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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2011

Cassiane da Silva Oliveira, Leonardo Fonseca Maciel, Maria Spínola Miranda and Eliete da Silva Bispo

Due to the importance attributed to the phenolic compounds present in cocoa samples for their beneficial effects on health, the purpose of this paper was to analyze four…

1100

Abstract

Purpose

Due to the importance attributed to the phenolic compounds present in cocoa samples for their beneficial effects on health, the purpose of this paper was to analyze four samples of organically and conventionally cultivated cocoa from the south area of Bahia for their composition of phenolics, flavonoids and their antioxidant activity.

Design/methodology/approach

Non‐fermented beans, fermented beans, roasted nibs and cocoa liquor were analyzed using spectrophotometry.

Findings

In general, the samples that contained a higher level of phenolics and flavonoids were the roasted nibs and the non‐fermented samples in both cultivation systems. The fermented beans and the liquor contained a lower level.

Practical implications

The relationship between the concentration of total phenols and the capacity to “mop up” free radicals from the cocoa extracts appears to be highly significant. The extracts with a higher concentration of phenols also show higher antioxidant activity (non‐fermented beans extracts and organically and conventionally cultivated nibs).

Originality/value

This work brings an important contribution in the field of agriculture at a time when organic systems of cultivation are an alternative to the conventional system and that pollutes the environment and produces food that contains quantities of chemical contaminants that can damage the health of the consumer. The comparison in phenolic compounds content, flavonoids and antioxidant activity in organic and conventional systems is original and of great importance, showing that the ecological cropping systems are less harmful to the environment and promote improvements to the chemical composition of foods.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 113 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 8 July 2021

Verónica León Bravo, Mariuxy Jaramillo Villacrés and Minelle E. Silva

To understand the context surrounding the sustainable supplier management (SSM) process (i.e. selection, development and evaluation), this paper aims to explore…

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Abstract

Purpose

To understand the context surrounding the sustainable supplier management (SSM) process (i.e. selection, development and evaluation), this paper aims to explore institutional logics existing in the Ecuadorian cocoa supply chain (SC). By considering local characteristics and sustainability practices, this study illustrates how competing logic influences SSM.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a multiple-case study method for which the authors interviewed different cocoa SC members in Ecuador and used a ground-up approach to analyse the data and reveal singularities influencing sustainability management.

Findings

The analysis uncovered two main logics operating within the Ecuadorian cocoa SC SSM process: a commercial logic (e.g. potential for market access, product traceability) and a sustainability logic (e.g. local development and traditions/cultural issues). These logics address market demand requirements; however, some local producers’ needs that impact SSM remains unexplored such as the existence of a regional ancestral culture that poses sustainability as a dominant logic with meaning beyond the triple bottom line. While the two logics have influenced supplier sustainability performance, this paper finds that, of the three SSM sub-processes (selection, development and evaluation), supplier development was the most relevant sub-process receiving attention from SC managers in the studied context.

Practical implications

By understanding the differences in logic and needs, SC managers can better develop strategies for SSM.

Originality/value

The study highlighted in this paper investigated the underexplored topic of the effects that competing logic may have on SSM. This paper focusses on the supplier’s point of view regarding sustainability requirements, addressing a consistent research gap in the literature.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 October 2020

Tawiah Kwatekwei Quartey-Papafio, Saad Ahmed Javed and Sifeng Liu

In the current study, two grey prediction models, Even GM (1, 1) and Non-homogeneous discrete grey model (NDGM), and ARIMA models are deployed to forecast cocoa bean…

Abstract

Purpose

In the current study, two grey prediction models, Even GM (1, 1) and Non-homogeneous discrete grey model (NDGM), and ARIMA models are deployed to forecast cocoa bean production of the six major cocoa-producing countries. Furthermore, relying on Relative Growth Rate (RGR) and Doubling Time (Dt), production growth is analyzed.

Design/methodology/approach

The secondary data were extracted from the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) database. Grey forecasting models are applied using the data covering 2008 to 2017 as their performance on the small sample size is well-recognized. The models' performance was estimated through MAPE, MAE and RMSE.

