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Article
Publication date: 23 October 2015

Shu Yi, Lin Xiao, Yong Zhang, Dujuan Duan and Maksim G. Blokhin

This paper describes the organic geochemical characteristics and their roles on barium enrichment in the No. 2 Coal from Huanglong Jurassic Coalfield, China. A total of 18…

Abstract

This paper describes the organic geochemical characteristics and their roles on barium enrichment in the No. 2 Coal from Huanglong Jurassic Coalfield, China. A total of 18 bench samples were taken from Huangling Mine 2. The average content of barium (3701 mg/kg) was about 23 times higher than that of common world coals. Terrestrial higher plants were the main coal-forming parent material. Relying on the parameters of OEP, Pr/Ph and so on, there is little correlation between organic geochemical characteristics and barium enrichment. Therefore, organic material has little influence on the process of coal-forming and the enrichment of barium.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1976

Clive Bingley, John Buchanan and Elaine Kempson

IF YOU WERE to ask why ‘the treatment’ for (the London Borough of) Sutton's new central library, there are two reason's. First, Sutton's Chief, Roy Smith, was on like a…

Abstract

IF YOU WERE to ask why ‘the treatment’ for (the London Borough of) Sutton's new central library, there are two reason's. First, Sutton's Chief, Roy Smith, was on like a flash to my sloppy discourtesy in neither acknowledging his invitation to the official opening in December nor turning up for it, and gave half a day of his time last month instead to take me round; second, in Mr Smith's own words, ‘This is one of the most interesting new libraries to come out of public librarianship for a long time’, and I am disposed to agree with him.

Details

New Library World, vol. 77 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

Article
Publication date: 23 February 2015

Jinxi Wang, Hongya Niu, Pei Ling, Jingsen Fan, Kunli Luo, Maxim Blokhin and Yuzhuang Sun

Numerous smog events have occurred in recent years in China. Their hazards in mining and industrial cities are more serious than clear days. The samples were collected in…

Abstract

Numerous smog events have occurred in recent years in China. Their hazards in mining and industrial cities are more serious than clear days. The samples were collected in the mining and industrial city of Handan. During the smog episode, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations reach up to 980 μg/m3 and 660 μg/m3, respectively. Under SEM (scanning electron microscope) analysis, the particles consist of soot, fly ash and minerals, which could be from coal mines, power plants, steel mills and auto exhausts. Compared with the samples collected on a clear day, the increased PM10 particles are mainly composed of organic matter, especially aromatic compounds. The Pb content in PM10 of the smog day reaches 507.4 ng/m3 and could be caused by vehicle emissions.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 11 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Eduardo Cimino Cervi, Felippe Fernandes, Renato Billia de Miranda, Frederico Fábio Mauad, Leandro Michalovicz and Cristiano Poleto

Brazilian sediment quality criteria were established based on pseudo-total metal contents, which is not suitable to determine their bioavailability and the ecological risk…

Abstract

Purpose

Brazilian sediment quality criteria were established based on pseudo-total metal contents, which is not suitable to determine their bioavailability and the ecological risk for aquatic biota. Therefore, the geochemical speciation of five metals (Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn) was determined to assess the distribution and ecological risk of sediments in a tropical shallow reservoir from Brazil. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of metals in ten representative stations of surface sediments (0-20 cm) from Carlos Botelho (Lobo-Broa) Reservoir was conducted during the dry season in April 2014. Sediment parameters were measured in situ. The geochemical speciation of metals was carried out using the modified three-stage BCR-701 procedure (Davutluoglu et al., 2011) and compared with pseudo-total metal contents.

Findings

Contamination at S-1 and S-8 was more severe than other sampling sites, especially for Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Metals such as Cu, Ni and Zn occasionally may be associated with adverse biological effects based on the comparison with sediment quality guidelines. The risk assessment code suggests no risk for Fe and low risk for Cu and Ni.

Originality/value

Geochemical speciation of metals could be useful in developing effective management strategies to control metal pollution in the Lobo-Broa Reservoir. Substantial amounts of Pb (classified as medium risk) were bound to humic substances and/or insoluble metal sulfides, and could pose serious risk to the benthic community through the food chain. Zinc at S-1, S-3 and S-8 showed high risk, indicating that an appreciable portion of Zn could be available to aquatic biota.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 May 2009

L. Schulte, R. Julià, H. Veit and F. Carvalho

The multidisciplinary Fluvalps‐3000 research project focuses on the variability of the Late Holocene and historical fluvial dynamics in alpine catchments. The purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

The multidisciplinary Fluvalps‐3000 research project focuses on the variability of the Late Holocene and historical fluvial dynamics in alpine catchments. The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential of a 3,600 year‐long record composed from fluvial deposits for flood hazard assessment.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is based on a multi‐proxy approach integrating methods of various disciplines as sedimentology, geochronology, pedology, geomorphology, palynology, history, and archaeology. This paper considers particularly the sedimentological and geocronological methods applied to the fluvial records of several key sections of the Lütschine and Lombach fan deltas.

