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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Suat Canbazoğlu and Fazıl Canbulut

The main objective of this study was to obtain the flow restricting capacity by determining their flow coefficients and to investigate the unsteady flow with low Reynolds…

Abstract

Purpose

The main objective of this study was to obtain the flow restricting capacity by determining their flow coefficients and to investigate the unsteady flow with low Reynolds number in the flow‐restricting devices such as orifices and capillary tubes having small diameters.

Design/methodology/approach

There is an enormous literature on the flow of Newtonian fluids through capillaries and orifices particularly in many application fields of the mechanical and chemical engineering. But most of the experimental results in literature are given for steady flows at moderate and high Reynolds numbers (Re>500). In this study, the unsteady flow at low Reynolds number (10<Re<650) through flow‐restricting devices such as orifices and capillary tubes having very small diameters between 0.35 and 0.70 mm were experimentally investigated.

Findings

The capillary tubes have much more capillarity property with respect to equal diameter orifices. Increasing the ratio of capillary tube length to tube diameter and decreasing the ratio of orifice diameter to pipe diameter before orifice increase the throttling or restricting property of the orifices and the capillary tubes. The orifices can be preferred to the capillary tubes having the same diameter at the same system pressure for the hydraulic systems or circuits requiring small velocity variations. The capillary tubes provide higher pressure losses and they can be also used as hydraulic accumulators in hydraulic control devices to attenuate flow‐induced vibrations because of their large pressure coefficients. An important feature of the results obtained for capillary tubes and small orifices is that as the d/D for orifices increases and the L/d reduces for capillary tubes, higher values C are obtained and the transition from viscous to inertia‐controlled flow appears to take place at lower Reynolds numbers. This may be explained by the fact that for small orifices with high d/D ratios and for capillary tubes with small L/d ratios, the losses due to viscous shear are small. Another important feature of the results is that the least variations in C for small orifices and the higher variations in C for capillary tubes occur when the d/D and L/d ratios are smallest. This has favourable implications in hydraulic control devices since a constant value for the C may be assumed even at relatively low values of Re.

Originality/value

To the authors' knowledge, there is not enough information in the literature about the flow coefficients of unsteady flows through capillary tubes and small orifices at low Reynolds numbers. This paper fulfils this gap.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 57 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2010

Satish Jain, Satish Sharma, J. Sharana Basavaraja and Prashant Kushare

In recent years, researchers have focused a great deal of attention on multirecess hybrid journal bearing systems. The non‐circular journal bearings are widely used in…

Abstract

Purpose

In recent years, researchers have focused a great deal of attention on multirecess hybrid journal bearing systems. The non‐circular journal bearings are widely used in industry on account of their better stability, simplicity, efficiency and low cost. The purpose of this paper is to present a theoretical investigation into the performance of a two‐lobe multirecess hybrid journal bearing system.

Design/methodology/approach

The Reynold's equation governing the lubricant flow in the clearance space between the journal and bearing together with restrictor flow equations has been solved using finite element method. The bearing static and dynamic performance characteristics have been presented for the various values of the offset factors (0.75, 1, 1.25 and 1.50) for the hybrid mode of operation of the journal bearing system compensated by capillary and orifice restrictors for the commonly used bearing operating and geometric parameters. The offset of the journal has been accounted for by defining a non‐dimensional factor called offset factor delta.

Findings

The numerically simulated results indicate that a two‐lobe four recessed hybrid journal bearing provides a better performance than the corresponding similar circular recessed journal bearing system. The study further reveals that in order to get an improved performance of a two‐lobe four recessed journal bearing, a proper selection of bearing offset factors along with type of restrictor (capillary or orifice) is essential.

Originality/value

The results presented in this paper are useful for bearing designers.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 62 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2010

Satish Sharma, Satish Jain, J. Sharana Basavaraja and Neeraj Sharma

Hole‐entry hybrid journal bearings are widely used in many applications owing to their favourable characteristics. Ever increasing technological developments demand much…

Abstract

Purpose

Hole‐entry hybrid journal bearings are widely used in many applications owing to their favourable characteristics. Ever increasing technological developments demand much improved performance from these class of bearings operating under the most stringent, exact and precise conditions. Therefore, it becomes imperative that the hole‐entry journal bearings be designed on the basis of more accurately predicted bearing characteristics data. The purpose of this paper is to describe a theoretical study to demonstrate the combined influence of the effect of pocket size at the outlet of supply holes and the journal misalignment on the performance of an orifice compensated hole‐entry hybrid journal bearing system.

Design/methodology/approach

Finite element method is used to solve the Reynolds equation governing the flow of an incompressible lubricant in the clearance space between the journal and bearing together with equation of flow through an orifice. The journal misalignment has been accounted for by defining a pair of misalignment parameters sigma and delta. The effect of pocket size at the outlet of supply holes has been accounted by defining a non‐dimensional parameter which is function of diameter of pocket and journal diameter.

