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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2013

Sune Dueholm Müller and Peter Axel Nielsen

The purpose of the article is to investigate the impact of organizational culture on software process improvement (SPI). Is cultural congruence between an organization and…

1448

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the article is to investigate the impact of organizational culture on software process improvement (SPI). Is cultural congruence between an organization and an adopted process model required? How can the level of congruence between an organizational culture and the values and assumptions underlying an adopted process model be assessed?

Design/methodology/approach

The competing values framework and its associated assessment instrument are used in a case study to establish an organizational culture profile of a software development business unit within the case company. The instrument is supplemented with a technique to produce culture profiles of texts such as process models like the Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) and the case company's quality management system. The different profiles are subsequently analyzed and compared.

Findings

The culture profile of the CMMI confirms previous research and depicts a result‐oriented, formalized, and structured organization. A comparison with the company's quality management system shows congruent culture profiles suggesting that the case company has succeeded in capturing underlying assumptions of the CMMI when updating the quality management system. The analysis also reveals the organizational culture profile of the business unit to be incongruent with the quality management system's profile. This disconfirms previous research claiming that congruence is a prerequisite. Further analysis reveals that actions were taken by managers in the case company to address the cultural challenges and successfully implement new processes. It is, therefore, concluded that cultural incongruence is not an insurmountable barrier to SPI. By comparing cultural profiles, some SPI implementation challenges become evident and that in turn allows for effective SPI management action.

Research limitations/implications

The research is based on a single case study and that is sufficient to disconfirm existing research. Additional research is, however, needed to validate both the proposed text analysis technique as well as the proposed process for assessing and managing cultural challenges confronting SPI projects.

Practical implications

SPI managers are provided with a more complex view of organizational culture in which congruence is not a necessity. SPI managers can choose to compare culture profiles and decide how to address incongruences. To that end the text analysis technique is offered as a web service that allows for analysis of all text‐based process models and standards, and of internal process documentation.

Originality/value

The proposed culture management process, including the text analysis technique, is a cost‐efficient approach to analyzing and providing the basis for managing cultural challenges during SPI in a specific company. The process provides understanding and guidance in dealing with the specific challenges faced by software companies during SPI.

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Fatma Pakdil and Karen Moustafa Leonard

Lean systems thinking was widely studied using relevant variables, but there is a dearth of published theoretical or empirical evidence about the cultural aspects of lean…

5788

Abstract

Purpose

Lean systems thinking was widely studied using relevant variables, but there is a dearth of published theoretical or empirical evidence about the cultural aspects of lean processes. The lack of conceptual development is one of the motivations for this study. Do organizational cultural variations correlate with the success and effectiveness of lean processes? What organizational infrastructures are required for effective lean implementation and continuation? The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Examining literature in the area of lean production and lean management, the authors sought current literature at the intersection of organizational culture and lean processes, particularly implementation and sustainability, but found little relating to the topic. Therefore, using the Competing Values Framework taxonomy, the authors examine this intersection, relying on related research in the areas.

Findings

In this paper, a brief discussion of lean processes in relation to organizational culture leads to propositions that identify the various cultural dimensions and their purported effect on lean implementation and sustainability. A model of this interaction is developed. Those quadrants of the Competing Values Framework that might be useful in developing research directions for the future are identified.

Research limitations/implications

Future research directions include the measurement of organizational culture in firms that have implemented lean processes. This would be a step toward looking at the effect that the different quadrants in the Competing Values Framework have on various elements of lean efforts. This would take a significant amount of work, because the manufacturing industry, the leader in implementing and sustaining lean processes, may have institutionalized particular organizational cultures. It would be an interesting step forward in the understanding of how lean processes are operationalized across different firms and industries. However, there are multiple ways to examine culture; the authors believe this method allows the capture of the entire spectrum.

