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Article

Alejandro J. Estudillo

The other-race effect shows that people are better recognizing faces from their own-race compared to other-race faces. This effect can have dramatic consequences in…

Abstract

Purpose

The other-race effect shows that people are better recognizing faces from their own-race compared to other-race faces. This effect can have dramatic consequences in applied scenarios whereby face identification is paramount, such as eyewitness identification. This paper aims to investigate whether observers have insights into their ability to recognize other-race faces.

Design/methodology/approach

Chinese ethnic observers performed objective measures of own- and other-race face recognition – the Cambridge Face Memory Test Chinese and the Cambridge Face Memory Test original; the PI20 – a 20-items self-reported measured of general face recognition abilities; and the ORE20 – a new developed 20-items self-reported measure of other-race face recognition.

Findings

Recognition of own-race faces was better compared to other-race faces. This effect was also evident at a phenomenological level, as observers reported to be worse recognizing other-race faces compared to own-race faces. Additionally, although a moderate correlation was found between own-race face recognition abilities and the PI20, individual differences in the recognition of other-race faces was only poorly associated with observers’ scores in the ORE20.

Research limitations/implications

These results suggest that observers’ insights to recognize faces are more consistent and reliable for own-race faces.

Practical implications

Self-reported measures of other-race recognition could produce misleading results. Thus, when evaluating eyewitness’ accuracy identifying other-race faces, objective measures should be used.

Originality/value

In contrast to own race recognition, people have very limited insights into their recognition abilities for other race faces.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

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Article

Geraldine Rosa Henderson, Tracy Rank-Christman, Tiffany Barnett White, Kimberly Dillon Grantham, Amy L. Ostrom and John G. Lynch

Intercultural competence has been found to be increasingly important. The purpose of this paper is to understand how intercultural competence impacts service providers…

Abstract

Purpose

Intercultural competence has been found to be increasingly important. The purpose of this paper is to understand how intercultural competence impacts service providers’ ability to recognition faces of both black and white consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

Two experiments were administered to understand how intercultural competence impacts recognition of black and white consumer faces.

Findings

The authors find that the more intercultural competence that respondents report with blacks, the better they are at distinguishing between black regular customers and black new shoppers in an experiment. The authors find no impact of intercultural competence on the ability of respondents to differentiate between white consumers. These findings hold for respondents in the USA and South Africa.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation of this research is that the studies were conducted in a controlled lab setting. Thus, one could imagine additional noise from a true consumer setting might increase the effects of these results. Another limitation is the focus on only black and white consumer faces. In this paper, the authors focused on these two races, specifically to keep the factorial design as simplified as possible.

Originality/value

The implications of this research are important given that the ability of employees’ recognizing customer faces can affect customers’ day-to-day interactions in the marketplace.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Book part

Philip Schwadel

Purpose – This chapter analyzes stratification in embeddedness in religious congregations, as well as the civic and political implications of this stratification in…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter analyzes stratification in embeddedness in religious congregations, as well as the civic and political implications of this stratification in congregational embeddedness.

Methodology – With data from more than 70,000 attendees of 385 congregations, I examine how race, education, and income affect the prevalence of friendships in religious congregations, and how these friendships affect civic and political activity.

Findings – Analyses of friendships show that white and lower-class Americans are particularly likely to have close friends in their congregations, and attendees are disproportionately likely to have close friends in their congregations when other attendees are of the same race and level of education. Analyses of civic and political participation show that congregational friendships are strongly associated with civic and political participation, though the positive effects of congregational friendships on civic and political participation are moderately reduced for African-Americans and lower-class attendees.

Research Implications – The findings are relevant to future research on congregational stability, stratification in access to social resources, and U.S. civil society.

Originality/Value – This research shows that the resources that accompany congregational embeddedness, like many other resources, are stratified by race, education, and income.

Details

Religion, Work and Inequality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-347-7

Keywords

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Article

Fabio Bacchini and Ludovica Lorusso

This study aims to explore whether face recognition technology – as it is intensely used by state and local police departments and law enforcement agencies – is racism…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore whether face recognition technology – as it is intensely used by state and local police departments and law enforcement agencies – is racism free or, on the contrary, is affected by racial biases and/or racist prejudices, thus reinforcing overall racial discrimination.

