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Book part
Publication date: 17 September 2012

Ron Sanchez

In this paper we extend established concepts of product and process architectures to propose a concept of organization architecture that defines the essential features of…

Abstract

In this paper we extend established concepts of product and process architectures to propose a concept of organization architecture that defines the essential features of the system design of an organization needed to achieve an effective strategic alignment of an organization with its competitive and/or cooperative environment. Adopting a work process view of organization, we draw on concepts of product and process architectures to elaborate fundamental elements in the design of an organization architecture. We suggest that organization architectures may be designed to support four basic types of change in organization resources, capabilities, and coordination, which we characterize as convergence, reconfiguration, absorptive integration, and architectural transformation. We also suggest the kinds of strategic flexibilities that an organization must have to create and implement each type of organization architecture. We identify four basic types of strategic environments and consider the kinds of changes in resources, capabilities, and coordination that need to be designed into an organization's architecture to maintain effective strategic alignment with its type of environment. We then propose a typology that identifies four basic ways in which organizational architectures may be effectively aligned with strategic environments. Extending the reasoning underlying the proposed alignments of organization architectures with strategic environments, we propose a strategic principle of architectural isomorphism, which holds that maintaining effective strategic alignment of an organization with its environment requires achieving isomorphism across a firm's product, process, and organization architectures. We conclude by considering some implications of the analyses undertaken here for competence theory, general and mid-range strategy theory, and organization theory.

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A Focused Issue on Competence Perspectives on New Industry Dynamics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-882-3

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2013

Kaisa G. Holloway Cripps

The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of art and architecture by leadership as a driving force to effect change of perception of an organization's identity…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of art and architecture by leadership as a driving force to effect change of perception of an organization's identity. While some claim life imitates art, from a management discipline lens the paper aims to state that art imitates life through introduction of a conceptual model.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review of organizational art and architecture, leadership, identity and change is undertaken and synthesized with Lewin's theory and concepts of force field analysis. Case studies from Africa, Europe and the USA are analyzed.

Findings

Organizational leadership uses art and architecture as a driving force to effect change in perception of identity. This is exemplified through evaluation of choices in the organizations examined.

Practical implications

This paper establishes a relationship between choices organizational leadership makes on art and architecture and how they can be used as a driving force to effect change in perception of identity and proposes a conceptual model for further study. This model opens potentially several new streams of research in management and organizational change disciplines.

Originality/value

There is a small subset of scholarship and studies in the fields of management and organizational change, with a scant amount focused on choices organizational leadership makes on art and architecture and how they can be used as a driving force to effect change in perception of identity. This paper attempts to initiate further research and empirical studies.

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Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Article
Publication date: 27 April 2010

Bahman Jahani, Seyyed Reza Seyyed Javadein and Hassan Abedi Jafari

The purpose of this paper is to present a model for measuring enterprise architecture (EA) readiness in organizations.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a model for measuring enterprise architecture (EA) readiness in organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews the literature of enterprise architecture, defines and extracts factors and indicators of enterprise architecture readiness with factor weighting and indicators. Thereafter the authors propose a model to measure organization EA readiness in practice.

Findings

In this paper nine factors and 34 indicators that affect enterprise architecture are defined and an enterprise architecture readiness model is constructed. The model of research is practical, because it specifies readiness of organization in enterprise architecture and helps to define current state of organization via factors and indicators, and from priorities of factors and indicators, alerts organization of an optimization strategy.

Research limitations/implications

In order to increase the utility of the model for use in other organizations, further studies can help to refine the model.

Originality/value

The essence of extracting and choosing factors and indicators in this study is from enterprise architecture processes and key success and failure factors of enterprise architecture in organizations. In addition selected factors and indicators related to organization infrastructure not related only to enterprise architecture project planning and executing are examined through the use of a questionnaire. The model derived from this study can be utilized as a multi‐dimensional and practical model because of its complexity and examination of organizational infrastructures.

Details

Business Strategy Series, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-5637

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Gospel Onyema Oparaocha

This paper aims to contribute toward the extension and further development of the social exchange theory. It provides conceptual insights on social networks in…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to contribute toward the extension and further development of the social exchange theory. It provides conceptual insights on social networks in geographically dispersed organizations, and how intra-organizational social interactions influence organizational behavior, employees relationship exchange inclination and innovation drive.

Design/methodology/approach

A thematic literature review method was used to conduct an extensive review of relevant literature.

Findings

Guided by the tenets of the social exchange theory, the authors’ analysis and discussions elucidate how intra-organizational social network architecture can be developed, supported and utilized to drive innovations in geographically dispersed organizations.

