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Case study
Publication date: 25 November 2019

Sergio Morales and Oswaldo Morales

The contribution of the present case lies in the critical view that every business actor should exercise – be it general manager, middle management, supervisor or…

Abstract

Learning outcomes

The contribution of the present case lies in the critical view that every business actor should exercise – be it general manager, middle management, supervisor or executive – when building a strong organizational culture in corrupt political environments.

Case overview/synopsis

The purpose of this case study is to explore the dilemma in which Marcelo Odebrecht, once CEO of Odebrecht, found/determined whether to continue with the business model established by the founders of Odebrecht or take a new path for the organization. After exploring the corrupt acts of Odebrecht and the scope of Operation Lava Jato, the reader can reflect on the importance of organizational culture (according to the three levels proposed by Schein) in the face of the emergence of corruption. By generating discussions about organizational culture, business ethics, political culture and corruption, the organizational culture of Odebrecht is problematized in relation to its real behavior.

Complexity academic level

Students of administration, business and international business undergraduates and graduates, as well as members of senior management in companies in the infrastructure sector. Also, given the plurality of possible readings, it is recommended that the case also be used in courses or specializations in organizational psychology, organizational sociology or organizational anthropology.

Supplementary materials

Teaching Notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes.

Subject code

CSS 5: International Business.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

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Case study
Publication date: 6 December 2019

Fidel Edgard Amesquita and Oswaldo Morales

The learning outcomes are as follows: to understand the problem of informality and how it develops, taking advantage of the control flaws of public and private…

Abstract

Learning outcomes

The learning outcomes are as follows: to understand the problem of informality and how it develops, taking advantage of the control flaws of public and private institutions and its growth by the legitimacy of society; to analyze the role of the regulatory body in its fight against informality from the area of its influence, which is the energy sector; to analyze the economic and social impact of a solution like the one proposed in the case; to analyze the impact at the level of public policies of solutions such as the one proposed in the case; and to review the strategy of the hand of technology that can achieve the development of original solutions to fight against informality.

Case overview/synopsis

The case study was written on the basis of a real success story that explains the development of a technological solution that allowed the Supervisory Agency of Energy and Mining of Peru to effectively deal with informality in the commercialization of fuels, which became a reference in the region. The story begins by recreating the system that existed for the commercialization of fuels and how the shortcomings of this system itself encouraged the appearance of informal merchants who benefited from the situation. It also explains how the regulatory authority decides to deal with this problem by creating a special unit that confronts this issue and how, after some failures, an original strategy was able to be designed with the help of technology to control informality.

Complexity academic level

Business schools, where different aspects can be analyzed, such as the strategy used in the supply chain of informal or formal commerce. It is also recommended for use in master’s programs in specific sectors, such as public management or energy management. Finally, it can also be used in entrepreneurship, given that informal entrepreneurship is considered as a new line of research in this field.

Supplementary materials

Teaching Notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes.

Subject code

CSS 11: Strategy.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2019

Leticia Elizabeth Romero-García, Norman Aguilar-Gallegos, Oswaldo Morales-Matamoros, Isaías Badillo-Piña and Ricardo Tejeida-Padilla

The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent of the urban tourism literature that uses the systems approach to outline its research trajectory and detect its trends…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent of the urban tourism literature that uses the systems approach to outline its research trajectory and detect its trends. Urban tourism is a complex phenomenon whose complexity increases at the very moment it interacts with complex environments. To deal with this kind of issues, urban tourism-related authors have used different approaches, with the systems approach being one of the best alternatives for its understanding and study.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic literature review was conducted using two sets of keywords related to urban tourism and systems approach. Scopus, ScienceDirect and Web of Science databases were used for the peer-reviewed literature search. After filtering processes were applied, 29 publications were retained for the analysis.

Findings

This paper provides a significant overview of the existing publications regarding this topic. A theme of common interest and trends for future investigations were detected. Based on the findings, future works to be developed with the use of the systems approach, and its tools are proposed.

Originality/value

This review gives promising evidence on that the use of the systems approach for future urban tourism studies is a viable alternative to the application of other dominant approaches, to manage the complexity, diversity and dynamism of the urban tourism and of its environment, which is nowadays addressed as Smart. Then, the paper seeks to foster the use of systems approach and its systemic tools for the understanding and study of urban tourism as a complex system.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 74 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 26 April 2019

Michael Minkov, Pinaki Dutt, Michael Schachner, Janar Jandosova, Yerlan Khassenbekov, Oswaldo Morales and Vesselin Blagoev

The purpose of this paper is to test the replicability of Hofstede’s value-based dimensions – masculinity–femininity (MAS–FEM) and individualism–collectivism (IDV–COLL) …

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the replicability of Hofstede’s value-based dimensions – masculinity–femininity (MAS–FEM) and individualism–collectivism (IDV–COLL) – in the field of consumer behavior, and to compare cultural prioritizations with respect to disposable income budgets across the world.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors asked 51,529 probabilistically selected respondents in 52 countries (50 nationally representative consumer panels and community samples from another two countries) what they would do with their money if they were rich. The questionnaire items targeted Hofstede’s MAS–FEM and IDV–COLL as well as a wider range of options deemed sufficiently meaningful, ethical and moral across the world.