Practical implications

Knowing which dimensions influence lean effectiveness and the way that they wield that influence allows managers to develop the firm’s organizational culture to one that will support implementing and sustaining lean efforts. The challenge to implement and sustain lean processes lies in the need to identify the organizational culture infrastructure that will allow this system that was first used by Japanese firms to operate well in other organizational contexts. The values and norms that underlie lean processes may create conflict with the culture that already exists within the organization; such divergence retards adoption and performance.

Originality/value

There is a lack of research at the critical intersection of organizational culture and lean implementation/sustainability. Culture is key to making the changes required of lean implementation and in sustaining the drive toward lean production and management. The paper begins to fill that gap.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Ali Intezari, Nazim Taskin and David J. Pauleen

This study aims to identify the main knowledge processes associated with organizational knowledge culture. A diverse range of knowledge processes have been referred to in…

4481

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify the main knowledge processes associated with organizational knowledge culture. A diverse range of knowledge processes have been referred to in the extant literature, but little agreement exists on which knowledge processes are critical and should be supported by organizational culture.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a systematic literature review methodology, this study examined the primary literature – peer-reviewed and scholarly articles published in the top seven knowledge management and intellectual capital (KM/IC)-related journals.

Findings

The core knowledge processes have been identified – knowledge sharing, knowledge creation and knowledge implementation. The paper suggests that a strategy for implementing successful organizational KM initiatives requires precise understanding and effective management of the core knowledge infrastructures and processes. Although technology infrastructure is an important aspect of any KM initiative, the integration of knowledge into management decisions and practices relies on the extent to which the organizational culture supports or hinders knowledge processes.

Research limitations/implications

The focus of the study was on the articles published in the top seven KM/IC journals; important contributions in relevant publications in other KM journals, conference papers, books and professional reports may have been excluded.

Practical implications

Practitioners will benefit from a better understanding of knowledge processes involved in KM initiatives and investments. From a managerial perspective, the study offers an overview of the state of organizational knowledge culture research and suggests that for KM initiatives to be successful, the organization requires an integrated culture that is concerned with knowledge processes as a set of inextricably inter-related processes.

Originality/value

For the first time, a comprehensive list of diverse terms used in describing knowledge processes has been identified. The findings remove the conceptual ambiguity resulting from the inconsistent use of different terms for the same knowledge process by identifying the three major and overarching knowledge processes. Moreover, this study points to the need to attend to the inextricably interrelated nature of these three knowledge processes. Finally, this is the first time that a study provides evidence that shows the KM studies appear to be biased towards Knowledge sharing.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Christina Ling-hsing Chang and Tung-Ching Lin

The purpose of the study is to focus on the enhancement of knowledge management (KM) performance and the relationship between organizational culture and KM process

34111

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study is to focus on the enhancement of knowledge management (KM) performance and the relationship between organizational culture and KM process intention of individuals because of the diversity of organizational cultures (which include results-oriented, tightly controlled, job-oriented, closed system and professional-oriented cultures). Knowledge is a primary resource in organizations. If firms are able to effectively manage their knowledge resources, then a wide range of benefits can be reaped such as improved corporate efficiency, effectiveness, innovation and customer service.

Design/methodology/approach

The survey methodology, which has the ability to enhance generalization of results (Dooley, 2001), was used to collect the data utilized in the testing of the research hypotheses.

Findings

Results- and job-oriented cultures have positive effects on employee intention in the KM process (creation, storage, transfer and application), whereas a tightly controlled culture has negative effects.

Research limitations/implications

However, it would have been better to use a longitudinal study to collect useful long-term data to understand how the KM process would be influenced when organizational culture dimensions are changed through/by management. This is the first limitation of this study. According to Mason and Pauleen (2003), KM culture is a powerful predictor of individual knowledge-sharing behavior, which is not included in this study. Thus, this is the second limitation of this paper. Moreover, national culture could be an important issue in the KM process (Jacks et al., 2012), which is the third limitation of this paper for not comprising it.