Findings

Results show the two grey models fell below 10% of MAPE confirming their high accuracy and forecasting performance against that of the ARIMA. Therefore, the suitability of grey models for the cocoa production forecast is established. Findings also revealed that cocoa production in Côte d'Ivoire, Cameroon, Ghana and Brazil is likely to experience a rise with a growth rate of 2.52, 2.49, 2.45 and 2.72% by 2030, respectively. However, Nigeria and Indonesia are likely to experience a decrease with a growth rate of 2.25 and 2.21%, respectively.

Practical implications

For a sustainable cocoa industry, stakeholders should investigate the decline in production despite the implementation of advanced agricultural mechanization in cocoa farming, which goes further to put food security at risk.

Originality/value

The study presents a pioneering attempt of using grey forecasting models to predict cocoa production.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 22 November 2019

Anne-Françoise Thierry

Gender inequality remains very strong in developing countries. Efforts are however made by actors involved in development projects to contribute to reducing these…

Abstract

Gender inequality remains very strong in developing countries. Efforts are however made by actors involved in development projects to contribute to reducing these inequalities. Using observations coming from field experiences and a specific case for which some sex-disaggregated data are available, the author offers some lessons learned to practitioners. More specifically, this chapter questions the different phases of the project cycle, in particular the planning, monitoring and evaluation mechanisms regarding their role in considering gender. The chapter focuses on the relevance of initial gender diagnostics which allow identifying what needs to be addressed to reduce gender inequalities and proposing adequate solutions in specific cultural contexts. The author then provides some guidelines concerning operational arrangements necessary for effectively monitoring aspects related to the inclusion of women in development projects. This includes the design and implementation of a gender strategy, the designation of a dedicated focal point, the systematic planning and monitoring of sex-disaggregated data, the provision of staff skilled in gender issues, and the presence of a gender balance in project teams and support staff. The chapter emphasizes that it is essential to analyze the differential impacts that the development project may have on men and women; this is rarely done. Experience has shown that development can increase inequality due in particular to initial gender differences. Finally, the chapter recommends that to compensate for differences in initial opportunities and capacities, support for women in the budget should be strengthened.

Book part
Publication date: 22 November 2019

Vasilikie Demos, Marcia Texler Segal and Kristy Kelly

Departing from an online interactive Gender Café on the topic of Knowledge Management (KM), jointly hosted by a UN agency and the Society of Gender Professionals, this…

Abstract

Departing from an online interactive Gender Café on the topic of Knowledge Management (KM), jointly hosted by a UN agency and the Society of Gender Professionals, this chapter seeks to provide gender practitioners and others with practical examples of how to “gender” KM in international development. Through analyzing the travel of feminist ideas into the field of KM with inspiration from Barbara Czarniawska’s and Bernard Joerge’s (1996) theory of the travel of ideas, the chapter explores the spaces, limits, and future possibilities for the inclusion of feminist perspectives. The ideas and practical examples of how to do so provided in this chapter originated during the café, by the participants and panellists. The online Gender Café temporarily created a space for feminist perspectives. The data demonstrate how feminist perspectives were translated into issues of inclusion, the body, listening methodologies, practicing reflection, and the importance to one’s work of scrutinizing underlying values. However, for the feminist perspective to be given continuous space and material sustainability developing into an acknowledged part of KM, further actions are needed. The chapter also reflects on future assemblies of gender practitioners, gender scholars and activists, recognizing the struggles often faced by them. The chapter discusses strategies of how a collective organizing of “outside–inside” gender practitioners might push the internal work of implementing feminist perspectives forward.

Details

Gender and Practice: Knowledge, Policy, Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-388-8

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 July 2021

Pedro Lafargue, Michael Rogerson, Glenn C. Parry and Joel Allainguillaume

This paper examines the potential of “biomarkers” to provide immutable identification for food products (chocolate), providing traceability and visibility in the supply…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines the potential of “biomarkers” to provide immutable identification for food products (chocolate), providing traceability and visibility in the supply chain from retail product back to farm.

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses qualitative data collection, including fieldwork at cocoa farms and chocolate manufacturers in Ecuador and the Netherlands and semi-structured interviews with industry professionals to identify challenges and create a supply chain map from cocoa plant to retailer, validated by area experts. A library of biomarkers is created using DNA collected from fieldwork and the International Cocoa Quarantine Centre, holders of cocoa varieties from known locations around the world. Matching sample biomarkers with those in the library enables identification of origins of cocoa used in a product, even when it comes from multiple different sources and has been processed.