Design/methodology/approach

The study investigates the causal pathways through which face recognition technology may reinforce the racial disproportion in enforcement; it also inquires whether it further discriminates black people by making them experience more racial discrimination and self-identify more decisively as black – two conditions that are shown to be harmful in various respects.

Findings

This study shows that face recognition technology, as it is produced, implemented and used in Western societies, reinforces existing racial disparities in stop, investigation, arrest and incarceration rates because of racist prejudices and even contributes to strengthen the unhealthy effects of racism on historically disadvantaged racial groups, like black people.

Practical implications

The findings hope to make law enforcement agencies and software companies aware that they must take adequate action against the racially discriminative effects of the use of face recognition technology.

Social implications

This study highlights that no implementation of an allegedly racism-free biometric technology is safe from the risk of racially discriminating, simply because each implementation leans against our society, which is affected by racism in many persisting ways.

Originality/value

While the ethical survey of biometric technologies is traditionally framed in the discourse of universal rights, this study explores an issue that has not been deeply scrutinized so far, that is, how face recognition technology differently affects distinct racial groups and how it contributes to racial discrimination.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

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Article

Vincent Egan, Nicola Gilzeane and Maria Viskaduraki

Strategic race‐blindness (purposely avoiding mention of a target's ethnicity to appear unprejudiced) potentially hinders eyewitness testimony.

Abstract

Purpose

Strategic race‐blindness (purposely avoiding mention of a target's ethnicity to appear unprejudiced) potentially hinders eyewitness testimony.

Design/methodology/approach

The current study examined whether participant and interviewer race affected the recollection of black, white or Western Asian individuals, where it was indicated the targets were criminal or not. Data were gathered using a cognitive interview‐type methodology whereby stimulus questioning was open, rather than prompted. After a short interval participants spontaneously described the targets and the point at which race was used as a descriptor was noted.

Findings

There was a clear effect of differential race mentioning in free recall by participants. However, multi‐level ordinal logistic regression found neither race of the interviewer nor race of the participant (or their interaction) influenced the mentioning of the race of the face in the photograph. This remained irrespective of the guilt of the person in the stimulus picture.

Originality /value

Extending the paradigm to persons of Western Asian heritage enabled strategic race bias to be considered in the context of persons sometimes regarded as being sympathetic to terrorism. Gathering information using the cognitive interview makes out study closer to the process by which the police in the UK are trained to gather information.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

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Article

Andrea Buckley and Brian H. Kleiner

Cites an example of eyewitness testimony which led to a wrongful conviction. Asks how accurate is such testimony? Considers the optimum environment for witnesses to…

Abstract

Cites an example of eyewitness testimony which led to a wrongful conviction. Asks how accurate is such testimony? Considers the optimum environment for witnesses to remember events, the effect to witness of the use of disguises and weapons by suspects and the accuracy of memory over time. Discusses line‐ups and photo arrays, the race of the individuals involved and the ability to perform in court. Concludes that eyewitness must be subject to close scrutiny and not automatically accepted as truthful or accurate.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 44 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Book part

Michael J. Leiber and Maude Beaudry-Cyr

Framed by the intersectionality perspective and results from prior research, we examined the effects of race/ethnicity, gender, probation violations, and type of violation…

Abstract

Purpose

Framed by the intersectionality perspective and results from prior research, we examined the effects of race/ethnicity, gender, probation violations, and type of violation on juvenile justice case outcomes in a Mid-Atlantic state.

Methodology/approach

Bivariate and multivariate analyses in the form of logistic regression were used to assess the extent race and ethnicity, gender, probation violations, and the type of violation, individually and in combination, impact case outcomes.

Findings

The findings indicate that the race/ethnicity of the youth, his or her gender, and whether involved in a probation violation and to some degree the type of violation, individually and in some cases, jointly, effect juvenile justice decision making. These relationships often involve receiving both harsh and lenient outcomes. We interpret the results as evidence that stereotyping plays out differently when race/ethnicity and gender intersect.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the general literature by (1) examining the neglected combination effects of race/ethnicity and gender with increased social control within juvenile justice proceedings; (2) including Hispanic youth; and (3) looking at the interrelationships among race/ethnicity and gender with the treatment of probation violators.

