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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2009

George Gotsis and Zoe Kortezi

The purpose of this paper is to offer a theoretical framework for the analysis of the eventual implications of Greek Orthodoxy for business and entrepreneurial activities…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to offer a theoretical framework for the analysis of the eventual implications of Greek Orthodoxy for business and entrepreneurial activities in general.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines the basic concepts, tenets and principles – in particular, those being of interest to business and entrepreneurship – of a specific religious worldview, Greek Orthodoxy. It then applies these religious norms to value‐based entrepreneurial pursuits and assesses their potential impact on entrepreneurial motivation and action. Particular emphasis is given to the societal relevance of this comprehensive worldview. In this respect, it is argued that Greek Orthodoxy's binding principles should also be examined in their relationship with ethno‐religious communities underlying the formation of entrepreneurial networks beneficial to economic prosperity and overall welfare.

Findings

The paper conceptualises the potential benefits derived from a specific religious worldview, as well as its capacity to enrich entrepreneurial discourses. While these benefits are primarily situated at the individual level (at least to the degree to which religious beliefs can inform decisions), there is a rationale in viewing religious truth claims as constituent of ethno‐religious identities of both local and immigrant communities. Propositions exemplifying the behaviour of entrepreneurs who draw from such important ethic and religious resources are also offered. Limitations of the present study, as well as areas of prospective research, are equally taken into consideration.

Originality/value

The paper attempts to offer a tentative framework epitomising the significance of Greek Orthodoxy for the world of business and entrepreneurship. It further provides the theoretical foundations of future empirical research on religious‐based entrepreneurial attitudes in the wider context of Eastern Orthodoxy.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1994

Charles Collins, David J. Hunter and Andrew Green

A new international orthodoxy has developed on health sector reform. Thedominant theme of the orthodoxy is the alleged benefits of market stylereforms for health…

Abstract

A new international orthodoxy has developed on health sector reform. The dominant theme of the orthodoxy is the alleged benefits of market style reforms for health development. This is shaping changes formulated, and being implemented, in the British NHS and other European health services (including Central and Eastern Europe), Latin America and a number of developing health systems in Africa and Asia. Sets out a ten‐point description of the orthodoxy. Contends that the orthodoxy is showing distinct signs of restricting the analysis and development of health management and planning. This is a matter for considerable concern as the adoption of market‐style reforms can generate unforeseen and, in some cases, negative consequences. There is clearly a need for strengthening management research and development as a basis for effective health sector reform.

Details

Journal of Management in Medicine, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-9235

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2010

James Lappin

The electronic document and records management system model (EDRMS) served for most of the noughties (the decade from the year 2000) as an orthodoxy that united the

Abstract

Purpose

The electronic document and records management system model (EDRMS) served for most of the noughties (the decade from the year 2000) as an orthodoxy that united the records management profession. The purpose of this paper is to address two questions: “Does the stagnation and retreat of the EDRMS model towards the end of the noughties call into doubt the theory that lay behind that model, namely DIRKS and the records continuum?”, and “Is a new records management orthodoxy likely to emerge over the course of the next five years, and if so what form might it take?”.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper looks back at the author's readings of DIRKS and the records management continuum at different times over the period 1993‐2010, and links those readings with the prevailing fortunes of the EDRMS model that was build on top of that theory. It gives a personal perspective of a consultant/practitioner on the chances of a new records management orthodoxy arising in the course of the next five years.

Findings

The loss of momentum of the EDRMS model does not invalidate the insights of DIRKS and the records continuum. Both frameworks support alternative readings from those that underpinned the EDRMS model. But any future orthodoxy is likely to be less directly derived from theory. One possible future orthodoxy is the “records repository model” – where a business classification scheme is held in a back end system, and applied to content held in the various applications used by colleagues. However this model has not yet received sufficient practitioner attention, and there are unanswered questions as to how it would work in practice.

Originality/value

The paper looks at the ways in which the records management community has used orthodoxies in both theory and implementation models to keep itself united during an extended period of upheaval and change since the commencement of the networked digital age. It outlines the challenge of finding a records management orthodoxy that is both consistent with record keeping theory and also workable and sustainable in the rapidly changing world of enterprise computing.