Findings

The results presented in this paper indicate that the effect of journal misalignment is, in general, to cause a reduction in bearing dynamic characteristics parameters whereas the effect of pocket size is to slightly compensate this loss. Performance of a two lobe four recessed journal bearing, a proper selection of bearing offset factor along with type of restrictor (capillary or orifice) is essential.

Originality/value

This paper presents valuable data relating to hole‐entry hybrid journal bearings useful for bearing designers.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 62 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2019

Vivek Kumar and Satish C. Sharma

This paper aims to numerically investigate the influence of magnetic field and recess configurations on performance of hydrostatic thrust bearing. Electrically conducting…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to numerically investigate the influence of magnetic field and recess configurations on performance of hydrostatic thrust bearing. Electrically conducting fluid is supplied to bearing, operating in external magnetic field. Influences of recess geometric shapes (circular, rectangular, elliptical and triangular) and restrictor (capillary and orifice) are numerically examined on stead-state and dynamic performance characteristics of bearing.

Design/methodology/approach

Numerical simulation of hydrostatic thrust bearing has been performed using finite element (FE) method based on Galerkin’s technique. An iterative source code based on FE approach, Gauss–Siedel and Newton–Raphson method is used to compute steady-state and dynamic performance indices of bearings.

Findings

The presence of magnetic field is observed to be enhancing load-carrying capacity and damping coefficient of bearings. The effect is observed to be more pronounced at low value of Hartmann number, because of the saturation effect observed at higher values of Hartmann number. The enhancement in abovementioned performance indices is observed to be highly dependent on geometry of recess and restrictor.

Research limitations/implications

This study presents a FE-based approach to numerically simulate a hydrostatic thrust bearing. It will help bearing designers and academician in selecting an appropriate recess shape, restrictor and strength of magnetic field, for obtaining optimum performance from hydrostatic thrust bearing.

Originality/value

The present investigation provides a coupled solution of modified Reynolds equation and restrictor equation, which is essential for accurately predicting the performance of hydrostatic thrust bearings.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 71 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2018

Peng Liang, Changhou Lu and Fazhan Yang

This paper aims to provide a new method for fast calculation of the recess pressure for hydrostatic bearing compensated by orifice restrictor.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide a new method for fast calculation of the recess pressure for hydrostatic bearing compensated by orifice restrictor.

Design/methodology/approach

Three methods (new method, old method and finite difference method) are used to calculate recess pressure for hydrostatic bearing at different eccentricity ratios and radial clearances, and the results with the three methods are compared.

Findings

From the results, the conclusion is that the new method has a simple calculation process and a quick calculation speed.

Originality/value

The new method can be used to calculate the recess pressure of hydrostatic bearing with high precision and simple computing process.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 70 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2014

Zhang Guoyuan and Yan Xiu-Tian

A hybrid bearing of advanced cryogenic rocket engine turbopump is designed. For cryogenic fluid propellants (such as liquid oxygen) as the lubrication of bearing, bearings…

Abstract

Purpose

A hybrid bearing of advanced cryogenic rocket engine turbopump is designed. For cryogenic fluid propellants (such as liquid oxygen) as the lubrication of bearing, bearings operating close to liquid-vapor region (near the critical point or slightly sub-cooled) are likely to develop a two phase flow region. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, an all liquid, liquid-vapor mixture, and all vapor, i.e. a continuous vaporization bulk flow model of density and viscosity for mixture fluid, is presented, and the general Reynolds equation and energy equation with two phase flow as lubricants is solved. The static and dynamic performance of a 50-mm-radius hybrid bearing are obtained under 20,000 rpm speed and 10 MPa supply pressure.

Findings

The results show that the variations of performance of bearing operating under cryogenic liquid oxygen are not bounded by the all liquid and all vapor cases in the liquid-vapor mixture range. There behaviours are attributed to the large change in the compressibility character of the flow.

Research limitations/implications

For validating the correctness of analytical model, an experimental study on the liquid-vapor nitrogen mixture lubricated hybrid journal bearings is being carried out where low-viscosity nitrogen was selected as the lubricant for the sake of safety. Soon after, the authors will discuss the results and publish them in the new papers.

Originality/value

An all liquid, liquid-vapor mixture, and all vapor, i.e. a continuous vaporization bulk flow model of density and viscosity for mixture fluid, is presented. The static and dynamic performance of hybrid bearings with two phase flow as lubricants are obtained.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 66 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 June 2021

Prashant G. Khakse and Vikas M. Phalle

This paper aims to describe how successfully a particular restrictor delivers its best in increasing the conical journal bearing performance. The restrictors are used in…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe how successfully a particular restrictor delivers its best in increasing the conical journal bearing performance. The restrictors are used in the hole-entry conical journal bearing subjected to hybrid mode. Thus, the restrictors, like constant flow valve (CFV), orifice and capillary, are studied comparatively.

Design/methodology/approach

Numerical simulation for the bearing results with the three restrictors are obtained by using finite element method (FEM) under the well-known modified Reynolds equation.

