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Article
Publication date: 2 April 2020

Yuxia Qian and Guowei Jian

This study aims to construct and empirically test a theoretical model of a mediated relationship between ethical leadership and organizational cynicism.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to construct and empirically test a theoretical model of a mediated relationship between ethical leadership and organizational cynicism.

Design/methodology/approach

From a communication perspective, this study examines the underlying mechanism of the association between ethical leadership and organizational cynicism. A cross-sectional survey was sent to participants in different occupations. Path analysis was used to test the overall model fit.

Findings

The results indicate that ethical leadership has both a direct and indirect effect on organizational cynicism through the mediating role of leader-member exchange (LMX) and organizational identification. However, a surprising finding is that the mediating mechanisms of LMX and organizational identification are not in a parallel structure, but in a serial pattern. That is, the mediating role of LMX is further mediated by organizational identification.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature in several aspects. First, the study sheds light on leadership as an important source of organizational cynicism. In particular, the theoretical model presents pathways that show how the predictive effects of ethical leadership on organizational cynicism are mediated through leader-member relationships and organizational identification. Second, the theoretical analysis on the mediating process highlights the role of communication in facilitating the influence of leadership and constructing organizational identification. Third, the mediating model offers concrete guidance for organizations in their attempt to mitigate organizational cynicism.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2018

Mohamed Mousa

This paper aims to discover the effect of cultural diversity challenges (organizational communication, work- related discrimination and training) on physicians’ cognitive…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discover the effect of cultural diversity challenges (organizational communication, work- related discrimination and training) on physicians’ cognitive, affective and behavioral cynicism in the context of public hospitals, Menoufia (Egypt).

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 360 physicians at public hospitals in Menoufia (Egypt) were contacted and all of them received a set of questionnaires. After five follow ups, a total of 240 responses were collected with a response rate of 66.67 per cent.

Findings

The findings suggest that only communication is considered the main and significant predictor for cognitive, affective and behavioral cynicism. Accordingly, when physicians perceive well-coordinated and balanced communication, they feel that their hospital has an adequate level of integrity and consequently will have a positive attitude toward it.

Practical implications

Through well-formulated organizational communication, the hospital administration can decrease the organizational cynicism among physicians and subsequently their unwanted behavior. It is needless to say that when physicians experience an open-door communication climate, they experience a sense of psychological safety and give their very best.

Originality/value

This paper contributes by filling a gap in management and organization literature, in which empirical studies on cultural diversity and organizational cynicism were limited until now.

Details

Journal of Global Responsibility, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2041-2568

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2018

Katja Stradovnik and Janez Stare

The purpose of the paper is to examine the impact of Machiavellian leadership and organisational cynicism on the emotional exhaustion of employees.

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1405

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to examine the impact of Machiavellian leadership and organisational cynicism on the emotional exhaustion of employees.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were collected from 463 employees of Slovenian municipalities. Surveys were used to collect Machiavellianism, organisational cynicism and emotional exhaustion data. Hypotheses were verified by means of three methods: the contingency table, χ2 test and Pearson coefficient.

Findings

Machiavellian leadership has an impact both on the presence of emotional exhaustion and organisational cynicism. According to the results, both Machiavellianism and organisational cynicism have a direct linear impact on the increase of emotional exhaustion.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of the research were formulated on the basis of a survey conducted according to a self-assessment online survey.

Originality/value

Even though the concept of Machiavellianism was developed 500 years ago, the existing literature suggests that it continues to be relevant in modern times, most frequently in terms of examining the way leaders establish their power and adopt (un)ethical leadership practices and the implications their behaviour has on their direct working environment. Only select authors have examined Machiavellianism in correlation with organisational cynicism and emotional exhaustion, with an emphasis on the public sector. Due to a lack of research conducted on the subject, the main research challenge was to establish actual correlations between the three factors above.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 39 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Hakan Erkutlu and Jamel Chafra

Drawing on the social exchange theory and the stressor-strain framework, the purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between leaders’ narcissism and…

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1188

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the social exchange theory and the stressor-strain framework, the purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between leaders’ narcissism and employee’s organizational cynicism. Specifically, the authors take a relational approach by introducing employee’s psychological strain as the mediator. The moderating role of psychological capital in the relationship between leaders’ narcissism and employee’s cynicism is also considered.

Design/methodology/approach

The data of this study encompass 1,215 certified nurses from 15 university hospitals in Turkey. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to test the proposed model.

Findings

The statistical results of this study supported the positive effect of leaders’ narcissism on employee’s cynicism as well as the mediating effect of employee’s psychological strain. Moreover, when the level of psychological capital is high, the relationship between leaders’ narcissism and organizational cynicism is weak, whereas the effect is strong when the level of psychological capital is low.