Findings

The authors obtained two main dimensions. The first contrasts self-enhancing and altruistic choices (status and power-seeking spending vs donating for healthcare) and is conceptually similar to MAS–FEM. However, it is statistically related to Hofstede’s fifth dimension, or monumentalism–flexibility (MON–FLX), not to MAS–FEM. The second dimension contrasts conservative-collectivist choices and modern-hedonistic concerns (donating for religion and sports vs preserving nature and travel abroad for pleasure) and is a variant of COLL–IDV.

Research limitations/implications

The authors left out various potential consumer choices as they were deemed culturally incomparable or unacceptable in some societies. Nevertheless, the findings paint a sufficiently rich image of worldwide value differences underpinning idealized consumer behavior prioritizations.

Practical implications

The study could be useful to international marketing and consumer behavior experts.

Social implications

The study contributes to the understanding of modern cultural differences across the world.

Originality/value

This is the first large cross-cultural study that reveals differences in values through a novel approach: prioritizations of consumer choices. It enriches the understanding of IDV–COLL and MON–FLX, and, in particular, of the value prioritizations of the East Asian nations. The study provides new evidence that Hofstede’s MAS–FEM is a peculiarity of his IBM database with no societal analogue. Some of the so-called MAS–FEM values are components of MON–FLX, which is statistically unrelated to Hofstede’s MAS–FEM.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 September 2018

Fidel Amésquita Cubillas, Oswaldo Morales and Gareth H. Rees

This paper aims to focus on the influences that lead individuals to create and continue with operating informal business ventures in Peru. It seeks to empirically identify…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on the influences that lead individuals to create and continue with operating informal business ventures in Peru. It seeks to empirically identify the factors that are significant in forming the intentions of entrepreneurs to begin or continue with their informal businesses.

Design/methodology/approach

The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) is applied using data gathered from interviews with informal domestic gas cylinder sellers using a formally conducted survey. Using structural equation modelling, the constructs that influence the entrepreneurial intentions of informal gas sellers in Lima, Peru, are determined.

Findings

Of the three TPB constructs, attitude was found to be most significant, reflecting a belief of informality’s benefits, social norm was also significant, revealing the importance of the opinions of family, whereas perceived behavioural control was found not to be significant.

Originality/value

These results provide confirmation of a policy approach developed to address the high rates of business informality while maintaining safety in a highly regulated industry segment. By providing insight into factors beyond economic drivers, the study reveals that an understanding of the prevailing social environment is important for the development of policies dealing with informal entrepreneurship.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2019

Federico R. León and Oswaldo Morales

The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence on the role of tenure as a moderator of the effects of job insecurity (JI) and employability on turnover intentions and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence on the role of tenure as a moderator of the effects of job insecurity (JI) and employability on turnover intentions and absenteeism and will demonstrate its importance in personnel research and theorization.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from a sample of client service representatives of a Peruvian call centre (n=268) were analysed. Tests of hypotheses targeted the intact group as a whole and divided into short (3–10 months), medium (11–14 months) and long job tenure groups (15–37 months).

Findings

Results of general linear models revealed that the effects of JI on turnover intention observed in the intact group were aligned with those seen within each of the tenure groups. However, this was not the case for the effects of JI on absenteeism or the effects of employability on turnover intention and absenteeism. A comparison of results of various regression models indicated that the effects of JI and employability on absenteeism differed in meaningful ways across the intact group and the tenure groups.

Research limitations/implications

The evidence does not reveal whether the observed differences stem from dynamic personnel selection processes or whether they express different relationships between the variables at various stages of an employee’s trajectory in an organization.

Practical implications

Human resource managers at call centres will be stimulated to re-evaluate the costs and benefits of promoting tenure, and journal editors will have to consider requesting the inclusion of tenure as a variable in studies focussing on organizations with high turnover.

Originality/value

This study is the first to prove that the effects of JI and employability on turnover intention and absenteeism vary across job tenure levels. It also shows the importance of addressing tenure in personnel research and theorization.