Findings

When the hole-entry conical journal bearings, with the restrictor design parameter range C¯s2 = 0.03 – 0.09, are operated, the results obtained are quite distinctive and significant. It indicates that the CFV restrictor-based conical bearing gives enhanced performance in comparison to orifice and capillary restrictors. Moreover, it suggests the performance-wise sequence of the restrictors in hybrid bearings as CFV > Orifice > Capillary.

Originality/value

The outcome of the research paper will give insight to help the bearing designer to choose the particular restrictor in hybrid conical bearing depending on the industrial need.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2019

Waheed Ur Rehman, Jiang Guiyun, Luo Yuan Xin, Wang Yongqin, Nadeem Iqbal, Shafiq UrRehman and Shamsa Bibi

This paper’s aim is modeling and simulation of an advanced controller design for a novel mechatronics system that consists of a hydrostatic journal bearing with servo…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper’s aim is modeling and simulation of an advanced controller design for a novel mechatronics system that consists of a hydrostatic journal bearing with servo control. The proposed mechatronic system has more worth in tribology applications as compared to the traditional hydrostatic bearing which has limited efficiency and poor performance because of lower stiffness and load-carrying capacity. The proposed mechatronic system takes advantage of active lubrication to improve stiffness, rotor’s stability and load-carrying capacity.

Design/methodology/approach

The current work proposes extended state observer-based controller to control the active lubrication for hydrostatic journal bearing. The advantage of using observer is to estimate unknown state variables and lumped effects because of unmodeled dynamics, model uncertainties, and unknown external disturbances. The effectiveness of the proposed mechatronic system is checked against the traditional hydrostatic bearing.

Findings

Proposed mechatronics active hydrostatic journal bearing system is checked against traditional hydrostatic journal bearing. It is found that novel active hydrostatic journal bearing with servo control has good tribology performance factors such as stiffness, less rotor vibration, no wear and friction under starting conditions and high load-carrying capacity under different conditions of spindle speed, temperature, initial oil pressure and external disturbance. The result shows that proposed mechatronics system has more worth in rotary tribology applications.

Originality/value

The current manuscript designs a novel active hydrostatic journal bearing system with servo control. The mathematical model has advantages in term of estimating unknown state variables and lumped effects because of unmodeled dynamics, model uncertainties and unknown external disturbances. The result shows improvement in dynamic characteristics of a hydrostatic journal bearing under different dynamic conditions.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 71 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2018

Krishnkant Sahu and Satish C. Sharma

This study aims to deal with the performance of symmetric/asymmetric slot entry hybrid journal bearing system considering the effect of three dimensional irregularities in…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to deal with the performance of symmetric/asymmetric slot entry hybrid journal bearing system considering the effect of three dimensional irregularities in the analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

The asperity profile of three-dimensional irregularities has been modeled in both circumferential and axial directions. To compute the bearing performance characteristics parameter, finite element formulation of governing Reynolds equation has been derived using Galerkin’s technique.

Findings

Based on the numerically simulated results, it has been observed that the three-dimensional irregularities enhance the value of minimum fluid film thickness (h̄min), lubricant flow (Q̄) and fluid film damping coefficients (C̄11,C̄22) approximately by order of magnitude of 24-26, 43-51 and 18-66 per cent, respectively, for the case of asymmetric slot entry configuration. Whereas, the values of fluid film stiffness coefficients (S̄11,S̄22) and threshold speed (ω̄th) reduces approximately by order of 1-6 and 0-3 per cent, respectively, for the case of symmetric slot entry configuration.

Originality/value

The present paper describes that the influence of three-dimensional irregularities on bearing surface on the performance of slot entry hybrid journal bearing is original in literature gaps. The numerically simulated results presented in this study are expected to be quite useful to the bearing designers.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 70 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2013

Nathi Ram and Satish Sharma

The purpose of this paper is to study theoretically the combined influence of journal misalignment and wear on the performance of a hole‐entry hybrid journal bearing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study theoretically the combined influence of journal misalignment and wear on the performance of a hole‐entry hybrid journal bearing system. The bearing is assumed to be operating in a turbulent regime.

Design/methodology/approach

The modified Reynolds equation based on Constantinescu lubrication theory has been solved by using finite element method together with orifice and capillary restrictors flow equations as a constrain together with appropriate boundary conditions.

Findings

It has been observed that for a symmetric hole‐entry journal bearing configuration the value of min is more for the bearing compensated by orifice restrictor as compared to capillary restrictor when bearing operates in turbulent regime under worn/unworn conditions. From the point of view of stability threshold speed ω¯th, the reduction in the value of ω¯th for capillary compensated bearing is around −3.89 percent whereas for orifice compensated bearing it is −7.85 percent when misaligned worn bearing is operating in turbulent regime.

Originality/value

The present work is original of its kind, in case of misaligned hole‐entry worn journal bearing. The results are quite useful for the bearing designer.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 65 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

1 – 10 of 77