Findings

Supply chain mapping and interviews identify areas of the cocoa supply chain that lack the visibility required for management to guarantee sustainability and quality. A decoupling point, where smaller farms/traders’ goods are combined to create larger economic units, obscures product origins and limits visibility. These factors underpin a potential boundary condition to institutional theory in the industry’s fatalism to environmental and human abuses in the face of rising institutional pressures. Biomarkers reliably identify product origin, including specific farms and (fermentation) processing locations, providing visibility and facilitating control and trust when purchasing cocoa.

Research limitations/implications

The biomarker “meta-barcoding” of cocoa beans used in chocolate manufacturing accurately identifies the farm, production facility or cooperative, where a cocoa product came from. A controlled data set of biomarkers of registered locations is required for audit to link chocolate products to origin.

Practical implications

Where biomarkers can be produced from organic products, they offer a method for closing visibility gaps, enabling responsible sourcing. Labels (QR codes, barcodes, etc.) can be swapped and products tampered with, but biological markers reduce reliance on physical tags, diminishing the potential for fraud. Biomarkers identify product composition, pinpointing specific farm(s) of origin for cocoa in chocolate, allowing targeted audits of suppliers and identifying if cocoa of unknown origin is present. Labour and environmental abuses exist in many supply chains and enabling upstream visibility may help firms address these challenges.

Social implications

By describing a method for firms in cocoa supply chains to scientifically track their cocoa back to the farm level, the research shows that organizations can conduct social audits for child labour and environmental abuses at specific farms proven to be in their supply chains. This provides a method for delivering supply chain visibility (SCV) for firms serious about tackling such problems.

Originality/value

This paper provides one of the very first examples of biomarkers for agricultural SCV. An in-depth study of stakeholders from the cocoa and chocolate industry elucidates problematic areas in cocoa supply chains. Biomarkers provide a unique biological product identifier. Biomarkers can support efforts to address environmental and social sustainability issues such as child labour, modern slavery and deforestation by providing visibility into previously hidden areas of the supply chain.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 July 2008

Chiara Monotti

The purpose of this paper is to gain better insights into the conventional and organic/fair trade (O and/or FT) future chocolate market in four EU countries: Italy, the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to gain better insights into the conventional and organic/fair trade (O and/or FT) future chocolate market in four EU countries: Italy, the UK, France and Germany.

Design/methodology/approach

Delphi method was used to investigate several characteristics, actors and marketing mix components which will drive the conventional and organic/fair trade chocolate market in the future by presenting two rounds of questionnaires to experts of the chocolate market.

Findings

The findings identify the most influential actors, product attributes, promotion and distribution channels and characteristics of the chocolate market in both sectors. They reveal that they will have more of a positive effect on the O and/or FT sector than on the conventional one, since the first will grow faster than the second.

Research limitations/implications

Despite low expert participation, participants belong to some of the most important companies/organisations in the sector in terms of market share.

Practical implications

The paper has important implications for stakeholders in the cocoa‐chocolate chain in terms of developing their business strategies in the future; they will need to concentrate upon consumer preferences and marketing mix elements which will have more appeal.

Originality/value

The value of the paper lies in joining together opinions of experts coming from different chain levels (industry, research and consultancy) in an attempt to forecast the chocolate market characteristics and the consumer behaviour of the future.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 110 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2016

Eline Poelmans and Sandra Rousseau

– The purpose of this paper is to investigate how chocolate lovers balance taste and ethical considerations when selecting chocolate products.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how chocolate lovers balance taste and ethical considerations when selecting chocolate products.

Design/methodology/approach

The data set was collected through a survey at the 2014 “Salon du Chocolat” in Brussels, Belgium. The authors distributed 700 copies and received 456 complete responses (65 percent response rate). Choice experiments were used to estimate the relative importance of different chocolate characteristics and to predict respondents’ willingness to pay for marginal changes in those characteristics. The authors estimate both a conditional logit model and a latent class model to take possible preference heterogeneity into account.