Research limitations/implications

A general limitation and perhaps also a strength of this type of conceptual paper is that it is a synthesis (thematic discursive analysis) of existing theory and published research. Thus, there are no primary empirical content. However, the issue of empirical evidence is nevertheless mediated by the fact that the discussions and argumentation process generate key propositions which could be validated in subsequent research endeavors. Also, the selection of relevant literature is restricted specifically to the topic of the study. The authors strived to ensure rigor through a robust and comprehensive literature review which was organized thematically according to all the key words in the main and sub-topics covered in Section 2.

Practical implications

The insights presented suggest that management should pay serious attention to organizational design – that is, not only from the conventional contractual obligations point of view, but rather, the increasing importance of social capital should also be given some priority when thinking of resilient ways to encourage collaborations and efficient knowledge management. In other words, intra-organizational social network architecture should be considered as organizational capability and utilized as a toolset for the SIHRM to harness knowledge flow and unleash innovation.

Social implications

As both bonding and bridging ties are not only critical for success of project teams but also intensify knowledge symmetry across different units of the organization, they are a major conduit for sustainable open innovation culture within organization. To develop competitive capabilities throughout the organization, it is important for the SIHRM to be involved in global networking, and as a network leader, the human resource management function must have an awareness of leading trends and developments in social networking. The ability to mobilize the appropriate resources and a sense of timing and context in implementing such architecture within the geographically spread organization is crucial.

Originality/value

The novel contribution of this paper is twofold. First, the study provides an implementable framework which scholars and practitioners could use to develop and test the actualization of an intra-organizational social network architecture in a geographically dispersed organization. Second, the study has provided some key propositions and a well-grounded direction for further research to inspire further development/extension of the social exchange theory.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1996

Bonn‐Oh Kim and Sang M. Lee

To compete successfully, organizations pursue the status of the world‐class organizations (WCO). A WCO is defined as the best in its class, or as good as its best global…

Abstract

To compete successfully, organizations pursue the status of the world‐class organizations (WCO). A WCO is defined as the best in its class, or as good as its best global competitor, in providing most value to the customer. WCOs must be supported by effective information systems. Presents new approaches to developing the information architecture for world‐class organizations.

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Logistics Information Management, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6053

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1996

Sang M. Lee and Bonn‐Oh Kim

Today, business organizations compete in the global marketplace. To compete successfully, organizations pursue the status of the world‐class organization (WCO). A WCO is…

Abstract

Today, business organizations compete in the global marketplace. To compete successfully, organizations pursue the status of the world‐class organization (WCO). A WCO is defined as the best in its class, or as good as its best global competitor, in providing most value to the customer. The strategic pillars that enable an organization to become a WCO must be supported by effective information systems. Conventional information systems development approaches are not necessarily relevant for WCOs. Presents new approaches to developing the information for world‐class organizations.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 22 May 2009

Mostafa Jafari, Peyman Akhavan and Elham Nouranipour

The main objective of this paper is to explore the role of knowledge architecture in an enterprise and to provide a model to architect enterprise knowledge based on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The main objective of this paper is to explore the role of knowledge architecture in an enterprise and to provide a model to architect enterprise knowledge based on the Zachman framework.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a conceptual article providing a knowledge architecture model for an organization based on the Zachman framework that discussed several perspectives from the knowledge management point of view and information technology. To confirm the validity of the model a questionnaire was designed, applied and then analyzed by some statistical methods.

Findings

The paper provides a conceptual knowledge architecture model that can be applied to Iranian organizations practically. The validity of this model is confirmed by polling the opinion of knowledge architecture experts.

Research limitations/implications

The lack of resources directly related to the subject of the research, the novelty of this kind of research in Iran and the lack of organizations which perform a knowledge architecture model in reality are the restrictions of this research. The authors' suggestion for further research studies is to execute the model and survey from foreigner experts.

Practical implications

The paper may be beneficial for enterprise architects in the knowledge area.

Originality/value

The paper may be of high value to researchers in the knowledge management field and to practitioners involved with KM adoption in the organizations. It gives valuable information and guidelines that hopefully will help the leaders and the senior knowledge management managers to accomplish KM through their organization successfully.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 47 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2011

Paul A. Wagner

In the final quarter of the twentieth century, organizational management had been rocked by a theory more powerful than anything since the days of Taylor's theory of…

