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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2017

Hong Yu Xin Pan and Jun Song

Using volatility cones as the estimate of actual volatility instead of GARCH models, the purpose of this paper is to explore whether volatility arbitrage strategy can…

Abstract

Purpose

Using volatility cones as the estimate of actual volatility instead of GARCH models, the purpose of this paper is to explore whether volatility arbitrage strategy can provide positive profits and how the transaction costs existed in the real market affect the effectiveness of volatility arbitrage strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

A number of hedging approaches proposed to improve the hedging results and final returns of Black-Scholes model are analyzed and compared.

Findings

The general finding is that volatility arbitrage strategy can provide satisfactory returns based on the samples in Chinese market. Regarding transaction costs, the variable bandwidth delta and delta tolerance approach showed better results. Besides, choosing futures together with ETFs as hedging underlying can increase the VaR for better risk management.

Practical implications

This paper offers a new method for volatility arbitrage in Chinese financial market.

Originality/value

This paper researches the profitability of the volatility arbitrage strategy on ETF 50 options using volatility cones method for the first time. This method has advantage over the point-wise estimation such as GARCH model and stochastic volatility model.

Details

China Finance Review International, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1398

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2002

ROBERT G. TOMPKINS

The depth and breadth of the market for contingent claims, including exotic options, has expanded dramatically. Regulators have expressed concern regarding the risks of…

Abstract

The depth and breadth of the market for contingent claims, including exotic options, has expanded dramatically. Regulators have expressed concern regarding the risks of exotics to the financial system, due to the difficulty of hedging these instruments. Recent literature focuses on the difficulties in hedging exotic options, e.g., liquidity risk and other violations of the standard Black‐Scholes model. This article provides insight into hedging problems associated with exotic options: 1) hedging in discrete versus continuous time, 2) transaction costs, 3) stochastic volatility, and 4) non‐constant correlation. The author applies simulation analysis of these problems to a variety of exotics, including Asian options, barrier options, look‐back options, and quanto options.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2007

Raimond Maurer and Shohreh Valiani

This study seeks to examine the effectiveness of controlling the currency risk for international diversified mixed‐asset portfolios via two different hedge instruments…

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to examine the effectiveness of controlling the currency risk for international diversified mixed‐asset portfolios via two different hedge instruments, currency forwards and currency options. So far, currency forward has been the most common hedge tool, which will be compared here with currency options to control the foreign currency exposure risk. In this regard, several hedging strategies are evaluated and compared with one another.

Design/methodology/approach

Owing to the highly skewed return distributions of options, the application of the traditional mean‐variance framework for portfolio optimization is doubtful. To account for this problem, a mean lower partial moment model is employed. An in‐the‐sample as well as an out‐of‐the sample context is used. With in‐sample analyses, a block bootstrap test has been used to statistically test the existence of any significant performance improvement. Following that, to investigate the consistency of the results, the out‐of‐sample evaluation has been checked. In addition, currency trends are also taken into account to test the time‐trend dependence of currency movements and, therefore, the relative potential gains of risk‐controlling strategies.

Findings

Results show that European put‐in‐the‐money options have the potential to substitute the optimally forward‐hedged portfolios. Considering the composition of the portfolio in using in‐the‐money options and forwards shows that using any of these hedge tools brings a much more diversified selection of stock and bond markets than no hedging strategy. The optimal option weights imply that a put‐in‐the‐money option strategy is more active than at‐the‐money or out‐of‐the‐money put options, which implies the dependency of put strategies on the level of strike price. A very interesting point is that, just by dedicating a very small part of the investment in options, the same amount of currency risk exposure can be hedged as when one uses the optimal forward hedging. In the out‐of‐sample study, the optimally forward‐hedged strategy generally presents a much better performance than any types of put policies.

Practical implications

The research shows the risk and return implications of different currency hedging strategies. The finding could be of interest for asset managers of internationally diversified portfolios.

Originality/value

Considering the findings in the out‐of‐sample perspective, the optimally forward‐hedged minimum risk portfolio dominates all other strategies, while, in the depreciation of the local currency, this, together with the forward‐hedged tangency portfolio selection, would characterize the dominant portfolio strategies.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 33 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1995

Andrea L. DeMaskey

Exposure risk managers can hedge exchange rate risk with either currency futures or currency options. It is generally suggested that hedgers should choose a hedge