Findings

The sedimentary data of the high‐resolution fan delta record show up to seven major aggradation pulses from 3,600 cal yr BP to present. Furthermore, 19 minor burial episodes occur between 3,600 and 1,050 cal yr BP at average intervals between 113 years (Lütschine) and 105 years (Lombach) suggesting that aggradation during the focused period was triggered by centennial flood events. Nine coarse‐grained flood layers of the Lütschine record, deposited during the last 3,350 years by catastrophic flood events at a recurrence interval of 370 years, coincide with positive radiocarbon anomalies and cold phases in the Alps. The solar influence on regional hydrological regime is proposed as the main factor triggering the flooding events. However, the impact of land‐use changes in the region since 2,300 cal yr BP was detected by pollen and geochemical proxy data from fluvial deposits.

Originality/value

According to the results, the 2005 flood may not be considered as one of these mayor catastrophic events, thus providing useful data for future risk assessment by regional and local authorities. The 3,600 year flood history derived from fan delta proxies, presented in this paper, is unique in the European Alps.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 November 2013

Jinxi Wang, Pei Ling, Jingjing Yang and Jing Zhao

A total of 283 coal and parting samples were taken from the Pingshuo mine district, Ningwu coalfield, China. The contents, distribution and enrichment mechanism of 12…

Abstract

A total of 283 coal and parting samples were taken from the Pingshuo mine district, Ningwu coalfield, China. The contents, distribution and enrichment mechanism of 12 hazardous trace elements were studied. The results indicate that Co, Ni, Zn, Cu, Ag and Cr have the chalcophile affinity; Ba, Cd, U are related with clay mineral; Mn is mainly related with carbonate minerals; Pb and Be may be related with sulfide, clay mineral and organic matter. Most of trace elements were associated with terrigenous clastic and clay. The elements (Cr, Pb, Be, Ag, Cu, U, Cd) were enriched in the wet forest and low swamps.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 10 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 21 November 2018

Kogila Vani Annammala, Anand Nainar, Abdul Rahim Mohd Yusoff, Zulkifli Yusop, Kawi Bidin, Rory Peter Dominic Walsh, William H. Blake, Faizuan Abdullah, Dhinesh Sugumaran and Khuneswari Gopal Pillay

Although there have been extensive studies on the hydrological and erosional impacts of logging, relatively little is known about the impacts of conversion into…

Abstract

Although there have been extensive studies on the hydrological and erosional impacts of logging, relatively little is known about the impacts of conversion into agricultural plantation (namely rubber and oil palm). Furthermore, studies on morphological impacts, sediment-bound chemistry and forensic attribution of deposited sediment to their respective sources are scarcer. This chapter introduces the potential for using the multi-proxy sediment fingerprinting technique in this context. Featuring pilot projects in two major flood-prone river systems in Malaysia, the studies explore application of geochemistry-based sediment source ascription. The geochemical signatures of sediment mixtures on floodplains were compared to sediments from upstream source tributaries. The tributaries were hypothesised to have different geochemical signatures in response to dominant land management. The first case study took place in the Segama River system (4,023 km2) of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo where a mixture of primary forest, logged-forests and oil palm plantations were predominant. The second case study was in the Kelantan River Basin (13,100 km2) with two major tributaries (Galas River and Lebir River) where logged-forests and rubber and oil palm plantations are dominant land-uses. Both case studies demonstrated the applicability of this method in ascribing floodplain deposited sediment to their respective upstream sources. Preliminary results showed that trace elements associated with fertilisers (e.g. copper and vanadium) contribute to agricultural catchment signatures. Alkaline and alkaline-earth elements were linked to recently established oil palm plantations due to soil turnover. Mixing model outputs showed that contributions from smaller, more severely disturbed catchment are higher than those from larger but milder disturbed catchments. This method capitalises on flood events to counter its adverse impacts by identifying high-priority sediment source areas for efficient and effective management.