Abstract

In the final quarter of the twentieth century, organizational management had been rocked by a theory more powerful than anything since the days of Taylor's theory of scientific management. The new theory was called Total Quality Management (TQM). TQM has largely been eclipsed by other management fads since such as Sigma 6 but none had such an explosive effect on business, schools, and government agencies as TQM (Juran, 1995). The gurus of TQM included J. M. Juran (2003), P. B. Crosby (1995), and even the sage of organizational theory, Peter Drucker (2008). No one, however, stood as tall among this class of gurus as did the notable W. E. Deming (1982). TQM has often been criticized over the years for failing in practice. Deming and his followers retort that it is because organizations seldom incorporated the entire 13 point program. The part so often left out were points that implicitly reflected moral commitments Deming thought organizations ought to have. What Deming relegated to matters of team spirit and other psychological commitments are accommodated in the most scientific sense by recent developments in biology and economics showing that there is an instinct driving evolution among herd animals such as humans to cooperate. This focus on instinct is captured in the most practical sense for organizational analysis in the present author's work on moral architecture. The concept of moral architecture will be sketched as a means for understanding and strengthening, schools, law enforcement agencies and prisons, and other correctional facilities.

Details

Leadership in Education, Corrections and Law Enforcement: A Commitment to Ethics, Equity and Excellence
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-185-5

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2013

Karma Sherif, Lucy Tsado, Weijun Zheng and Bosede Airhia

This article aims to explore how organizational architecture (OA) for an information technology organization can balance between exploring new information technologies

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to explore how organizational architecture (OA) for an information technology organization can balance between exploring new information technologies (IT) that promise significant but uncertain growth opportunities, and exploiting already existing IT that guarantee immediate survival.

Design/methodology/approach

The literature on organizational architecture (OA) and the balance between the exploitation and exploration of knowledge is reviewed. Data collected from in-depth case study of a global IT consulting firm highlights the importance of OA in balancing exploitation and exploration.

Findings

Four elements of OA emerged as critical in balancing exploitation and exploration: embedding autonomous exploratory units within large exploitative sectors; creating organizational roles to integrate between exploration and exploitation; developing technology solutions that support the interplay between exploitation and exploration; and establishing a reward structure that fosters the cooperation between exploring and exploitative agents.

Practical implications

Results of the study suggest that the switch between exploration and exploitation is key to emerging dynamic capabilities in IT firms. It is important for organizations to define: strategic goals that highlight the importance of both exploration and exploitation for the organization; roles that specifically focus on exploration, exploitation and the coordination between the two capabilities, technologies that support both exploration and exploitation; and reward both capabilities. These four elements of the architecture interact together to support a structure of large exploitative units with embedded small explorative units to support recombination and innovation at the project, the department, and the organization levels.

Originality/value

There is limited research on the effect of organizational design on IT development capabilities. Organizational architecture that balances between exploiting stable domain knowledge and emerging new technologies is crucial in today's global and competitive environment. In this study, a new framework emerges that provides a starting point for future quantitative research on how OA can balance conflicting organizational capabilities for firms engaging in IT development. The paper provides a foundation for future studies to test five propositions on the effect of strategy, structure, roles, technology, and reward on the dynamic capabilities of exploitation and exploration.

Details

VINE: The journal of information and knowledge management systems, vol. 43 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-5728

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2019

Niraj Kumar Vishwakarma, Rohit Kumar Singh and R.R.K. Sharma

The technology used by an organization is significantly influenced by the organization’s preferred competitive capabilities. The Internet of things (IoT) is an important…

Abstract

Purpose

The technology used by an organization is significantly influenced by the organization’s preferred competitive capabilities. The Internet of things (IoT) is an important technology, which is implemented by most prominent business organizations. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between an organization’s strategies and the IoT architectures implemented by the organization.

Design/methodology/approach

This study has been carried out on primary data collected with the help of a structured questionnaire. The data have been analyzed by statistical techniques like cluster analysis and discriminant analysis through SPSS.

Findings

The empirical investigation of data revealed that there is a relationship between organizational strategy and IoT architectures. The three-layered architecture of the IoT is most suitable for caretakers; the three-, four- or five- layered architectures are suitable for marketeers; whereas innovators find it more suitable to use five- or more-layered architecture of the IoT. This paper draws the conclusion based on maximum likelihood rather than using statistical analyses like ANOVA. The idea behind using the maximum likelihood estimate is that there are many subjective parameters in deciding the architectures of the IoT. These subjective parameters are difficult to quantify, so it is not possible to apply ANOVA on these parameters.

Research limitations/implications

This study considers three organizational strategies; the relationship between other organizational strategies and IoT architecture will be studied in future.

Practical implications

This study offers multiple opportunities to practitioners and consulting firms of the IoT to adopt a suitable IoT architecture according to the organizational strategy. This study equips IoT development engineers to select suitable technology for data capturing, data transmission, and data management and access for an IoT architecture.

Originality/value

Although a lot of work has already been done on the architecture of IoT for different industries and businesses, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that relates organizational strategies to IoT architectures. This study applies to all the major industry types.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

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