Propósito

En este artículo se desea proporcionar evidencia sobre el rol de la antigüedad como moderador de los efectos de la inseguridad en el trabajo y la empleabilidad sobre las intenciones de irse y el ausentismo y demostrar su importancia en la teorización e investigación sobre el personal.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Se analizó datos de una muestra de representantes de servicios al cliente de un centro de llamadas peruano (n=268). Las pruebas de hipótesis abordaron al grupo intacto como un todo y dividido en grupos de antigüedad corta (3–10 meses), media (11–14 meses) y larga (15–37 meses).

Hallazgos

Los resultados de modelos lineales generales revelaron que los efectos de la inseguridad en el trabajo sobre la intención de irse observados en el grupo intacto estaban alineados con aquellos vistos dentro de cada grupo de antigüedad. Sin embargo, este no era el caso de los efectos de la inseguridad en el trabajo sobre el ausentismo o los efectos de la empleabilidad sobre la intención de irse y el ausentismo. Una comparación de los resultados de varios modelos de regresión indicaron que los efectos de la inseguridad en el trabajo y la empleabilidad sobre el ausentismo diferían de manera significativa entre el grupo intacto y los grupos de antigüedad.

Limitaciones de la investigación

La evidencia no indica si las diferencias observadas provienen de procesos dinámicos de selección del personal o si expresan relaciones diferentes entre las variables en diversos momentos de la trayectoria del empleado en la organización.

Implicancias prácticas

Los gerentes de recursos humanos en centros de llamadas serán estimulados a reevaluar los costos y beneficios de promover la antigüedad y los editores de revistas científicas tendrán que considerar pedir la inclusión de la antigüedad como una variable en los estudios enfocados en organizaciones con altas tasas de rotación de personal.

Originalidad/valor

Este estudio es el primero en demostrar que los efectos de la inseguridad en el trabajo y la empleabilidad sobre las intenciones de irse y el ausentismo varían a través de niveles de antigüedad del personal. También muestran la importancia de abordar la antigüedad en la teorización e investigación sobre el personal.

Details

Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1012-8255

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Federico R. León, Oswaldo Morales, Juan D. Ramos, Álvaro Goyenechea, Paul A. Rojas, José Meza and Andrés Burga-León

Call centers generate stress and absenteeism in staff and the literature suggests that people-oriented leadership is the right way of supervision for such a situation…

Abstract

Purpose

Call centers generate stress and absenteeism in staff and the literature suggests that people-oriented leadership is the right way of supervision for such a situation. This study compared its effects versus those of other types of leadership.

Methodology

Absentee data of 379 representatives of customer services of a Peruvian call center were analyzed and the representatives answered a questionnaire about the Framework of Values in Competition and its four types of leadership. Day and night work shifts were compared.

Results

It was observed that absenteeism declines with people-oriented leadership, although only during the day shift, and the addition of leadership oriented to change, results and control devalues models.

Limitations/implications

Future studies should cover the performance of the worker. The findings suggest a need to re-focus the theoretical focus on environmental contingencies that affect leadership effectiveness.

Originality/value

Leadership theorists will ask themselves in what circumstances the multiple leadership is effective. Call center managers will appreciate the organizational value of people-oriented leadership at the first level of supervision.

Details

Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Science, vol. 22 no. 43
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2077-1886

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 August 2018

Oswaldo Morales, Andrew N. Kleit and Gareth H. Rees

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a country’s mixed history of colonialism and cultural heritage as a background to the management of a mining company’s community…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a country’s mixed history of colonialism and cultural heritage as a background to the management of a mining company’s community engagement. Mining-related social conflicts have intensified in Peru as mining expansion challenges Andean people’s traditional livelihoods. It is generally thought that resolving such conflicts requires a set of long-term strategies and engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

The case study has been developed using an inductive methodology through content analysis of newspaper reports, official documents and the academic literature. It follows a complex and evolving situation, blending social and cultural theory and norms with actual events to provide insight into the conflicts’ historical, social and cultural forces.

Findings

Mining conflicts are complex business and strategic problems that call for a more thorough analysis of causal variables and a deeper understanding of the underlying cultural and historical forces. Transactional community engagement responses may not always be adequate to maintain a mining project’s social licence.

Originality/value

Based on the information presented, students can use the case as a means to examine and critique community engagement approaches to social conflict resolution through this summary of a real-life example of social conflict in Peru’s mining industry. The case may also be used as the basis for teaching forward planning and contingency management for long-term projects involving stakeholders and potential conflict. The case has been used as a resource for teaching communications, risk evaluation and community engagement strategies as part of a Master’s in the Energy Sector Management programme in Peru.