Practical implications

In researchers’ point of view, results- and job-oriented cultures have positive effects, whereas a tightly controlled culture has a negative effect on the KM process intention of the individual. These findings provide evidences that challenge the perspective of Kayworth and Leidner (2003) on this issue. As for practitioners, management has a direction to modify their organizational culture to improve the performance of KM process.

Social implications

Both behavioral and value perspectives of the organizational cultural dimensions (results-oriented, tightly control, job-oriented, sociability, solidarity, need for achievement and democracy) should be examined to ascertain their effects firstly on KM culture and then on the KM process intention of the individual. It is hoped that the current study will spawn future investigations that lead to the development of an integrated model which includes organizational culture, KM culture and the KM process intention of the individual.

Originality/value

The results-oriented, loosely controlled and job-oriented cultures will improve the effectiveness of the KM process and will also increase employees’ satisfaction and willingness to stay with the organization.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 18 August 2006

Kerstin A. Aumann and Cheri Ostroff

In recent years, theory and research have been increasingly devoted to understanding organizational behavior in cross-cultural and global contexts, with particular…

Abstract

In recent years, theory and research have been increasingly devoted to understanding organizational behavior in cross-cultural and global contexts, with particular attention being paid to the appropriateness of various human resources management (HRM) practices because practices that may be effective within one cultural context may not be effective in other cultural contexts. This chapter argues that a multi-level perspective is needed to explain the interplay between HRM practices and employee responses across cultural contexts. Specifically, the multi-level framework developed in this chapter elucidates the importance of fit between HRM practices, individual values, organizational values, and societal values. Societal values play a key role in the adoption of HRM practices, and the effectiveness of these HRM practices will depend largely on “fit” or alignment with the values of the societal culture in which the organization is operating. HRM practices also shape the collective responses of employees through organizational climate at the organizational level and through psychological climate at the individual level. For positive employee attitudes and responses to emerge, the climate created by the HRM practices must be aligned with societal and individual values. Building on these notions, the strength of the societal culture in which the organization is operating serves as a mechanism that links relationships between climate, value fit, and attitudes across levels of analysis. The chapter concludes with some recommendations for future research and implications for practice.

Details

Multi-Level Issues in Social Systems
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-432-4

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Tharnpas Sattayaraksa and Sakun Boon-itt

The purpose of this paper is to examine the linkages between CEO transformational leadership and the new product development (NPD) process through organizational learning…

4137

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the linkages between CEO transformational leadership and the new product development (NPD) process through organizational learning and innovation culture.

Design/methodology/approach

A large-scale survey by a sample of 269 manufacturing firms in Thailand was conducted. Structural equation modeling was used to test the proposed relationships.

Findings

CEO transformational leadership was strongly and positively associated with organizational learning and innovation culture. Additionally, organizational learning and innovation culture were positively related to the NPD process.

Practical implications

Managers should pay more attention to organizational learning since it has a strong impact on the NPD process. CEOs with an innovation-oriented attitude should develop their transformational leadership to support organizational learning and an innovation culture.

Originality/value

The study extends the understanding of the connections between CEO transformational leadership and the NPD process. The results highlight the mediating roles of organizational learning and innovation culture on the relationship between CEO transformational leadership and the NPD process.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 37 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Accelerating Organisation Culture Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-968-8

Article
Publication date: 28 November 2018

Amy Van Looy and Jan Devos

While much research exists on methods and tools to support business processes, little research exists on the interrelationship with cultural and structural aspects. The…

Abstract

Purpose

While much research exists on methods and tools to support business processes, little research exists on the interrelationship with cultural and structural aspects. The purpose of this paper is to explore the chronological sequence in which culture and structure are important, as evidenced in 13 non-profit organisations that are changing towards a process-oriented way of working.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a positivist case study methodology with pattern-matching to falsify or confirm three theoretical perspectives that claim to explain the phenomena of organisational structure and culture, and their impact on business processes. The competing perspectives are: process lifecycle theories, organisational design theories and cultural and motivational theories.