Details

Records Management Journal, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-5698

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1993

Daniel J. O'Neil

Explores the relevance of the nineteenth century RussianChristian‐mystical philosopher, Vladimir Soloviev, to the contemporaryworld. Demonstrates that his thought proved a…

Abstract

Explores the relevance of the nineteenth century Russian Christian‐mystical philosopher, Vladimir Soloviev, to the contemporary world. Demonstrates that his thought proved a harbinger of many of the concerns of the present. Breaking with the orthodoxies of the nineteenth century, Soloviev explored such questions as ecumenicalism, incarnational/ developmental mysticism, feminism, and social justice. He advocated a reformed, flexible, aesthetically aware Christianity unimagined by his contemporaries. Notes Soloviev′s relationship with Western and Eastern traditionality and his strategy for the reconciliation of the Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant traditions. In essence, argues for the significance of the contribution of Vladimir Soloviev.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 20 no. 5/6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1993

Daniel J. O'Neil

Examines Russian Orthodoxy, focusing on its historical background,religious ethos, institutionalization and dogmatic affirmation.Evaluates the record of the Russian Church…

Abstract

Examines Russian Orthodoxy, focusing on its historical background, religious ethos, institutionalization and dogmatic affirmation. Evaluates the record of the Russian Church during the Communist period and speculates about its future. Cites the limitations of Russian Orthodoxy in performing the “priestly” and “prophetic” functions. Finally, given the similarities of Russian Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism, recommends “Uniate option” for the contemporary Russian Church. Suggests that such an option would strengthen Russian Orthodoxy and compensate for those factors that made it so ineffective during the Marxist‐Leninist period.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 20 no. 5/6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 25 November 2019

Harry Tan

At the turn of the twenty-first century, a “new orthodoxy” in explaining homelessness had emerged in the field of homeless research. Combining structural and individual…

Abstract

At the turn of the twenty-first century, a “new orthodoxy” in explaining homelessness had emerged in the field of homeless research. Combining structural and individual factors, the consensus is that people with personal problems are more vulnerable than others to the structural conditions of becoming homeless.

Drawing on a three-year ethnographic study of older homeless people (aged 50 years and above) in Singapore, this chapter highlights three issues with this new orthodoxy. The first is the continued reliance on a strict dichotomy of structural and individual factors. This strict dichotomy does not reflect the realities in people’s lives. The “individual vulnerabilities” of older people in the study had structural dimensions that must be considered as well. The second is the framing of individual vulnerabilities as individual pathologies. This way of framing homelessness results in the assumption that there is something deficient with all people who are homeless that requires correction. Such a view is encapsulated in the compulsory institutionalisation and rehabilitation of rough sleepers in Singapore. The final and most fundamental issue is the problematic association of individual vulnerabilities with one’s heightened risk of becoming homeless. Older people in the study did not become homeless solely because they had more personal problems or issues than others. Rather, multiple pathways (or life events) that encompass both structural and individual factors weakened their ability to draw resources from work, family and friends and government assistance. Homelessness occurred when older people in the study ran out of all these three options.

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Chris Brewster, Paul N. Gooderham and Wolfgang Mayrhofer

The dominant focus of HRM research has been that of “strategic HRM”, that is a focus on the impact of HRM on firm performance. The authors argue that not only are the…

Abstract

Purpose

The dominant focus of HRM research has been that of “strategic HRM”, that is a focus on the impact of HRM on firm performance. The authors argue that not only are the cumulative results of this “dominant research orthodoxy” disappointing in terms of their external validity, but also they are of limited practical value. Further, it has failed not only in terms of its narrow firm performance-oriented agenda, but also the tenets of its agenda have contributed to serious levels of employee dissatisfaction and to the failure to deal with pressing global issues. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to assess the contribution of the dominant research orthodoxy the authors analyse the 16 most cited journal articles in the field of HRM.

Findings

The authors find a predominance of US-centric studies and therefore a questionable cross-national generalizability of the dominant research orthodoxy. The use of cross-sectional data means that long-term effects cannot be gauged. The authors observe a lack of consensus on how to operationalize HRM and firm performance. National context is generally absent.

Practical implications

The authors show that for HRM to realize its potential for governments, media, or philanthropic agencies, HRM must abandon its restricted scope and mono-dimensional sources of inspiration.

Originality/value

The authors not only point to the shortcomings of the dominant research orthodoxy within HRM, but the authors point to how HRM could become significantly more “centre-staged” by addressing the actors searching for contributions to the big questions of the world – the governments, media, and philanthropic agencies.

Details

Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2051-6614

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Article
Publication date: 18 July 2008

Nick Oliver

In the 1980s and 1990s enthusiasm for Japanese or “lean” manufacturing methods swept through Western industry. At the time, commentators argued that these methods…

Abstract

Purpose

In the 1980s and 1990s enthusiasm for Japanese or “lean” manufacturing methods swept through Western industry. At the time, commentators argued that these methods represented a new paradigm of manufacturing, a radical break with traditional methods. The purpose of this paper is to explore the process of conversion from one paradigm to another, drawing on Kuhn's ideas on the structure of scientific revolutions.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a critical‐incident approach to illustrate the conversion to, and defence of, a particular view of the world. Two incidents are used. The first is a one‐day seminar by a leading proponent in the field, in which the author acted as a participant observer. The second is the response of the UK engineering community to the publication of a report questioning the financial benefits of Japanese or lean manufacturing methods.