Practical implications

The findings of this study suggest that managers in the healthcare industry should be sensitive in treating their subordinates, as it will lead to positive interpersonal relationship, which, in turn, will reduce employee cynicism. Moreover, managers should pay more attention to the buffering role of psychological capital for those employees with high psychological strain and showing organizational cynicism.

Originality/value

As the healthcare sector continues to go through a transformational change, it is important to identify organizational factors that affect employee attitudes. There is limited empirical evidence about the determinants of cynicism, particularly in the healthcare sector environment. This study contributes to the literature on organizational cynicism by revealing the relational mechanism between leaders’ narcissism and employee cynicism. The paper also offers a practical assistance to employees in the healthcare management and their leaders interested in building trust, increasing leader-employee relationship and reducing organizational cynicism.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 10 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2019

Özgür Kökalan

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating roles of organizational spiritual values in the relationship between organizational cycinism and job satisfaction.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating roles of organizational spiritual values in the relationship between organizational cycinism and job satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample was selected by using a convenience sampling method. The sample included in 472 employees from different sectors such as higher education, banking, energy and manufacturing industry. Participants filled in organizational cycinism scale, job satisfaction scale and organizational spirituality scale. Comfirmatory factor analysis and structural equation method were used to detect the direction and level of the relationships between parameters.

Findings

According to the mediating analysis findings, organizational spirituality is the partial reason for the association between behavioral cycinism and job satisfaction. Organizational spirituality is also the full reason for the association between affective cycinism and job satisfaction and the relationship between cognitive cycinism and job satisfaction. This means that organizational spirituality decreases the negative effects of organizational cycinism on job satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

This research is not free from limitations just like others. First, the sampling was limited with only four sectors. In future studies, it can be favorable to take data from all other sectors. The second limitation was that organizational spirituality was the only factor that was used to determine the relationships among the three dimensions of organizational cynicism and job satisfaction. The last limitation was regarding the sample size. Although, sample size that was used in this research was enough to conduct all statistical analyses, extended sample size could be used in future studies.

Practical implications

The results of this research may benefit various stakeholders. While determining organizational spirituality elements in an organization, all the stakeholders’ voices should be included, and their values should be taken into consideration. In addition to this, all institutional employees should be trained about spirituality that exists in the organization, so that all employees will develop a strong bond with other employees and the organization. Moreover, organizational spirituality is closely related to organizational justice. If manager wants organizational spirituality to take root in the institution and eliminate the negativities, it is absolutely necessary to apply organizational justice in each and every matter within the organization.

Originality/value

There have been no studies exploring the mediating effects of organizational spirituality on the organizational cynicism and job satisfaction relationship. Therefore, this paper could be accepted as original.

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Olalekan K. Seriki, Kenneth R. Evans, Hyo-Jin (Jean) Jeon, Rajiv P. Dant and Amanda Helm

This paper aims to examine how external marketing messages, which are generally used to convey company and product information to external target audiences, influence job…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine how external marketing messages, which are generally used to convey company and product information to external target audiences, influence job attitudes and behaviors of salespeople.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is conducted based on survey data on 348 salespeople working at regional banks in the Midwestern USA. The relationships among salespeople’s perceptions of marketing messages (i.e. in terms of value incongruence and claim inaccuracy), organizational cynicism, job attitudes (i.e. organizational commitment and job satisfaction) and behaviors (i.e. extra-role performance) are empirically tested.

Findings

Salespeople’s perceptions of value incongruence and claim inaccuracy of marketing messages heighten organizational cynicism, which in turn negatively impacts on organizational commitment, job satisfaction and extra-role performance. Also, inaccurate claim directly decreases job attitudes and behaviors.

Research limitations/implications

The results are limited to salespeople in financial institutions, and future research should investigate perceptions of non-customer contact employees in other industry contexts. Future investigation may also include objective performance metrics and consumer satisfaction ratings.

Practical implications

Service firms should strive to align salespeople’s perceptions of marketing messages with firms’ intended goals from those messages.

Originality/value

Drawing on attitude theory and perspectives from sales literature, social psychology and organizational behavior literature, in the first of such investigations, the authors studied the impact of external marketing messages on salespeople’s cynicism, job attitudes and behaviors.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 50 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2018

Muhammad Arslan

Organizational cynicism is a growing trend in contemporary organizations. However, its impact on employee performance remains understudied. The purpose of this study is to…

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1485

Abstract

Purpose

Organizational cynicism is a growing trend in contemporary organizations. However, its impact on employee performance remains understudied. The purpose of this study is to address this gap by investigating the effect of three dimensions of organizational cynicism (cognitive, affective and behavioral cynicisms) on employee performance. The study also investigates the moderating effect of employee engagement on the relationship between three types of organizational cynicism and employee performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data are collected through questionnaire from employees (N = 200) of various health organizations in Pakistan by using a convenient sampling technique. Hierarchal multiple regression models are used by using SPSS.