Findings

The case studies cover six scenarios based on a recurrent sequence of changes and perceived outcome. The (theoretical and empirical) relationships between business processes, a process-oriented culture and a process-oriented structure are then combined in a process capability success model.

Research limitations/implications

Although limited to the non-profit sector, the findings agree that the process lifecycle is insufficient. Cultural and motivational theories prevail over organisational design theories to explain and predict process success.

Practical implications

From the process capability success model, a roadmap for (un)successful business process management (BPM) is derived with best practices and advice on the sequence of process improvements.

Originality/value

While the relevance of culture and structure has been touched in research before, the aspect of chronological sequence and pattern-matching sheds new light on the topic. The case studies performed also help to evidence how important it is to believe in process-oriented developments for organisations that want to apply BPM.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 November 2011

Cristiano Busco and Robert W. Scapens

The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature, roles and dynamics of change of management accounting systems (MAS), in processes of continuous organisational learning…

5687

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature, roles and dynamics of change of management accounting systems (MAS), in processes of continuous organisational learning and transformation. By studying the interaction between the accounting (and finance) function and the implementation of a Six‐sigma initiative, as the engine for organisational change, the authors seek to uncover the potential of measurement‐based systems of management for aligning business processes with corporate strategies. Such systems sustain continuous processes of transformation by infusing organisational culture with financial and non‐financial metrics of accountability.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is based on a longitudinal case study in which one of the authors had the opportunity to exercise what Schein called the clinical perspective; i.e. combining the role of researcher with that of helper‐consultant. There is mutual interdependence in the relationship between the authors' theoretical framework and the authors' longitudinal case study. While, on the one hand, the case research contributed to the search for an institutional explanation of the evidence experienced and collected, on the other hand, the empirical data are illuminated by the theoretical insights gained from that framework.

Findings

After first discussing cultural change, the authors rely both on the “clinical” position of one of the authors as researcher/helper‐consultant and on the insights provided by Schein's work on organisational culture and Giddens' structuration theory to develop an institutional framework for interpreting the ways in which routinised systems of accountability bind the ongoing processes of cultural transformation across time and space.

Research limitations/implications

Possible limitations are: the conceptualisation of organisational culture as a shared and institutional phenomenon does not take account of wider anthropological aspects (such as the influence of national culture); the role of helper‐consultant as well as researcher may have influenced some of the authors' interpretations; the authors' analysis does not consider macro‐economic variables; and only a small percentage of shop‐floor workers were interviewed.

Originality/value

The paper sheds light on the role of management accounting within organisational processes of transformation far beyond their mere visible enactment. As a result, the authors develop an institutional framework to interpret the linkages between the cognitive dynamics which characterise organisational culture (viewed as shared cognitive schemas) and the behavioural and structural modalities through which they are drawn upon and reproduced by organisational members.

Details

Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1176-6093

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 June 2015

Jon E. Cawthorne

This research highlights the scenarios that might serve as a strategic vision to describe a future beyond the current library, one which both guides provosts and creates a…

Abstract

This research highlights the scenarios that might serve as a strategic vision to describe a future beyond the current library, one which both guides provosts and creates a map for the transformation of human resources and technology in the university research libraries. The scenarios offer managerial leaders an opportunity to envision new roles for librarians and staff which brings a much needed focus on the development of human resources as well as a thought-stream to understand decisions which effectively and systematically move the organization toward a strategic vision.

These scenarios also outline possible future directions research libraries could take by focusing on perspectives from library directors, provosts, and administrators for human resources. The four case study scenarios introduce potential future roles for librarians and highlight the unsustainability of the current scholarly communications model as well as uncertain factors related to the political, social, technical, and demographic issues facing campuses. Given the changes institutions face, scenarios allow directors to include more uncertainty when developing and articulating a vision. These scenarios may start a discussion, before a strategic planning process, to sharpen the evaluations and measures necessary to monitor achievements that define the value of the library.

Details

Advances in Library Administration and Organization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-910-3

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 101000