Findings

Although the introduction of new management methods is typically justified on rational grounds, this paper argues that, in common with the scientific paradigm shifts identified by Kuhn, enthusiasm for lean methods is based on non‐rational criteria as well as on their apparently superior efficiency. The language used to discussion of lean ideas in the two critical incidents is reminiscent of that used in religious conversions, and the responses to criticism of the methods are analogous to responses to blasphemy in a religious context.

Research limitations/implications

The research is based on analysis of conversion to, and defence of, lean ideas, but it carries implications for many other types of organisational change as well. The findings draw attention to how non‐rational criteria can shape the direction of major programmes of change, and hence the direction and strategies of organisations.

Practical implications

The paper carries implications for the process by which change can be engendered and managed. It identifies the processes by which conversion to new ideas can occur, identifying critical conditions on the part of the purveyors of the ideas (expertness, trustworthiness and personal dynamism) as well as features of the ideas themselves, such as the availability of local demonstrations of applicability, their aesthetic appeal and their ability to predict events and/or solve problems previously considered to be intractable.

Originality/value

The paper represents a novel perspective on processes of organisational change, by likening the process of change to that of scientific revolutions and demonstrating the non‐rational aspects of the change process.

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2002

Andrew Griffiths and Dexter Dunphy

This paper traces the emergence of a social movement that has attempted to transform the fundamental character of organizations in Australia. Unlike many other such social…

Abstract

This paper traces the emergence of a social movement that has attempted to transform the fundamental character of organizations in Australia. Unlike many other such social movements, this worldwide social movement has been largely unresearched and even unnamed. We refer to it as the organizational renewal movement. The story we tell here demonstrates how this new social movement gained momentum and influence and eventually contributed to today’s prevailing management orthodoxy. We present the case that change initiatives moved from being heresies to orthodoxies. In particular we trace the movement through three phases. The first phase traces the foundations and acceptance of humanistic change interventions. The second phase traces the challenges to the humanistic agenda and the emergence of new directions. The third phase demonstrates the process of strategic alignment, where heresies became accepted as orthodoxies. The paper concludes with some observations on future directions for the movement.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2018

Aisling O’Donnell

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the relative absence of a theoretical underpinning to modern neoliberalism. Tracing the history of the term, it becomes clear…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the relative absence of a theoretical underpinning to modern neoliberalism. Tracing the history of the term, it becomes clear that modern economics has only a tenuous relationship to the type of economics the term “neoliberalism” originally described. Furthermore, modern neoliberalism appears to be strengthened by the crisis it creates. Particular qualities of the orthodoxy make it at the same time both vague and omnipresent, allowing it to operate to exacerbate a pattern of crisis, resulting in profound socio-political consequences, such as the election of Donald Trump and in the rise of populist movements generally.

Design/methodology/approach

Critical analysis rejects the premise that prevailing knowledge is ultimately true, but rather seeks to trace the basis of knowledge to structural inequalities at significant junctions in history. The premise of interpretative research is that social phenomena have mutually impacting relationships with social contexts and human activities. Using a critical interpretive research methodology, this paper contends that there are critical social and theoretical issues which have contributed to the resilience of modern neoliberalism, even where it has manifest crisis. Furthermore, unique qualities of the orthodoxy have operated to oppress and manipulate social processes that would challenge or curtail its reach.

Findings

This paper contends that, first, modern neoliberalism has an inverted relationship to crisis in that it is ultimately able to leverage the crisis it creates to its advantage. Second, this is partly a result of the theoretical ambiguity associated with the orthodoxy, and finally, the rise of the populist right in various political forums and contexts is connected in some way to the failure of the left and to respond effectively to it.

Research limitations/implications

The subject of the paper helps to explain and analyse the way that the neoliberal orthodoxy is able to leverage crisis to its advantage, and why, therefore, it continues to thrive even though it creates economic upheaval, environmental destruction, social and cultural division and increased inequality. After economic crisis, the orthodoxy presents not as the cause of it, but rather the appropriate policy response to it. The failure of the left to effectively challenge the neoliberal policy programme post-crisis is argued to be an important link in a causal chain which connects neoliberalism to the rise of the populist right.

Practical implications

This paper brings emphasis to the ways in which modern economics has subverted the constraints of a theoretical foundation, and ultimately has become a policy practice that exacerbates inequality and leverages crises that it has created to its advantage. It also highlights the linkages between economic crisis, the persistence of the neoliberal paradigm and the rise of right-wing populism in recent years.

Originality/value

The paper combines descriptive and normative accounts of the origins and evolution of neoliberalism as it has been accounted for by major economists and scholars, adding to this the understanding that in breeching from theoretical foundations, the policy programme has become vague and malleable, which curtails the possibility for the left to respond to it effectively, and contributes to the rise of the populist right in various contexts.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 45 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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