Findings

The findings reveal that all three types of organizational cynicism (i.e. cognitive cynicism, affective cynicism and behavioral cynicism) have a significant negative relationship with employee performance, while employee engagement moderates this relationship. Moreover, the findings indicate that the majority of respondents are not happy with their organizations. They have the feeling that their organizations are not fulfilling their promises, in fact, are betraying them in different ways. This breach of contract becomes the reason for organizational cynicism among employees and negatively affects their performance at work.

Research limitations/implications

The study has a large population size and it is quite difficult to address the whole population and collect data from a large sample because of time and limited budget.

Practical/implications

The organizational culture can mitigate the negative effect of organizational cynicism and enhance performance by promoting employee engagement. The study helps psychologists to understand employees’ attitudes and improve personnel selection to ensure they recruit the right people. Openness, honesty and early communication can increase predictability and controllability of future events.

Social implications

The job insecurity and lack of adequate compensation are assertive factors towards low productivity and negative attitude toward organization.

Originality/value

According to the researchers’ best knowledge, only few studies tried to investigate the relationship between organizational cynicism and employee performance by using the moderating effect of employee engagement. Therefore, it will be a good contribution in existing literature to understand consequences of cynicisms.

Details

Journal of Global Responsibility, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2041-2568

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2021

Cem Sen, Ibrahim Sani Mert and A. Mohammed Abubakar

A traditional view of an ideal workplace is an organization with a justice climate and a supportive atmosphere. Over the past years, justice and support practices in the…

Abstract

Purpose

A traditional view of an ideal workplace is an organization with a justice climate and a supportive atmosphere. Over the past years, justice and support practices in the workplace have received significant scholarly, practical and even political attention. Unfortunately, theoretical underpinnings and literature associated with these themes vary across multiple disciplines, cultural and contextual settings. To fill the void from the Turkish contextual perspective, the present study aims to examine the association among perceived organizational support (POS), organizational justice and cynicism.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample was chosen from the public employees in the central organization of two ministries in Ankara Province. Data through questionnaires were collected by the conveniency method from a total of 326 public employees. The proposed model is analyzed withvariance-based structural equation modeling technique.

Findings

Results suggest that POS and organizational justice exert a negative impact on cynicism. In particular, as employees-POS and organizational justice increases, the tendency for organizational cynicism decreases.

Originality/value

In today’s dynamic environment, controlling and reducing the cynicism, which emerges as an important threat to the success of organizations, of employees has become essential in obtaining a sustainable competitive advantage. The originality of this research stems from its ability to put forward how to manage and control cynicism, with the help of organizational support and organizational justice and hence have a power that increases personal and organizational efficiency and performance from the Turkish contextual perspective. There is limited research examining the relationship among organizational POS, organizational justice and cynicism in the Turkish context.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Book part
Publication date: 27 March 2006

Pamela Brandes and Diya Das

In this article, we situate organizational cynicism at the nexus of the related constructs of burnout, stress, and antisocial behavior. We expand Dean, Brandes, and…

Abstract

In this article, we situate organizational cynicism at the nexus of the related constructs of burnout, stress, and antisocial behavior. We expand Dean, Brandes, and Dharwadkar's (1998) notion of behavioral cynicism to include cynical humor and cynical criticism. We also propose that cynical behavior has important, non-linear effects on employee work performance. Finally, we suggest that cynical behavior may act as a coping mechanism for employees and that such behavior moderates the stress–performance relationship.

Details

Employee Health, Coping and Methodologies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-289-4

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Article
Publication date: 16 April 2020

Saima Naseer, Usman Raja, Fauzia Syed and Muhammad Usman Anwar Baig

Using conservation of resources theory (COR), the authors test the combined effects of cynicism and psychological capital on counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs…

Abstract

Purpose

Using conservation of resources theory (COR), the authors test the combined effects of cynicism and psychological capital on counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs) mediated through emotional exhaustion.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a time-lagged independent source sample (N = 181) consisting of employee–peer dyads from service industry in Pakistan.

Findings

Moderated mediated regression analyses indicated that emotional exhaustion mediates the relationship between organizational cynicism and counterproductive work behaviors. Psychological capital moderates the relationship between organizational cynicism and emotional exhaustion such that organizational cynicism is positively related to exhaustion when psychological capital is low. Furthermore, conditional indirect effects show that emotional exhaustion mediates the relationship between organizational cynicism and counterproductive work behaviors only when employees' psychological capital is low.

Originality/value

The study suggests new mechanisms and boundary conditions through which cynicism triggers CWBs. The authors discuss the implications of the study’s findings and suggest possible directions for future research.

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