) payments continue to be a major method of financing healthcare in many low- and middle-income countries including Malaysia. Although macro-level data show that this is a substantial percentage of national health expenditure, at the grassroots level, the amount spent on health by households remains unknown in Malaysia. The purpose of this paper is to assess the validity and reliability of an adapted-for-purpose questionnaire designed to capture urban household health expenditures (HHEs) among Malaysian households.

Design/methodology/approach

This two-part study assessed content validity of the questionnaire using three experts and the reliability of the questionnaire through a test-retest study among 50 OOP-paying patients followed up at one private primary care clinic in Kuala Lumpur. This study was approved by the Malaysian Research Ethics Committee (NMRR-16-172-29311-IIR).

Findings

The validity of the 83-item questionnaire was high, with an item content validity index of 1.00 and a scale content validity index average score of 1.0 agreed to among the evaluating experts. In the test-retest reliability study, the majority of the categorical questionnaire items had perfect agreement values (k=0.81-1.00). Continuous questionnaire items were also found to be highly reliable with no significant differences between the test-retest segments and high correlation coefficient values (intra-class correlation coefficient>0.7).

Originality/value

The HHE questionnaire had excellent content validity and very high test-retest reliability. The results of this study suggest that this questionnaire could be used in Malaysian studies to determine actual urban HHE which is a first step toward developing universal health coverage for all.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2586-940X

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2020

Ajantha Sisira Kumara and Ramanie Samaratunge

The purpose of this paper is to explore the determinants of health insurance ownership of individuals in the Sri Lankan labor force and to examine how insurance ownership…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the determinants of health insurance ownership of individuals in the Sri Lankan labor force and to examine how insurance ownership impacts healthcare utilization.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors first used logit model to explore determinants of health insurance ownership. The authors then employed propensity score matching method to estimate impact of insurance ownership on healthcare utilization. Data were obtained from national survey of self-reported health in Sri Lanka – 2014 (n=59,276). National survey of self-reported health in Sri Lanka – 2014 was conducted by the Department of Census and Statistics from January to December 2014.

Findings

Results showed that individuals with higher educational attainments, headed by literate-heads, based in urban sector, employed in formal sector, and with health adversities and higher degree of risk propensity are more inclined to have a health cover. Health insurance ownership reduces the likelihood of utilizing public facilities while increasing the likelihood of utilizing private facilities for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and acute illnesses. Welfare consequences of expanding insurance ownership are doubtful due to oligopolistic private healthcare market and adverse selection issue faced by insurers in Sri Lanka.

Originality/value

This is the first study examining health insurance–healthcare utilization nexus based on Sri Lanka-wide microdata. Also, the study applies bias-corrected matching methods to establish causal links between two constructs. Without being so generalized, healthcare utilization is examined in terms of NCD care and Acute illnesses care, which improves robustness of results and leads to evidence-based healthcare policies.

Peer review

The peer review history for this paper is available at: https//publons.com/publon/10.1108/IJSE-05-2019-0333.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 47 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2020

Agnieszka Sobolewska, Amy-Louise Byrne, Clare Lynette Harvey, Eileen Willis, Adele Baldwin, Sandy McLellan and David Heard

The purpose of the paper is to explore how the national, state and organisational health policies in Australia support the implementation of person-centred care in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to explore how the national, state and organisational health policies in Australia support the implementation of person-centred care in managing chronic care conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative content analysis was performed regarding the national, state and organisational Queensland Health policies using Elo and Kyngas' (2008) framework.

Findings

Although the person-centred care as an approach is well articulated in health policies, there is still no definitive measure or approach to embedding it into operational services. Complex funding structures and competing priorities of the governments and the health organisations carry the risk that person-centred care as an approach gets lost in translation. Three themes emerged: the patient versus the government; health care delivery versus the political agenda; and health care organisational processes versus the patient.

Research limitations/implications

Given that person-centred care is the recommended approach for responding to chronic health conditions, further empirical research is required to evaluate how programs designed to deliver person-centred care achieve that objective in practice.

Practical implications

This research highlights the complex environment in which the person-centred approach is implemented. Short-term programmes created specifically to focus on person-centred care require the right organisational infrastructure, support and direction. This review demonstrates the need for alignment of policies related to chronic disease management at the broader organisational level.

Originality/value

Given the introduction of the nurse navigator program to take up a person-centred care approach, the review of the recent policies was undertaken to understand how they support this initiative.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Book part
Publication date: 12 December 2007

Grace J. Yoo and Barbara W. Kim

As an ethnic group, Korean Americans have one of the highest uninsured rates in the U.S. (Brown et al., 2000). Through in-depth interviews (n=14) and surveys (n=268), this…

Abstract

As an ethnic group, Korean Americans have one of the highest uninsured rates in the U.S. (Brown et al., 2000). Through in-depth interviews (n=14) and surveys (n=268), this study found that one-third of the sample was uninsured. High premiums prevented the uninsured from purchasing health insurance. Although health insurance has been a strong predictor of health services utilization, this study also found that when examining the utilization of various health services by health insurance status, there were no major significant differences with the exception of Korean traditional health services. High deductibles prevented insured persons from utilizing health services.

Details

Inequalities and Disparities in Health Care and Health: Concerns of Patients, Providers and Insurers
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1474-4

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Book part
Publication date: 8 December 2007

Kathleen Pickering and Bethany Mizushima

Poor health conditions are a major factor in perpetuating poverty on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. This chapter explores the ways in which market-based health care…

Abstract

Poor health conditions are a major factor in perpetuating poverty on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. This chapter explores the ways in which market-based health care delivery systems shirk health care costs of Lakota households on the periphery of the market economy. Furthermore, the economic value of health care services provided by these same marginal households is understated because market-based health care privileges commodified biomedicine. Examining economic activity beyond formal market integration reveals how households least able to bear the costs of health care subsidize the market economy at the expense of their own efforts to move out of poverty.

Details

The Economics of Health and Wellness: Anthropological Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-490-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Dennis A. Pitta and Michael V. Laric

The supply chain concept aided marketing by highlighting relationships that form a network of firms creating products for consumers. It helped change the focus from…

Abstract

The supply chain concept aided marketing by highlighting relationships that form a network of firms creating products for consumers. It helped change the focus from individual transactions to a more comprehensive view of the entire system. The value chain concept in marketing extends the supply chain view in an important way: it explicates the value that is created at each stage of the chain. For marketers, it is a vital tool in satisfying consumers – the final part of the value chain. This value chain can be viewed as having two components: the value delivery system and the consumer. This paper explores several approaches to value that are important in the functioning of the value chain. It then delineates three main elements of the value chain and traces them as they apply to services. It then focuses on one of the more complex services, the health care delivery system. It goes on to describe the health care value network and examine the critical factors that affect the success of the health care process. Finally, it delineates several important implications for health care marketers.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 21 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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