Details

Race, Ethnicity and Law
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-604-4

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Book part

Roberto M. Fernandez and Jason Greenberg

Purpose – Research has shown that employers often disfavor racial minorities − particularly African Americans − even when whites and minorities present comparable resumes…

Abstract

Purpose – Research has shown that employers often disfavor racial minorities − particularly African Americans − even when whites and minorities present comparable resumes when applying for jobs. Extant studies have been hard pressed to distinguish between taste-based discrimination where employers' racial animus is the key motivation for their poor treatment of minorities and variants of statistical discrimination where there is no assumption at all of racial animus on the part of the employer. This chapter proposes a test of these theories by observing whether employers use employee referrals as a “cheap” source of information to help assess applicant quality.Methodology/approach – Unique quantitative data encompassing the entire pool of 987 candidates interviewed by one company in the western United States during a 13-month period are used to test our arguments.Findings – We find that employers in this setting are making use of the cheap information available to them: Consistent with statistical discrimination theory, minority referrals are more likely to receive a job offer than non-referred minority applicants, and are not disfavored relative to referred whites.Originality/value of the chapter – Both statistical and taste-based theories of discrimination propose similar observable outcomes (lower rates of disfavored minority hiring). While different mental processes are being invoked by taste-based and statistical discrimination theories, the theories are extremely difficult to distinguish in terms of observable behaviors. Especially for the purpose of designing legal remedies and labor market policies to ameliorate the disparate treatment of minority groups, differentiating between these theories is a high priority.

Details

Networks, Work and Inequality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-539-5

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Article

David Eriksson and Göran Svensson

This paper aims to conceptualize managers’ psychological challenges with respect to implementing corporate responsibility throughout supply chains.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to conceptualize managers’ psychological challenges with respect to implementing corporate responsibility throughout supply chains.

Design/methodology/approach

Four areas of psychological theory are introduced to expand the understanding of the challenges involved in implementing corporate responsibility in supply chains, namely, relationship and humanization theory; the number-of-people-suffering theory; superficial-identification theory; and the bystander effect theory.

Findings

The common denominator between the introduced areas of psychological theory is that all consider the expected degree of corporate responsibility in supply chains to extend beyond managers’ ability to cope so that failure is probable.

Research limitations/implications

Supply chain management research needs to consider various psychological challenges to effectively address corporate responsibility in supply chains. This research shows that it is important to include theory from psychology to truly understand the challenges faced by managers, although only a few theories are presented here. More comprehensive reviews are needed in the future.

Practical implications

Managers require guidelines based on psychological theory to assist them in overcoming their inabilities in this context.

Originality/value

SCM research advocates responsibility for all those affected by this phenomenon, but the lack of theoretical grounding to meet the prevailing psychological challenges hampers the efficacy of putting the current recommendations into business practice. The paper is one of only a few to address managers’ psychological challenges in dealing with corporate responsibility across organizational borders and judicial boundaries in supply chains.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Book part

Hanna Jokinen-Gordon and Jill Quadagno

This chapter examines social variations in parent dissatisfaction with children’s medical care and tests whether greater dissatisfaction is associated with less preventive…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter examines social variations in parent dissatisfaction with children’s medical care and tests whether greater dissatisfaction is associated with less preventive care and unmet medical need.

Methodology/approach

The 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) is a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of parents of U.S. children age 0–17 years (N=78,523). We use a combination of ordinary least squares (OLS) and binary logistic regression to analyze parent dissatisfaction, preventive care, and unmet medical need.

Findings

Our results indicate that parents’ dissatisfaction scores are significantly higher for racial/ethnic minorities, non-English speakers, lower socioeconomic status (SES) respondents, and the uninsured. Furthermore, parent dissatisfaction has a significant and robust association with lack of preventive care and reports of unmet medical need.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the cross-sectional research design, we were unable to determine whether dissatisfaction caused parents to delay children’s medical care, thus resulting in a lack of annual preventive care and greater unmet needs.

Originality/value of chapter

Although there is extensive research on adult perceptions of their own medical care, few sociological studies have examined parents’ perceptions about their children’s care. Yet, there is substantial evidence that parents transmit health-related attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to their children. As with adult patients, parent satisfaction with their child’s medical care is stratified by social characteristics; however, we also find a strong association between dissatisfaction and use of other important health services. It may be the case that when parents feel that they did not receive satisfactory care, they are more likely to delay, or to forgo, preventive and other health services.

Details

Social Determinants, Health Disparities and Linkages to Health and Health Care
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-588-3

Keywords

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