Details

Improving Flood Management, Prediction and Monitoring
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-552-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 January 2018

Souad Mouassa, Salah Chaab, Adnane Souffi Moulla, Mansour Zaagane and Nabil Brahmia

The present study is undertaken in the region of Guelma that is located in North-Eastern Algeria. Guelma’s agricultural plain is irrigated from the Seybouse ephemeral…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study is undertaken in the region of Guelma that is located in North-Eastern Algeria. Guelma’s agricultural plain is irrigated from the Seybouse ephemeral river (wadi). The latter collects the entire domestic and industrial wastewaters of the region that are discharged without prior treatment. Hence, the organic and biological or what so ever contributions to the wadi are capable of initiating a significant degradation of its waters’ quality and challenging their use for irrigation. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The interpretation of the results of three sampling campaigns for chemical and bacteriological analyzes was carried out in terms of the indices’ method (organic pollution index (OPI) and microbiological quality index (MQI)). The results were statistically assessed through the use of the principal component analysis (PCA). The OPI was calculated according to the method of Leclercq and Maquet (1987) whose principle is to classify the contents for the polluting elements into 5 classes each class corresponding to a given range for the considered parameter, and then to calculate the overall average class number for each sample. The MQI depends on the water concentrations in: the total coliforms, the fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci. One defines five classes of concentrations for each of these parameters. The MQI is again the overall mean of the numbers for the classes for every parameter.

Findings

The OPI reflects a moderate pollution for most sampling stations. The PCA indicates that the variables controlling salinity are mainly Cl, Na+ and SO42−. In August 2016, El-Fedjoudj pumping station shows a very strong fecal contamination. According to the recommendations of World Health Organization (1989), waters from wadi Seybouse cannot be used for the irrigation of vegetable crops if they were to be consumed raw.

Originality/value

This study has an environment impact as it reveals the need to protect surface waters used for irrigation and therefore protect consumers of raw vegetables that are to be consumed uncooked.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 20 November 2020

Emmanuel Arhin, Raymond Webrah Kazapoe and Fulera Salami

The purpose of this study was to define and outline areas prone to disease causing elements by analyzing the spatial distribution and concentration of toxic and essential…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to define and outline areas prone to disease causing elements by analyzing the spatial distribution and concentration of toxic and essential elements in a section of the Voltaian sedimentary basin.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 2,668 soil samples were analysed by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry technique and were re-appraised by comparing with baseline values of elements accepted globally to be in soils. The concentrations of arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe) and magnesium (Mg) were evaluated. Factor analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis multivariate techniques were used to identify the source patterns of the elements in the soils. The Getis-Ord Gi method was used to generate the optimised maps for these selected elements. These maps spatially defined and outlined high value clusters which imply potential pollution or areas with high background values (hotspots), whereas the low value clusters imply areas with low background values (cold-spots).

Findings

The multivariate analysis supports a dominant geogenic source of these heavy elements with obvious influences from variably metamorphosed mafic–ultramafic rocks known to have contributed to the deposition of sediments in the basin. The hotspots for As were located around Nalerigu and to the east of Nawchugu. A Cr hotspot was located to the east of Nawchugu with Cr cold-spots located within Nalerigu and Yunyuo. Fe hotspots were observed to the south of Nalerigu and the east of Nawchugu with Fe cold-spots around Yunyuo, Bongo-Da and Nagbo. The spatial maps demonstrated the presence of toxic and deficient areas of all the selected elements used in the investigation. Therefore, it suggested the likely health implications depending on the exposed elements, their pathways and recommended the usefulness of using the results displayed in the spatial maps to guide in devising appropriate remediation techniques.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils an identified need to study the distribution of elements and the possible effects it may have on the health and livelihoods of those residing in these areas.

Details

Ecofeminism and Climate Change, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2633-4062

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 11 August 2014

Md. Anwarul Abedin and Rajib Shaw

The contamination of groundwater by natural arsenic is currently a worldwide epidemic. Arsenic-contaminated groundwater has been reported in Argentina, Chile, Mexico…

Abstract

The contamination of groundwater by natural arsenic is currently a worldwide epidemic. Arsenic-contaminated groundwater has been reported in Argentina, Chile, Mexico, China, Hungary, West Bengal in India, Bangladesh, and Vietnam. Of these regions, Bangladesh and West Bengal are the most seriously affected in terms of the size of the population at risk and magnitude of health problems. Hence, chronic exposure to arsenic >50′′μg/L in drinking water can result in serious health problems. Common symptoms of arsenic-related ailments are skin, cardiovascular, renal, hematological, and respiratory disorders. Therefore, this chapter focuses on nature, origin, and extent of groundwater arsenic contamination, probable causes, and its impacts on food, drinking water, and social coverage. It further discloses mitigation approaches proposed and practiced by the different research groups to combat this problem and finally concludes.

Details

Water Insecurity: A Social Dilemma
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-882-2

Keywords

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