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Buried structures like pipeline systems or water distribution networks (WDN) are vulnerable to seismic activities and the risk of damages increases when there is…
Buried structures like pipeline systems or water distribution networks (WDN) are vulnerable to seismic activities and the risk of damages increases when there is liquefaction. This paper aims to propose a methodology on how to determine the probable maximum loss (PML) on pipeline systems when earthquakes and liquefaction occur in future scenarios.
The paper used historical data and presents a case study on how the methodology to estimate the PML was used. The estimation is analytic and relied on simulations to determine the seismic and liquefaction hazard in the study area. Statistical and numerical analysis was used to estimate the damages and losses.
The output shows the PML of a WDN at different earthquake scenarios. It also shows a comparison between the damages and losses of diameter sizes of the pipes.
In this paper, the damages behaved independently in one area, and correlation was not considered.
This PML methodology can aid in pre-disaster planning to prepare for seismic countermeasures risk transfer such as insurance to reduce the loss.
This paper shows a methodology and example on how to estimate the damages and PMLs of an existing WDN of a projected earthquake and liquefaction hazard based on historical data.
Water distribution networks (WDNs) must deliver water to its customers 24/7. Disruption of this important service after a strong seismic event impedes post-disaster…
Water distribution networks (WDNs) must deliver water to its customers 24/7. Disruption of this important service after a strong seismic event impedes post-disaster activities and poses health and sanitation problems. Hence, WDNs must be able to quickly restore services after the occurrence of a major seismic event. This ability to return the water service can be a metric for resilience. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the resilience by developing a framework that translates various restoration strategies into an improved resilience measure for a multisource WDN.
This paper used a quantitative risk assessment method in developing the framework for the resilience quantification of WDN. Prim’s algorithm, Horn’s algorithm and maximum slope method are used for the restoration analysis conducted in this study.
This paper provides resilience indices of the WDN for each repair scenarios. Then, the resilience indices are used to determine the most efficient and optimized repair scenario to restore the hypothetically damaged WDN owing to Level 1 and Level 2 seismic events.
The developed framework of this study only focuses on the robustness, rapidity and resourcefulness properties of resilience.
This study aims to help the water district in the maintenance, repair and evaluation of WDN against seismic events. The results from the study can be used in preparing the disaster management plan of the local water district to repair possible pipelines. This study also serves as a starting point to more complex and comprehensive research about the resilience quantification of WDNs with the consideration of optimal restoration sequence in the future.
The developed framework in the resilience quantification of WDN is original, as it uses optimal restoration strategies to represent the rapidity property of resilience.
Human beings spend their daily lives within the range of the atmospheric boundary layer, where airflow is affected by friction from Earth's surface. The airflow in this…
Human beings spend their daily lives within the range of the atmospheric boundary layer, where airflow is affected by friction from Earth's surface. The airflow in this area is generally called wind. Strong wind occasionally causes severe damage to infrastructures and people because of its aerodynamic effects, but even weak and moderate winds can have serious environmental impacts on human society such as those seen with air-pollution problems and thermal effects.