Abstract

Exposure risk managers can hedge exchange rate risk with either currency futures or currency options. It is generally suggested that hedgers should choose a hedge instrument that matches the risk profile of the underlying currency position as closely as possible. This advice, however, ignores the possibility that the hedging effectiveness may differ for the alternate risk management tools. This study compares the effectiveness of currency futures and currency options as hedging instruments for covered and uncovered currency positions. Based on Ederington's portfolio theory of hedging, the results show that currency futures provide the more effective covered hedge, while currency options (used to construct a synthetic futures contract) are more effective for an uncovered hedge. Hence, exposure risk managers do not have to sacrifice hedging effectiveness to obtain the desired risk profile. Corporations engaged in international business transactions are commonly exposed to exchange rate risk. Since management is concerned with currency exposure, it can hedge the anticipated exchange rate risk either with futures or options. The choice of the appropriate hedging tool is generally influenced by the type of currency exposure (transaction, translation, or economic risk), the size of the firm, the industry effect, the risk preference of the manager or the firm and his/her familiarity with the available financial instruments and techniques. It is also suggested that a hedger should choose a hedge instrument that matches the risk profile of the underlying currency position as closely as possible. Hence, futures contracts are more suitable for covered hedges, while option contracts are best used for uncovered hedges. Hedging effectiveness of these two hedge instruments must be considered as well in order to evaluate the cost of obtaining the desired risk profile. Some empirical research has shown that the futures contract provides both an appropriate risk profile and a more effective hedge than an options contract for covered positions. If these findings also hold for uncovered currency positions, then the hedging decision involves a trade‐off between the desired risk profile and hedging effectiveness. That is, a hedger would have to decide whether the extra risk protection afforded by the attractive risk profile of options is worth the loss in hedging performance. This study compares the hedging effectiveness of currency futures and currency options for both covered and uncovered positions. Ederington's risk‐minimizing approach is applied to estimate the hedging effectiveness and the least risk hedge ratios which, in turn, are used to assess the trade‐off between risk profile and hedging performance.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Aparna Prasad Bhat

The purpose of this paper is to ascertain the effectiveness of major deterministic and stochastic volatility-based option pricing models in pricing and hedging

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to ascertain the effectiveness of major deterministic and stochastic volatility-based option pricing models in pricing and hedging exchange-traded dollar–rupee options over a five-year period since the launch of these options in India.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines the pricing and hedging performance of five different models, namely, the Black–Scholes–Merton model (BSM), skewness- and kurtosis-adjusted BSM, NGARCH model of Duan, Heston’s stochastic volatility model and an ad hoc Black–Scholes (AHBS) model. Risk-neutral structural parameters are extracted by calibrating each model to the prices of traded dollar–rupee call options. These parameters are used to generate out-of-sample model option prices and to construct a delta-neutral hedge for a short option position. Out-of-sample pricing errors and hedging errors are compared to identify the best-performing model. Robustness is tested by comparing the performance of all models separately over turbulent and tranquil periods.

Findings

The study finds that relatively simpler models fare better than more mathematically complex models in pricing and hedging dollar–rupee options during the sample period. This superior performance is observed to persist even when comparisons are made separately over volatile periods and tranquil periods. However the more sophisticated models reveal a lower moneyness-maturity bias as compared to the BSM model.

Practical implications

The study concludes that incorporation of skewness and kurtosis in the BSM model as well as the practitioners’ approach of using a moneyness-maturity-based volatility within the BSM model (AHBS model) results in better pricing and hedging effectiveness for dollar–rupee options. This conclusion has strong practical implications for market practitioners, hedgers and regulators in the light of increased volatility in the dollar–rupee pair.

Originality/value

Existing literature on this topic has largely centered around either US equity index options or options on major liquid currencies. While many studies have solely focused on the pricing performance of option pricing models, this paper examines both the pricing and hedging performance of competing models in the context of Indian currency options. Robustness of findings is tested by comparing model performance across periods of stress and tranquility. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this paper is one of the first comprehensive studies to focus on an emerging market currency pair such as the dollar–rupee.

Details

Journal of Indian Business Research, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4195

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Article
Publication date: 17 March 2014

Stoyu I. Ivanov

In this study, the author aims to examine the behavior of QQQ options at the time of the QQQ move from AMEX to NASDAQ on December 1, 2004. The author addresses the…

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, the author aims to examine the behavior of QQQ options at the time of the QQQ move from AMEX to NASDAQ on December 1, 2004. The author addresses the questions: is there a relation between hedging and speculation, if such a relation exists considering the improvement in market trading efficiency after the QQQ move did the relation between speculative demand for options and hedging demand for options strengthen at the time of the QQQ move, if such a relation exists does hedging activity follow speculative activity.

Design/methodology/approach

The author uses the fact that deep-out-of-the-money puts are used for hedging, whereas deep-out-of-the-money calls are used for speculation. The author uses spectral analysis on QQQ options in the attempt to answer the research question. The author uses spectral analysis because the data in the study are non-normally distributed which would make parametric testing meaningless.