Propósito

Este caso propone una introducción a la historia del colonialismo y multiculturalismo en el Perú relacionado con el manejo de las relaciones comunitarias por parte del sector minero. Los conflictos sociales provenientes de la actividad minera se han intensificado en el Perú debido a que esta industria insiste en desafiar el estilo de vida de los pueblos andinos. Se piensa que una solución de estos conflictos requiere un conjunto de estrategias y compromisos a largo plazo.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

El estudio de caso se ha desarrollado utilizando una metodología inductiva a través del análisis de contenido de informes periodísticos, documentos oficiales y la literatura académica. Se analiza una situación compleja, mezclando la teoría y las normas sociales y culturales con los acontecimientos actuales para proporcionar una visión de las fuerzas históricas, sociales y culturales que sustentan los acontecimientos que ocurren.

Hallazgos

Los conflictos mineros son problemas de negocios complejos y estratégicos que requieren un análisis más profundo de las variables causales y una comprensión más profunda de las fuerzas culturales e históricas subyacentes. Las respuestas transaccionales de participación de la comunidad no siempre son adecuadas para mantener la licencia social de un proyecto minero.

Originalidad/valor

Basados en la información presentada, los estudiantes pueden usar el caso como un medio para examinar y criticar los enfoques de participación comunitaria en la resolución de conflictos sociales a través de un ejemplo real de conflicto social en la industria minera peruana. El caso también puede utilizarse como base para enseñar la planificación anticipada y la gestión de contingencias para proyectos a largo plazo que involucren a las partes interesadas. El caso se ha utilizado como recurso para la enseñanza de comunicaciones, estrategia, evaluación de riesgos y de participación comunitaria como parte de un programa de Maestría en Gestión del Sector Energético en Perú.

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Michael Minkov, Pinaki Dutt, Michael Schachner, Oswaldo Morales, Carlos Sanchez, Janar Jandosova, Yerlan Khassenbekov and Ben Mudd

The purpose of this paper is to provide an updated and authoritative measure of individualism vs collectivism (IDV-COLL) as a dimension of national culture.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an updated and authoritative measure of individualism vs collectivism (IDV-COLL) as a dimension of national culture.

Design/methodology/approach

Rather than focus solely on Hofstede’s classic work, the authors review the main nation-level studies of IDV-COLL and related constructs to identify the salient cultural differences between rich societies and developing nations. The authors conceptualize and operationalize IDV-COLL on the basis of those differences and propose a new national IDV-COLL index, using new data from large probabilistic samples: 52,974 respondents from 56 countries, adequately representing the national cultures of all inhabited continents.

Findings

The proposed index is a new, valid measure of IDV-COLL as it is strongly correlated with previous measures of closely associated constructs. As a predictor of important cultural differences that can be expected to be associated with IDV-COLL, it performs better (yields higher correlations) than any known measure of IDV-COLL or a related construct.

Research limitations/implications

An important facet of IDV-COLL – in-group favoritism vs out-group neglect or exclusionism – does not transpire convincingly from the authors’ operationalization of IDV-COLL. The study relies on self-construals. Respondents are unlikely to construe their selves in terms of such concepts.

Practical implications

The new IDV-COLL measure can be used as a reliable, up-to-date national index in studies that compare the cultures of rich and developing nations. The new IDV-COLL scale, consisting of only seven items, can be easily used in future studies.

Originality/value

This is the first IDV-COLL measure based on the communalities of previous studies in this domain and derived from large probabilistic samples that approach national representativeness. The superior predictive properties of the authors’ new measure with respect to extraneous variables are another important strength and contribution.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 10 April 2019

Oswaldo Morales and Carlos Cordova

The aim is to describe the cultural richness of Peruvian racial diversity. The articulating and unifying role of Peruvian gastronomy is highlighted in building a national…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim is to describe the cultural richness of Peruvian racial diversity. The articulating and unifying role of Peruvian gastronomy is highlighted in building a national identity, which acts as a platform for social cohesion.

Design/Methodology/Approach

Qualitative analysis is used in order to understand the drivers that enabled a cultural revolution through gastronomy.

Findings

Under a vast cultural diversity, gastronomy arises to articulate and unify it into a common sense of national identity and social inclusion. Although Peruvian gastronomic boom started as an initiative of a group of entrepreneurs, it actually has had an impact at society level.

Research Limitations/Implications

Ethnographic studies among different social classes and racial groups are needed in order to elucidate the perceptions that they have regarding their social inclusion. At a quantitative level, econometric studies could be conducted to reflect the impact of gastronomy on poverty reduction or on inequality reduction, especially in urban-marginal or rural areas.

Practical Implications

Gastronomy is also a business strategy model on the basis of the creation of a cluster as a viable alternative for developing countries.

Social Implications

Peruvians no matter their racial heritage or social class are proud of their cousin and of being Peruvians, creating a sense of national union and social inclusion.

Originality/Value

The contribution is to highlight the importance of gastronomy as one of the main articulators in the construction of national identity under a racially diverse population. Society, public policy officers, and businesses may benefit from this.

Details

Diversity within Diversity Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-821-3

Keywords

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