Findings

On average, respondents were willing to pay 11 euros more for 250 g fairtrade labeled chocolate compared to conventional chocolate. However, taste clearly dominates ethical considerations. The authors could distinguish three consumer segments, each with a different tradeoff between taste and fairtrade. One group clearly valued fairtrade positively, a second group valued fairtrade to a lesser extent and a third group did not seem to value fairtrade.

Originality/value

Chocolate can be seen as a self-indulgent treat where taste is likely to dominate other characteristics. Therefore it is unsure to what extent ethical factors are included in consumer decisions. Interestingly the results indicate that a significant share of chocolate buyers still positively value fairtrade characteristics when selecting chocolate varieties.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 118 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 January 2021

Esther Gyedu-Akoto, Eric Kumi Asare, Stephen Yaw Opoku, Abu Mustapha Dadzie and Emmanuel Ofosu-Agyei

Roasted coffee provides a complex blend of different flavours which produce a range of sensory qualities. With the development of protocols for the production of fresh…

Abstract

Purpose

Roasted coffee provides a complex blend of different flavours which produce a range of sensory qualities. With the development of protocols for the production of fresh juices, jams and marmalades from cocoa and cashew pulp juices at Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana, this paper aims to study the effects of roasted coffee powder on fermented cocoa and cashew juices to diversify the uses of these two juices.

Design/methodology/approach

Cocoa and cashew juices were fermented with the incorporation of 2% roasted coffee powder using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast starter. The fermenting juices were monitored by measuring pH, temperature, specific gravity and titratable acidity. At the end of the fermentation, the juices were poured into clean, sterilized containers to mature. They were then analysed for their physicochemical, microbiological and sensory qualities. These were repeated with cocoa and cashew juices without coffee powder to determine the effects of the roasted coffee on the fermented juices.

Findings

The addition of roasted coffee powder to cocoa and cashew juices did not have any significant effect on the fermentation performance of the juices. Three out of the four juices took a total of 13 days to complete fermentation with an average final specific gravity of 0.99. The quality of the fermented juices was not compromised by microbial activities. However, the addition of roasted coffee powder reduced the alcohol content of fermented cocoa juice from 9.0 to 5.0% and that of cashew from 11.0% to 7.5%. Sensory analysis using untrained panellists, who were ordinary consumers, showed significant differences among the four fermented juices in terms of appearance, taste and aroma. Their mean scores for coffee aroma ranged from 0.3 to 2.0 with coffee incorporated fermented juices having higher rankings.

Originality/value

These findings have shown the possibility of processing cocoa and cashew juices, which under normal circumstances would have been discarded along their value chains, into coffee-flavoured wines. They are also important to cocoa, cashew and coffee farmers, processors, as well as wine enthusiasts.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Abstract

Subject area

Emerging Markets.

Study level/applicability

Undergraduate, Masters.

Case overview

Pacari Chocolate is the flagship brand of SKS Farms CIA Ltda., located in Quito, Ecuador. The company specializes in organic chocolate production which it sells in Ecuador and exports to other Latin American, European and North American markets. The company began operation in 2002, founded by Carla Barbotó and her husband Santiago Peralta. Carla is the Director of SKS and Santiago is General Manager. The case is set just after Santiago negotiated a deal to supply Emirates Airlines with mini bars to be distributed to flight passengers. Santiago is excited about this new deal, which will provide a new revenue stream, enhance brand image and potentially create new customers. Carla and Santiago pursue excellence with their products, as evidenced by over 160 awards, many globally recognized. However, their mission is also very much social in that they seek to improve the lives of Andean farmers, indigenous peoples and broader Ecuadorean society. The principle author uses this case in a course on innovative approaches to engaging emerging market opportunities, in which shared (social + economic) value and the formation of strong national industries are key outcomes, to be addressed through complementary market and non-market entrepreneurship strategies.

Expected learning outcomes

Expected learning outcomes are as follows: to identify the contextual challenges faced by an emerging market firm, and explain what must be done to overcome them; to identify the role of a firm in developing a national competency in an agricultural product industry; to demonstrate the creation of “shared value” and examine how the social mission of a company can reinforce and sustain its economic value creating activities; and to generate and evaluate options for developing international markets when a firm has limited resources to invest in marketing activities.

Supplementary materials

Teaching Notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes.

Subject code

CSS 3: Entrepreneurship.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

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