Findings

The author finds that indeed the relation between speculative demand and hedging demand for options exists and strengthens after the consolidation of trading on NASDAQ and that hedging follows speculation. The fact that this relation exists is economically meaningful in that this is established for the first time empirically in support of the theoretical models predicting this relation's existence.

Originality/value

Market participants on both the speculation side of the investment spectrum, such as hedge funds, and hedging side of the investment spectrum, such as mutual funds and money managers, would be interested in this topic and the findings of this paper. The main contribution of this study is in examining the relation between differential demand for options by using the non-parametric tools of spectral analysis. This helps extend the understanding of exchange traded funds' (ETF') option behavior and contributes to this strand of the ETF literature.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

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Article
Publication date: 11 March 2006

Kashi Khazeh and Robert C. Winder

This study compares the effectiveness of money market hedges and options hedges for both payables and receivables denominated in British pounds, German marks, Japanese yen…

Abstract

This study compares the effectiveness of money market hedges and options hedges for both payables and receivables denominated in British pounds, German marks, Japanese yen and the Swiss franc. Data on interest rates, exchange rates, and options contracts were obtained from public sources for two recent time periods. This information was used to determine, for each currency: 1) the lowest rate of exchange for payables, and 2) the highest rate of exchange for receivables for each hedging technique. Unique “money market hedge exchange rate factors” and “options hedge exchange rate factors” were developed to facilitate comparisons between the two hedging techniques.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2018

Haykel Hamdi and Jihed Majdoub

Risk governance has an important influence on the hedging performances in option pricing and portfolio hedging in both discrete and dynamic case for both conventional and…

Abstract

Purpose

Risk governance has an important influence on the hedging performances in option pricing and portfolio hedging in both discrete and dynamic case for both conventional and Islamic indexes. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper explores option pricing and portfolio hedging in a discrete and dynamic case with transaction costs. Monte Carlo simulations are applied to both conventional and Islamic indexes in US and UK markets. Simulations show that conventional and Islamic assets do not exhibit the same price and portfolio hedging strategy governance.

Findings

The authors conclude that Islamic assets show different option price and hedging strategy compared to their conventional counterpart.

Originality/value

The research question of this paper aims at filling the gap in the empirical literature by exploring option price and hedging structure for both conventional and Islamic indexes in US and UK stock markets.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 44 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 22 April 1991

Philip Gregorowicz and H. Dean Moberly

Agricultural markets for commodities have tended to be unstable with high variability in prices received by producers from year‐to‐year. These conditions have always made…

Abstract

Agricultural markets for commodities have tended to be unstable with high variability in prices received by producers from year‐to‐year. These conditions have always made production planning very risky over time. For this reason and others, since 1933, the federal government has supported commodity prices in one fashion or another at or near break even. Support programs have put pressure on the annual federal deficits and subsequently have added to the national debt. This paper investigates the use of private agricultural options contracts as a price risk management tool. Use of put options was compared for four commodities to the use of forward pricing, the use of cash prices at harvest and the use of futures as commodity pricing strategies. Private put options were found to be a useful alternative to the use of government prices upports in some commodity situations. The paper suggests that the use of option contracts provides additional flexibility in price risk management and in dealing with uncertainty. This knowledge was found to be especially useful in light of current cuts in federal price supports in current federal budgeting activity.

Details

American Journal of Business, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1935-5181

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Book part
Publication date: 27 February 2009

Charnwut Roongsangmanoon, Andrew H. Chen, Joseph Kang and Donald Lien

Empirical evidence of the hedging pressure risk premium exists only in the futures contracts with delivery-related options. Since hedging pressure is supposed to exist for…

Abstract

Empirical evidence of the hedging pressure risk premium exists only in the futures contracts with delivery-related options. Since hedging pressure is supposed to exist for all futures contracts, the empirical evidence raises an interesting empirical question: whether the hedging pressure risk premium is in fact the risk premium associated with the delivery-related options. This chapter contains an empirical test of the non-redundancy between the two related but alternative sources of non-market risks. For the test, we employs a futures risk premia model in which the expected futures returns contain the market risk premium (proxied by the equity market risk premium) and two non-market risk premia (proxied by the hedging pressure effect and by the delivery risk premium reflected in the returns of futures options, respectively). Our main finding is that both the hedging pressure and the delivery risk premia are non-redundant and statistically significant for futures contracts with delivery-related options. This finding implies a substantial degree of segmentations between these futures markets and the underlying asset markets.

Details

Research in Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-447-4

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